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General knowledge on batteries

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  1. 2. What is a Battery <ul><li>Definition: A battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. A battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Or is a device that produces electrical energy from chemical energy </li></ul>
  2. 3. General uses of batteries: <ul><li>The radios flashlights </li></ul><ul><li>clock stereos </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras calculators </li></ul><ul><li>digital thermometers pace makers </li></ul><ul><li>hearing aids speedometer </li></ul><ul><li>toys </li></ul><ul><li>Computers are just a small sample of a huge list of products that employ these energy sources (batteries), being the reason for its commercial success autonomy of the network electrical, or be a portable object. Etcetera </li></ul>
  3. 4. Types of Batteries <ul><li>Types of batteries; batteries can be divided into two categories; </li></ul><ul><li>p rimary battery based on an irreversible chemical reaction, and hence is not rechargeable (only has ONE a life cycle). </li></ul><ul><li>And secondary battery based on a chemical reaction reversible it is rechargeable. Their active elements can be regenerate by passing an electric current in the opposite direction. It has multiple life cycles. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Primary Batteries Advantages Disadvantages Alkaline Cell High energy density, long shelf life, good leak resistance, performs well under heavy or light use. Costlier than zinc-carbon cell but more efficient Aluminum/Air Cell Can operate exposed to sea water (neutral salt solution), easily replaceable electrolytes/electrodes Anode quickly degrades, short shelf life, short operational life Leclanché Cell (Zinc Carbon or Dry Cell) Cheap and common (oldest available battery type) Poor performance under heavy or continuous use. Lithium Cell Very high energy density, long shelf life, long operational life Poor performance under heavy use, vulnerable to leaks or explosions Mercury Oxide Cell Higher energy density than (Zn/MnO 2 ) alkaline cell High cost and being phased out due to toxicity concerns Zinc/Air Cell Environmentally benign, cheap, very high energy density, and virtually unlimited shelf life Short operational life, low power density
  5. 6. Secondary (rechargeable) Batteries Advantages Disadvantages Iron Nickel Cell Long life under a variety of conditions, excellent back-up battery Low rate-performance, slow recharge rate Lead/Acid Cell Low cost, long life cycle, operates well under a variety of conditions. Common car batteries Minor risk of leakage Lithium Ion Cell Relatively cheap, high energy density, long shelf life, long operational life, long cycle life Minor risk of leakage Nickel/Cadmium Cell Good performance under heavy discharge and/or low temperature High cost, can temporary loose cell capacity if not fully discharged before recharging (memory effect) Nickel/Metal Hydride (NiMH) Cell High capacity and power density High cost, some memory effect Nickel/Zinc Cell Low cost, low toxicity, good for high discharge rates Zinc on the electrolyte tends to redeposit unevenly on anode, severely reducing efficiency Sodium/Sulfur Cell Inexpensive materials, long cycle life, high energy and power High operational temperature lower efficiency, some danger of explosion upon degradation
  6. 7. Danger <ul><li>Alkaline batteries: these are long lasting batteries; they are used for complex and high consumption. They contain 0.04% of mercury (contaminates 175 thousand liters of water which is more than the amount a person can drink throughout his life) . </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury button batteries : can be identified with the initials MR. They guarantees energy for a long time, contain 30% of mercury. It can contaminate 600 thousand liters of water. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Zinc button-air batteries : They are distinguished by having large numbers of tiny holes on their surface, was conceived in the early 70 'as an alternative to mercury batteries it offers better performance and greater capacity, but it is limited on contact with air one of the reasons why their application is registered. Pollutes over 12 thousand liters of water. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Heavy Metal Contaminantes Metal Use Effects Mercury <ul><li>Thermometers </li></ul><ul><li>Watches </li></ul><ul><li>as a component for dental amalgams for making fillings for teeth </li></ul><ul><li>barometers and manometers </li></ul>causes irritation of the skin, mucous and sensitizing the skin In chronic poisoning and produces high doses: irritability, hallucinations, crying, excitability, depression, sadness, psychosis, Crisis. In cases of exposure to high doses orally, the digestive system collapses, being fatal in hours. Cadmium <ul><li>pigments for paints, </li></ul><ul><li>varnishes </li></ul><ul><li>PVC pipes </li></ul>Diarrhoea, stomach pains and severe vomiting - Bone fracture - Reproductive failure and possibly even infertility - Damage to the central nervous system - Damage to the immune system - Psychological disorders - Possibly DNA damage or cancer development
  9. 10. Metal Contaminantes cont. Lead <ul><li>in building construction </li></ul><ul><li>, lead-acid batteries </li></ul><ul><li>bullets and shot </li></ul><ul><li>weights </li></ul><ul><li>part of solder , pewter , and fusible alloys . </li></ul>- A rise in blood pressure - Kidney damage - Miscarriages and subtle abortions - Disruption of nervous systems - Brain damage - Declined fertility of men through sperm damage - Diminished learning abilities of children zinc <ul><li>coating for iron and steel </li></ul><ul><li>as a main alloy for Brass </li></ul><ul><li>paint pigment </li></ul><ul><li>medical purposes </li></ul>producing a wide range of alterations to human health. Chromium <ul><li>to harden steel </li></ul><ul><li>useful for forming bricks and shapes, as it has a high melting point, moderate thermal expansion, and stability of crystalline structure </li></ul>Causes coughing, chronic bronchitis, ulceration of the nasal septum and skin, respiratory and head pains, nose bleeding, dermatitis, etc..
  10. 11. Heavy Metal Contaminantes cont. Manganese <ul><li>In steel, improves the rolling and forging qualities, strength, toughness, stiffness, wear resistance, hardness, and harden ability </li></ul>Fatness - Glucose intolerance - Blood clotting - Skin problems - Lowered cholesterol levels - Skeleton disorders - Birth defects - Changes of hair colour - Neurological symptoms Nickel <ul><li>to make stainless steel </li></ul>development of lung cancer, nose cancer, larynx cancer and prostate cancer - Sickness and dizziness after exposure to nickel gas - Lung embolism - Respiratory failure - Birth defects - Asthma and chronic bronchitis - Allergic reactions such as skin rashes, mainly from jewellery - Heart disorders
  11. 12. Alternative solutions or what can be done to minimize the use of batteries . <ul><li>Choosing your batteries? It is highly recommended to use electrical appliances. If their use is inevitable, you should buy rechargeable batteries, thus there is a large reduction in the volume of waste to discard. </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of the product to choose. The imitation batteries generally have a lower life expectancy than one of good quality, the under developed batteries caused more pollution due to their fast rate of decomposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly, it is suggested purchase batteries with the label &quot;Free Mercury (Hg)&quot; or something similar, since this is the element that pollutes the most. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Do not mix with the new batteries used. It reduces the life of both. </li></ul><ul><li>• Use preferably devices connected to solar energy. </li></ul><ul><li>• Do not throw batteries to the sewer, and eventually reach the river, and could pollute the waters. In the absence of sewerage network, pollution affects the webs cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>• Do not burn batteries, this recommendation is for all types. </li></ul><ul><li>• Do not leave the batteries within the reach of children. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  13. 14. Benefits <ul><li>Benefits of recollecting and recycling batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates the entrance of heavy metals </li></ul><ul><li>Allows heavy metals to be in one place </li></ul><ul><li>The heavy metals are reused into the manufacturing of other batteries </li></ul><ul><li>The plastic is recycled </li></ul><ul><li>Conserves for future generations </li></ul><ul><li>Allows good environmental policies </li></ul>
  14. 15. Thank you (R. Penny) <ul><li>More information visit: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>