Introduction to inductive and deductive reasoning
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Introduction to inductive and deductive reasoning

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    Introduction to inductive and deductive reasoning Introduction to inductive and deductive reasoning Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Inductive and Deductive Reasoning English 1A Renee Bangerter
    • Inductive Reasoning
      • Specific General
    • Inductive Reasoning
      • Induction reasons from evidence about some members of a class in order to form a conclusion about all members of a class.
      • A conclusion derived through inductive reasoning is called a hypothesis and is always less certain than the evidence itself. In other words, the conclusion is probable .
    • Inductive Reasoning
      • Induction can be done through the following:
        • Observation
        • Number Sampling
        • Analogical Reasoning
        • Pattern Recognition
        • Causal Reasoning
        • Statistical Reasoning
    • Inductive Reasoning
      • Inductive reasoning is used when examining all data would be an impossible task. In this case, induction uses statistical samplings.
    • Inductive Example
      • Evidence: Samantha took Renee Bangerter’s English 1A and got an A.
      • Evidence: John took her English 1A and got an A.
      • Evidence: I also know that Mike took her 1A class and got an A.
      • Conclusion: If I take Renee Bangerter’s English 1A, I’ll get an A, too.
    • You Try… “ Now let’s see—one sashweight, one butcher’s cleaver, on galvanized-iron tub, fifty feet of half-inch rope, one gunny sack, one electric torch, one pickaxe, one shovel, twenty pounds of quicklime, a box of cigars, and a beach chair.” Drawing by Chas. Addams The New Yorker Magazine From the Critical Eye by Sally Taylor, 1990
    • Deductive Reasoning
      • General Specific
    • Deductive Syllogism
      • Syllogism: An argument arranged in three parts
        • Major Premise: General Principle
        • Minor Premise: Specific Instance
        • Conclusion: Follows Logically
        • Standard, everyday language is arranged into verbal equations
    • Syllogisms
      • Major Premise : All men are mortal (general principle)
      • Minor Premise : Socrates is man (specific instance)
      • Conclusion : Socrates is mortal (follows logically from the major)
      • Valid Argument: The conclusion follows logically from the major and minor premise.
    • Practice with Syllogisms
      • Major Premise: Stealing is a criminal act.
      • Minor Premise: Shoplifting is stealing.
      • Conclusion: Therefore?
      • Shoplifting is a criminal act.
      • Notice: A claim of definition
      • is a form of syllogism.
    • Valid and Invalid Syllogisms
      • Major Premise: When Gabriele drinks coffee she always gets a headache. (Fact?)
      • Minor Premise: Gabriele is drinking coffee.
      • (Fact?)
      • Conclusion: Gabriele will get a headache.
      • Valid or invalid?
    • Valid and Invalid Syllogisms
      • Major Premise: When Gabriele drinks coffee she always gets a headache.
      • Minor Premise: Gabriele has a headache.
      • (Fact?)
      • Conclusion: Therefore?
      • Gabriele drank coffee.
      • Valid or Invalid?
      • True?
    • Valid versus True
      • Valid: the conclusion follows logically from the major and minor premise.
      • Keep in mind—While we use the term “valid” in everyday speech, it has a very specific meaning in logic.
      • True: Corresponds to reality, believable, provable.
      • Sound: both valid and true.
    • What Do You Think?
      • Major Premise: Drug dealers wear electronic pagers.
      • Minor Premise: Doctors wear electronic pagers.
      • Conclusion: Therefore?
      • Therefore Doctors are drug dealers.
      • Valid or Invalid? True? Sound?
      • Logical Fallacy: Guilt by association.
    • Complete the Syllogism
      • All Italians are volatile.
      • Jesse is Italian.
      • Therefore:
          • Jesse is volatile
      • Valid?
      • True?
      • Sound?
      • This syllogism is based on a hasty generalization. Therefore, it is not sound.
    • Complete the Syllogism
      • All kids who wear Abercrombie and Fitch to school will be accepted by the popular group.
      • Adrienne wears Abercrombie and Fitch to school.
      • Therefore?
          • She will be accepted by the school’s popular group.
      • Valid?
      • True?
      • Sound?
    • Enthymeme
      • An argument in which the major premise is left unstated
      • (often a conclusion supported by a single premise ).
      • She must be a good student since she is on the Dean’s List.
      • Conclusion Minor Premise
      • She must be a good student since she is on the Dean’s List.
      • Major Premise?
      • All good students are on the Dean’s List.
    • Examples of Enthymemes
      • Alcoholic beverages destroy brain cells, so alcohol should be made illegal.
      • You are all good students because you have your homework done on time.
      Recreate the Syllogism