Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)


Published on

By Rajesh Barnabas …

By Rajesh Barnabas

For Social Foundations of Education
Edts Hybrid Program
Nazareth College
School of Education

Sandra Mancuso

November 25, 2008

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. the Education of the Handicapped Amendments of 1986 Public Law 99-457*
    • Also referred to as: Part H prior to 1994 IDEA reauthorization, and Part C post 1994.
  • 2. Summary
    • Congress enacted and President Reagan signed into law on October 8, 1986, P.L. 99-457, the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments. These amendments reauthorize the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) and include a rigorous national agenda pertaining to more and better services to young special needs children and their families.
  • 3. Table of Contents
    • Background
    • The Population To Be Served
    • Who Diagnoses a Disability?
    • Controversy Over Defining a Disability
    • Programs
    • Implementation
    • Implementation Obstacles
    • References
  • 4. Background
    • The benefits of early intervention and research.
    • Addresses gaps in Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.
    • Congressional response and goals.
    • Funding
  • 5. Research and Benefits of Early Intervention
    • The mental, physical and emotional health of the very young child is the foundation for all further development.
    • Research, along with programs such as Head Start, have proven that early intervention is effective.
    • Research indicates that support and services to disabled children and families will have the following effect:
      • The child’s development will not be as delayed as it would be if left unattended until age 6 or older.
      • The stress for the family of having a handicapped child is lessened and they are able to function more productively.
      • Because of these results, children and families are more able to contribute to their community.
    • Because of these results, early intervention can prevent the need for many costly services later in life.
  • 6. Addressing Gaps in P.L. 94-142
    • P.L. 94-12, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, created a “right to education” for handicapped children between ages six and eighteen.
    • Along with that Act, Congress created the Preschool Incentive Grant, which instead of mandating that states serve children below the ages of six, it provided a money incentive.
    • P.L. 99-457 included a new Preschool Grant Program which was a mandate rather than an incentive and provided three times the funding for 3-5 year-olds.
  • 7. Congressional Response and Goals
    • P.L. 99-457 states:
    • “ The Congress finds that there is an urgent and substantial need:
    • To enhance the development of handicapped infants and toddlers and to minimize their potential for development delay.
    • To reduce educational costs to our society, including our nation’s schools, by minimizing the need for special education and related services after [they] reach school age.
    • To minimize the likelihood of institutionalization of handicapped individuals and maximize the potential for their independent living in society.
    • To enhance the capacity of families to meet the special needs of their infants and toddlers with handicaps.
  • 8. Funding
  • 9. The Population To Be Served
    • P.L. 99-457 states that “handicapped infants and toddlers” are individuals from birth to age 2, inclusive, who need early intervention services because they:
    • are experiencing developmental delays, as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments in one or more of the following areas:
    • cognitive development
    • physical development
    • language and speech development
    • psychosocial development
    • self-help skills
    • b) Have a diagnosed physical or mental condition which has a high probability of resulting in developmental delay.
  • 10. Who Diagnoses a Disability?
    • It is a multidisciplinary evaluation that will be taken by either a;
    • a) psychiatrist
    • b) school psychologist
    • c) other mental health professional
    • The evaluation will vary from one situation, school to another and from urban to suburb to rural systems.
  • 11. Controversy of Defining a Disability
    • The science of diagnosing mental and emotional disorders in children under three is at its developing stages.
    • “ Labeling” young children is often viewed as discriminatory.
  • 12. P.L. 99-457 Programs
    • Preschool Grant Program (3-5 year-olds)
    • Handicapped Infant and Toddlers Program
    • Individualized Family Service Plan(IFSP)*
    • - These plans require that families participate in defining the child's intervention program.
    • * This is the centerpiece of Part C of IDEA.
    • Early intervention services may include:
    • -family training -case management services
    • -counseling -medical(diagnostic/evaluative)
    • -home visits -health services
    • -speech pathology -social work services
    • -occupational therapy -vision services
    • -physical therapy -assistive technology devices
    • -psychological services -transportation
  • 13. Implementation
    • Public awareness campaign
    • Federal funding
    • States determine eligibility definitions and standards for program.
    • Mandates participating states to develop statewide interagency programs of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families.
    • Calls for Identifying an agency in each State responsible for implementing P.L 99-457 .
  • 14. Implementation Obstacles
    • Fragmentation of services.
    • Inadequate resources for referral and coordination.
    • The lack of common vocabulary among personnel of different disciplines and agencies.
    • Delivery inflexibility to accommodate the schedules of working families.
  • 15. References
    • Schrag, Emily. Sensitivities, Skills, and Services: Mental Health Roles in the Implementation of Part H PL 99-457 the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986. An Issue Paper. (1988)
    • http: //eric .ed. gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet ? accno=ED300990
    • Martin, EW., Martin, R., & Terman, DL. The Legislative and Litigation History of Special Education, The Future of Children, (1996)
    • Katsiyannis, Antonis, Yell, Mitchell L., & Bradle, Renee. Reflections on the 25th anniversary of the individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Remedial and Special Education; Nov/Dec 2001; 22, 6; Research Library, pg. 324.
    • Photo references
    • http://www. flickr .com/photos/shutterhack/2328014257/sizes/o/