Definition: A battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. A battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Or is a device that produces electrical energy from chemical energy
Computers are just a small sample of a huge list of products that employ these energy sources (batteries), being the reason for its commercial success autonomy of the network electrical, or be a portable object. Etcetera
Types of batteries; batteries can be divided into two categories;
p rimary battery based on an irreversible chemical reaction, and hence is not rechargeable (only has ONE a life cycle).
And secondary battery based on a chemical reaction reversible it is rechargeable. Their active elements can be regenerate by passing an electric current in the opposite direction. It has multiple life cycles.
Primary Batteries Advantages Disadvantages Alkaline Cell High energy density, long shelf life, good leak resistance, performs well under heavy or light use. Costlier than zinc-carbon cell but more efficient Aluminum/Air Cell Can operate exposed to sea water (neutral salt solution), easily replaceable electrolytes/electrodes Anode quickly degrades, short shelf life, short operational life Leclanché Cell (Zinc Carbon or Dry Cell) Cheap and common (oldest available battery type) Poor performance under heavy or continuous use. Lithium Cell Very high energy density, long shelf life, long operational life Poor performance under heavy use, vulnerable to leaks or explosions Mercury Oxide Cell Higher energy density than (Zn/MnO 2 ) alkaline cell High cost and being phased out due to toxicity concerns Zinc/Air Cell Environmentally benign, cheap, very high energy density, and virtually unlimited shelf life Short operational life, low power density
Secondary (rechargeable) Batteries Advantages Disadvantages Iron Nickel Cell Long life under a variety of conditions, excellent back-up battery Low rate-performance, slow recharge rate Lead/Acid Cell Low cost, long life cycle, operates well under a variety of conditions. Common car batteries Minor risk of leakage Lithium Ion Cell Relatively cheap, high energy density, long shelf life, long operational life, long cycle life Minor risk of leakage Nickel/Cadmium Cell Good performance under heavy discharge and/or low temperature High cost, can temporary loose cell capacity if not fully discharged before recharging (memory effect) Nickel/Metal Hydride (NiMH) Cell High capacity and power density High cost, some memory effect Nickel/Zinc Cell Low cost, low toxicity, good for high discharge rates Zinc on the electrolyte tends to redeposit unevenly on anode, severely reducing efficiency Sodium/Sulfur Cell Inexpensive materials, long cycle life, high energy and power High operational temperature lower efficiency, some danger of explosion upon degradation
Alkaline batteries: these are long lasting batteries; they are used for complex and high consumption. They contain 0.04% of mercury (contaminates 175 thousand liters of water which is more than the amount a person can drink throughout his life) .
Mercury button batteries : can be identified with the initials MR. They guarantees energy for a long time, contain 30% of mercury. It can contaminate 600 thousand liters of water.
Zinc button-air batteries : They are distinguished by having large numbers of tiny holes on their surface, was conceived in the early 70 'as an alternative to mercury batteries it offers better performance and greater capacity, but it is limited on contact with air one of the reasons why their application is registered. Pollutes over 12 thousand liters of water.
Heavy Metal Contaminantes Metal Use Effects Mercury
as a component for dental amalgams for making fillings for teeth
barometers and manometers
causes irritation of the skin, mucous and sensitizing the skin In chronic poisoning and produces high doses: irritability, hallucinations, crying, excitability, depression, sadness, psychosis, Crisis. In cases of exposure to high doses orally, the digestive system collapses, being fatal in hours. Cadmium
pigments for paints,
Diarrhoea, stomach pains and severe vomiting - Bone fracture - Reproductive failure and possibly even infertility - Damage to the central nervous system - Damage to the immune system - Psychological disorders - Possibly DNA damage or cancer development
- A rise in blood pressure - Kidney damage - Miscarriages and subtle abortions - Disruption of nervous systems - Brain damage - Declined fertility of men through sperm damage - Diminished learning abilities of children zinc
coating for iron and steel
as a main alloy for Brass
producing a wide range of alterations to human health. Chromium
to harden steel
useful for forming bricks and shapes, as it has a high melting point, moderate thermal expansion, and stability of crystalline structure
Causes coughing, chronic bronchitis, ulceration of the nasal septum and skin, respiratory and head pains, nose bleeding, dermatitis, etc..
development of lung cancer, nose cancer, larynx cancer and prostate cancer - Sickness and dizziness after exposure to nickel gas - Lung embolism - Respiratory failure - Birth defects - Asthma and chronic bronchitis - Allergic reactions such as skin rashes, mainly from jewellery - Heart disorders
Alternative solutions or what can be done to minimize the use of batteries .
Choosing your batteries? It is highly recommended to use electrical appliances. If their use is inevitable, you should buy rechargeable batteries, thus there is a large reduction in the volume of waste to discard.
The quality of the product to choose. The imitation batteries generally have a lower life expectancy than one of good quality, the under developed batteries caused more pollution due to their fast rate of decomposition.
Particularly, it is suggested purchase batteries with the label "Free Mercury (Hg)" or something similar, since this is the element that pollutes the most.