Presentation & Communication Skills
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  • 1. PRESENTATION & COMMUNICATION SKILLS How to Speak to Anyone, Anytime, Anywhere!!! Session Speaker: Razia Pukhraj
  • 2. AGENDA
    • Communication Skills
    • Presentation Skills
    • Voice
    • Listening
    • Visual Aids
    • Feedback
    • Stage Fright & Nervousness
    • Interviews
    • Commandments
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 3. COMMUNICATION SKILLS
  • 4. Communication
    • The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior.
    • The art and technique of using words effectively to impart information or ideas.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 5. Communication
    • In simple terms, communication can be defined as actions whereby 'actors' impart information to one another.
    • Communication does not have to involve language and does not have to be vocalized. Deaf people often communicate through gestures. Babies communicate basic wants through crying.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 6. Communication Model www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 7. Communication Model www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 8. Communication Model www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 9. Verbal & Non-Verbal Communication
    • SIMILARITIES:
    • Both are rule guided.
    • Both can be intentional or unintentional.
    • Both are culture-bound.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 10. Verbal & Non-Verbal Communication
    • DIFFERENCES:
    • Nonverbal communication is usually perceived as more believable.
    • Nonverbal can be multi-channeled.
    • Nonverbal is continuous.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 11. Non-Verbal Communication Accounts for 65% - 93% of the total meaning of communication www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 12. Non-Verbal Communication
    • Kinesics
    • Physical appearance
    • Paralanguage
    • Silence
    • Proxemics and personal space
    • Chronemics (time)
    Everything except the words! www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 13. Kinesics
    • Body position and motion including those of the face
    • Posture can signal self-assurance.
    • Posture can tell others if you are open to interaction.
    • Nonverbal behaviors such as positioning, smiling, close seating and gazes signal how we feel about others.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 14. Eyes
    • “ The mirrors of the soul”
    • We tend to look at eyes to judge
      • Emotions
      • Honesty
      • Interest
      • Self-confidence
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 15. Physical Appearance
    • What message do you wish to send with your choice of clothing and personal grooming?
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 16. Color Influences Communication Yellow cheers and elevates moods. Red excites and stimulates. Blue comforts and soothes. In some cultures black suggests mourning. In some cultures white suggests purity. www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 17. Proxemics and Personal Space
    • Every culture has norms for using space.
      • In Pakistan we interact with acquaintances from 4’ to 12’ and within 18” or less for close friends or intimates.
    • People who want to even out power seek out neutral territory.
      • Greater space may be assumed by those with higher status.
      • Those with greater power often invade others’ territory.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 18. Chronemics (time)
    • How do we manage and react to others’ management of time
      • Duration
      • Activity
      • Punctuality
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 19. Paralanguage
    • Communication that is vocal but that does not use words themselves
    • Sounds (gasps and murmurs)
    • Vocal qualities
    • How we pronounce words
    • The accents we use
    • Complexity of our sentences
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 20. Silence
    • Silence can be comforting
      • When partners are so close they do not need to talk
      • When there is an absence of disturbing noise
    • Silence can be discomforting
      • When you talk to someone and they do not reply
      • When children are disciplined by being ignored
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 21. Non-Verbal Signals
    • Vary from culture to culture
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 22. What does this symbol mean to you?
    • In the United States it is a symbol for good job
    • In Germany the number one
    • In Japan the number five
    • In Ghana an insult
    • In Malaysia the thumb is used to point rather than a finger
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 23. PRESENTATION SKILLS
  • 24. How to Ace your Presentation?
    • Give them what they want.
    • Map out your presentation.
    • Be Prepared
    • Look and sound sharp.
    • Platform presence.
    • Don’t be nervous.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 25. 1. Give them what they want.
    • Know you audience’s needs and concerns.
    • Find out what motivates them.
    • State your idea(s) and support them
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 26. 2. Map out your presentation.
    • Divide your presentation in 3 Blocks.
      • 20% - Lively Introduction.
      • 70% - Body of Presentation.
      • 10% - Conclusion.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 27. 3. Be prepared.
    • Prepare before you present.
    • Keep visual aids simple.
    • Make sure you know how to operate the equipment
    • Make sure the equipment works.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 28. 4. Look and sound sharp.
    • Appearance is extremely important.
    • Use familiar words and phrases.
    • Avoid saying err, umm, eh, you know, like etc.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 29. 5. Platform presence.
