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IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
 

IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)

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By Rajesh Barnabas ...

By Rajesh Barnabas
rbarnabas@hotmail.com

For Social Foundations of Education
Edts Hybrid Program
Nazareth College
School of Education

Instructor
Sandra Mancuso

November 25, 2008

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    IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457) IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457) Presentation Transcript

    • the Education of the Handicapped Amendments of 1986 Public Law 99-457*
      • Also referred to as: Part H prior to 1994 IDEA reauthorization, and Part C post 1994.
    • Summary
      • Congress enacted and President Reagan signed into law on October 8, 1986, P.L. 99-457, the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments. These amendments reauthorize the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) and include a rigorous national agenda pertaining to more and better services to young special needs children and their families.
    • Table of Contents
      • Background
      • The Population To Be Served
      • Who Diagnoses a Disability?
      • Controversy Over Defining a Disability
      • Programs
      • Implementation
      • Implementation Obstacles
      • References
    • Background
      • Benefits of early intervention
      • Addresses gaps in EAHCA of 1975.
      • Congressional response and goals.
      • Funding
    • Research and Benefits of Early Intervention
      • The mental, physical and emotional health of the very young child is the foundation for all further development.
      • Research, along with programs such as Head Start, have proven that early intervention is effective.
      • Research indicates that support and services to disabled children and families will have the following effect:
        • The child’s development will not be as delayed as it would be if left unattended until age 6 or older.
        • The stress for the family of having a handicapped child is lessened and they are able to function more productively.
        • Because of these results, children and families are more able to contribute to their community.
      • Because of these results, early intervention can prevent the need for many costly services later in life.
    • Addressing Gaps in P.L. 94-142
      • P.L. 94-12, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, created a “right to education” for handicapped children between ages six and eighteen.
      • Along with that Act, Congress created the Preschool Incentive Grant, which instead of mandating that states serve children below the ages of six, it provided a money incentive.
      • P.L. 99-457 included a new Preschool Grant Program which was a mandate rather than an incentive and provided three times the funding for 3-5 year-olds.
    • Congressional Response and Goals
      • P.L. 99-457 states:
      • “ The Congress finds that there is an urgent and substantial need:
      • To enhance the development of handicapped infants and toddlers and to minimize their potential for development delay.
      • To reduce educational costs to our society, including our nation’s schools, by minimizing the need for special education and related services after [they] reach school age.
      • To minimize the likelihood of institutionalization of handicapped individuals and maximize the potential for their independent living in society.
      • To enhance the capacity of families to meet the special needs of their infants and toddlers with handicaps.
    • Funding
    • The Population To Be Served
      • P.L. 99-457 states that “handicapped infants and toddlers” are individuals from birth to age 2, inclusive, who need early intervention services because they:
      • are experiencing developmental delays, as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments in one or more of the following areas:
      • cognitive development
      • physical development
      • language and speech development
      • psychosocial development
      • self-help skills
      • b) Have a diagnosed physical or mental condition which has a high probability of resulting in developmental delay.
    • Who Diagnoses a Disability?
      • It is a multidisciplinary evaluation that will be taken by either a;
      • a) psychiatrist
      • b) school psychologist
      • c) other mental health professional
      • The evaluation will vary from one situation, school to another and from urban to suburb to rural systems.
    • Controversy of Defining a Disability
      • The science of diagnosing mental and emotional disorders in children under three is at its developing stages.
      • “ Labeling” young children is often viewed as discriminatory.
    • P.L. 99-457 Programs
      • Preschool Grant Program (3-5 year-olds)
      • Handicapped Infant and Toddlers Program
      • Individualized Family Service Plan(IFSP)*
      • - These plans require that families participate in defining the child's intervention program.
      • * This is the centerpiece of Part C of IDEA.
      • Early intervention services may include:
      • -family training -case management services
      • -counseling -medical(diagnostic/evaluative)
      • -home visits -health services
      • -speech pathology -social work services
      • -occupational therapy -vision services
      • -physical therapy -assistive technology devices
      • -psychological services -transportation
    • Implementation
      • Public awareness campaign
      • Federal funding
      • States determine eligibility definitions and standards for program.
      • Mandates participating states to develop statewide interagency programs of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families.
      • Calls for Identifying an agency in each State responsible for implementing P.L 99-457 .
    • Implementation Obstacles
      • Fragmentation of services.
      • Inadequate resources for referral and coordination.
      • The lack of common vocabulary among personnel of different disciplines and agencies.
      • Delivery inflexibility to accommodate the schedules of working families.
    • References
      • Schrag, Emily. Sensitivities, Skills, and Services: Mental Health Roles in the Implementation of Part H PL 99-457 the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986. An Issue Paper. (1988)
      • http: //eric .ed. gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet ? accno=ED300990
      • Martin, EW., Martin, R., & Terman, DL. The Legislative and Litigation History of Special Education, The Future of Children, (1996) futureofchildren.org
      • Katsiyannis, Antonis, Yell, Mitchell L., & Bradle, Renee. Reflections on the 25th anniversary of the individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Remedial and Special Education; Nov/Dec 2001; 22, 6; Research Library, pg. 324.
      • Photo references
      • http://chrismetcalf.imagekind.com
      • http://www. flickr .com/photos/shutterhack/2328014257/sizes/o/
      • http://www.flickr.com/photos/ernstl/290427121/sizes/m/
      • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cdm/72250667/sizes/m/
      • http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/42972816/sizes/m/
    • Created by Rajesh Barnabas [email_address]