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IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
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IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)

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By Rajesh Barnabas …

By Rajesh Barnabas
rbarnabas@hotmail.com

For Social Foundations of Education
Edts Hybrid Program
Nazareth College
School of Education

Instructor
Sandra Mancuso

November 25, 2008

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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  • 1. the Education of the Handicapped Amendments of 1986 Public Law 99-457*
    • Also referred to as: Part H prior to 1994 IDEA reauthorization, and Part C post 1994.
  • 2. Summary
    • Congress enacted and President Reagan signed into law on October 8, 1986, P.L. 99-457, the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments. These amendments reauthorize the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) and include a rigorous national agenda pertaining to more and better services to young special needs children and their families.
  • 3. Table of Contents
    • Background
    • The Population To Be Served
    • Who Diagnoses a Disability?
    • Controversy Over Defining a Disability
    • Programs
    • Implementation
    • Implementation Obstacles
    • References
  • 4. Background
    • The benefits of early intervention and research.
    • Addresses gaps in Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.
    • Congressional response and goals.
    • Funding
  • 5. Research and Benefits of Early Intervention
    • The mental, physical and emotional health of the very young child is the foundation for all further development.
    • Research, along with programs such as Head Start, have proven that early intervention is effective.
    • Research indicates that support and services to disabled children and families will have the following effect:
      • The child’s development will not be as delayed as it would be if left unattended until age 6 or older.
      • The stress for the family of having a handicapped child is lessened and they are able to function more productively.
      • Because of these results, children and families are more able to contribute to their community.
    • Because of these results, early intervention can prevent the need for many costly services later in life.
  • 6. Addressing Gaps in P.L. 94-142
    • P.L. 94-12, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, created a “right to education” for handicapped children between ages six and eighteen.
    • Along with that Act, Congress created the Preschool Incentive Grant, which instead of mandating that states serve children below the ages of six, it provided a money incentive.
    • P.L. 99-457 included a new Preschool Grant Program which was a mandate rather than an incentive and provided three times the funding for 3-5 year-olds.
  • 7. Congressional Response and Goals
    • P.L. 99-457 states:
    • “ The Congress finds that there is an urgent and substantial need:
    • To enhance the development of handicapped infants and toddlers and to minimize their potential for development delay.
    • To reduce educational costs to our society, including our nation’s schools, by minimizing the need for special education and related services after [they] reach school age.
    • To minimize the likelihood of institutionalization of handicapped individuals and maximize the potential for their independent living in society.
    • To enhance the capacity of families to meet the special needs of their infants and toddlers with handicaps.
  • 8. Funding
  • 9. The Population To Be Served
    • P.L. 99-457 states that “handicapped infants and toddlers” are individuals from birth to age 2, inclusive, who need early intervention services because they:
    • are experiencing developmental delays, as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments in one or more of the following areas:
    • cognitive development
    • physical development
    • language and speech development
    • psychosocial development
    • self-help skills
    • b) Have a diagnosed physical or mental condition which has a high probability of resulting in developmental delay.
  • 10. Who Diagnoses a Disability?
    • It is a multidisciplinary evaluation that will be taken by either a;
    • a) psychiatrist
    • b) school psychologist
    • c) other mental health professional
    • The evaluation will vary from one situation, school to another and from urban to suburb to rural systems.
  • 11. Controversy of Defining a Disability
    • The science of diagnosing mental and emotional disorders in children under three is at its developing stages.
    • “ Labeling” young children is often viewed as discriminatory.
  • 12. P.L. 99-457 Programs
    • Preschool Grant Program (3-5 year-olds)
    • Handicapped Infant and Toddlers Program
    • Individualized Family Service Plan(IFSP)*
    • - These plans require that families participate in defining the child's intervention program.
    • * This is the centerpiece of Part C of IDEA.
    • Early intervention services may include:
    • -family training -case management services
    • -counseling -medical(diagnostic/evaluative)
    • -home visits -health services
    • -speech pathology -social work services
    • -occupational therapy -vision services
    • -physical therapy -assistive technology devices
    • -psychological services -transportation
  • 13. Implementation
    • Public awareness campaign
    • Federal funding
    • States determine eligibility definitions and standards for program.
    • Mandates participating states to develop statewide interagency programs of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families.
    • Calls for Identifying an agency in each State responsible for implementing P.L 99-457 .
  • 14. Implementation Obstacles
    • Fragmentation of services.
    • Inadequate resources for referral and coordination.
    • The lack of common vocabulary among personnel of different disciplines and agencies.
    • Delivery inflexibility to accommodate the schedules of working families.
  • 15. References
    • Schrag, Emily. Sensitivities, Skills, and Services: Mental Health Roles in the Implementation of Part H PL 99-457 the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986. An Issue Paper. (1988)
    • http: //eric .ed. gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet ? accno=ED300990
    • Martin, EW., Martin, R., & Terman, DL. The Legislative and Litigation History of Special Education, The Future of Children, (1996) futureofchildren.org
    • Katsiyannis, Antonis, Yell, Mitchell L., & Bradle, Renee. Reflections on the 25th anniversary of the individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Remedial and Special Education; Nov/Dec 2001; 22, 6; Research Library, pg. 324.
    • Photo references
    • http://chrismetcalf.imagekind.com
    • http://www. flickr .com/photos/shutterhack/2328014257/sizes/o/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/ernstl/290427121/sizes/m/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cdm/72250667/sizes/m/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/42972816/sizes/m/

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