    • Take control of the settings.
    • Dress so you stand out.
    • Make your voice an asset.
    • Rehearse in front of a friend or colleague.
    • Engage your audience.
    • Always make eye contact.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 30. 6. Don’t be nervous
    • You are not facing an opponent.
    • Your audience wants you to succeed not faint.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 31. Do’s of Presentation
    • Analyze the audience.
    • Always begin with attention getter.
    • Body language.
    • Establish eye contact.
    • Use large readables readables
    • Use gestures.
    • Encourage questions.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 32. Do’s of Presentation
    • Respond to questions
    • Control of feelings.
    • Vary your pitch.
    • Appreciate your audience.
    • Don’t go too fast.
    • Limit the discussion.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 33. Introductions
    • Identification with Audience
    • Reference to Situation
    • Statement of Purpose
    • Statement of Importance of Topic
    • Surprise Audience with Claim or Statistic
    • Quotation
    • Humor
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 34. Conclusions
    • Summary
    • Quotation
    • Personal Reference
    • Challenge to Audience
    • Offer Vision of the Future
    • Quotation
    • Humor
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 35. VOICE
  • 36. The Voice in Delivery
    • Volume
    • Pitch
    • Rate
    • Pauses
    • Vocal Variety
    • Pronunciation and Articulation
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 37. Volume
    • The relative loudness of a speaker’s voice while giving a speech.
    • Loudness depends on:
      • size of room/number of persons
      • availability of a microphone
      • background noise
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 38. Pitch
    • The range of sounds from high to low.
    • It powerfully affects the meaning associated with spoken words.
      • conveys mood
      • reveals level of enthusiasm
      • expresses concern for the audience
      • signals your overall commitment to the occasion
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 39. Rate
    • The most effective way to hold an audience’s attention and convey the meaning of your speech.
    • Speaking rate - the speed with which a speaker talks
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 40. Pauses
    • Pauses are important strategic elements of a speech that enhance meaning by providing:
      • a type of punctuation
      • emphasis of a point
      • attention to a key point
      • a moment for listeners to contemplate what is being said
    • Avoid vocalized pauses (“uh”, “er”, “um”...)
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 41. Vocal Variety
    • The varied use of multiple vocal cues to achieve effective delivery.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 42. Pronunciation & Articulation
    • Pronunciation - the correct formation of word sounds.
    • Articulation - saying words with clarity and forcefulness so they are individually audible.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 43. LISTENING
  • 44. Listening
    • The process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and / or nonverbal messages
    • To hear something with thoughtful attention.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 45. Listening
    • There are four types of listening:
      • Appreciative
        • Listening for pleasure or enjoyment
          • Music, movies, comedy, plays…
      • Empathetic
        • Listening to provide emotional support for speaker
          • A shrink listens to a patient; you listen to a friend’s rant
      • Comprehensive
        • Listening to understand the speakers message
          • Direction to a friend’s house; in a class or seminar
      • Critical
        • Listening to evaluate a message
          • A campaign speech; a peer’s research paper
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 46. Causes of Poor Listening
    • Not Concentrating
      • Daydreaming, mind wandering, dozing
    • Listening too Hard
      • Trying to remember every fact, no matter how minute
    • Jumping to Conclusions
      • Putting words into the speakers mouth; interrupting speaker, anticipating what speaker will say/do next
    • Focusing on Delivery Instead of Message
      • Speaker’s accent, clothes, stuttering, presentation tools
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 47. Better Listening
    • Take Listening Seriously
      • Like any skill it takes practice and self-discipline
    • Resist Distractions
      • When you catch your mind wandering make a conscious effort to pull it back on track; try to anticipate what the speaker will say/do next
    • Don’t be Diverted by Appearance or Delivery
      • Lincoln and Gandhi were strange in appearance but were excellent speakers
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 48. Better Listening
    • Suspend Judgment
      • “ a closed mind is an empty mind”
    • Focus Your Listening
      • Listen for main points
      • Listen for evidence
      • Listen for technique
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 49. VISUAL AIDS
  • 50. Memory & Visual Aids www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 51. Types of Visual Aids
    • Blackboard / Whiteboard
    • Flip charts
    • Overhead projectors
    • Slides
    • Film and Video
    • Handouts
    • Physical objects
    • PowerPoint
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 52. Methods of Delivery
    • Manuscript Reading
    • Memorized
    • Impromptu
    • Extemporaneous
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 53. Using Visual Aids During the Speech
    • Reveal Only When Needed
    • Talk to Audience - Not Visual Aid
    • Refer to Visual Aid
    • Keep Visual Aid Visible as Needed
    • Use Handouts with Caution
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 54. Size Matters
    • This is a 20 point font
    • This is a 32 point font
    • This is a 44 point font
    • This is a 54 point font
    • This is a 66 point f
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 55. Color can distinguish a presentation www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 56. Color affects how fast the audience can read What is important is that the combination has contrast—the one on this slide does not. www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 57. Color affects how fast the audience can read Combinations of red, green, and brown are difficult for many people to read www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 58. Color affects how fast the audience can read The color combination that is read most quickly is black on yellow. www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 59. Color affects the emotions of the audience Avoid having a hot color such as red or orange as your background color. www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 60. What not to do
    • No bright text on bright background
    • No lot of pictures on one page
    • No animations unless it is relevant
    • No too much information on one page
    • No CAPITAL letters
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 61. FEEDBACK
  • 62. Positive Non-Verbal Feedback
    • Smiling
    • Nodding
    • Eye contact
    • Relaxed posture
    • Unbuttoned jackets
    • Leaning forward
    • Sitting on edge of chair
    • Hands in open position
    • Legs and arms uncrossed
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 63. Negative Non-Verbal Feedback
    • Dead expression
    • Tight lips
    • Frowning
    • Avoiding eye contact
    • Hands clenched or wringing
    • Turning away
    • Stiff or slumping posture
    • Sitting or leaning back
    • Crossed legs or arms
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 64. STAGE FRIGHT & NERVOUSNESS
  • 65. Stage Fright
    • Anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 66. What causes stage fright?
    • Inadequate preparation.
    • Fear of being judged.
    • Unfamiliarity with the audience or the environment
    • Lack of knowledge about public speaking
    • Negative past experiences
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 67. Important understanding about stage fright.
    • It is normal. Almost everyone experiences some nervousness about speaking in some situations.
    • It is mostly internal. You will usually feel more nervous than you look.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 68. Important understanding about stage fright.
    • Anxiety can be useful. Your nervousness can create a heightened state of readiness, allowing you to perform better than you might otherwise.
    • It can be managed. While you may never eliminate the nervousness you feel, you can deal with it and deliver a successful speech in spite of it.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 69. Reducing Speech Anxiety
    • Know your audience
    • Select an appropriate topic
    • Re-create the speech environment when you rehearse
    • Know your introduction and conclusion
    • Be organized
    • Use visual aids
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 70. Reducing Speech Anxiety
    • Think positively
    • Use the power of visualization
    • Know that most nervousness is not visible
    • Don ’ t expect perfection
    • Prepare, prepare, prepare …
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 71. Dealing with Nervousness
    • Speechmaking is a common “greatest fear”
    • Preparation and rehearsal reduce fear by 75%
    • Proper breathing reduces fear by 15%
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 72. INTERVIEWS
  • 73. Interviews
    • Interview is a conversation with a purpose .
    • Interviewing uses all the forms of communication:
      • Speaking
      • Listening
      • Writing
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 74. Interviewers look for?
    • Intelligence & analytical ability
    • Creative & flexibility
    • Communication skills
    • Work experience & required technical skills
    • Leadership qualities / team playing ability
    • Initiative & entrepreneurship
    • Energy & stamina
    • Maturity
    • Interest in the position
    • Personal qualities & personality
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 75. Types of Interviews SCREENING INTERVIEW IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW MULTIPLE INTERVIEWS STRESS INTERVIEW Largest number of candidates Smallest number of candidates www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 76. The Ten Commandments
    • Stop Talking.
    • Put The Talker At Ease.
    • Show Him That You Want To Listen.
    • Remove Distractions.
    • Empathize With Him.
    • Be Patient.
    • Hold Your Temper.
    • Go Easy On Arguments And Criticism.
    • Ask Questions.
    • Stop Talking!
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 77. PLAN, PREPARE, POLISH, PRACTICE, PRESENT
    • The better you know your material the less anxious you’ll be about presenting it.
    • Smile and act natural. Don’t apologize for being nervous. No one will know you’re nervous unless you call attention to it.
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09
  • 78. Thank You
    • Kindly send your feedback to:
    • [email_address]
    www.health-nurses-doctors.blogspot.com 08/06/09