Presentation & Communication Skills


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Presentation & Communication Skills

  1. 1. PRESENTATION & COMMUNICATION SKILLS How to Speak to Anyone, Anytime, Anywhere!!! Session Speaker: Razia Pukhraj
  2. 2. AGENDA <ul><li>Communication Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Stage Fright & Nervousness </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Commandments </li></ul> 08/06/09
  4. 4. Communication <ul><li>The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>The art and technique of using words effectively to impart information or ideas. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  5. 5. Communication <ul><li>In simple terms, communication can be defined as actions whereby 'actors' impart information to one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication does not have to involve language and does not have to be vocalized. Deaf people often communicate through gestures. Babies communicate basic wants through crying. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  6. 6. Communication Model 08/06/09
  7. 7. Communication Model 08/06/09
  8. 8. Communication Model 08/06/09
  9. 9. Verbal & Non-Verbal Communication <ul><li>SIMILARITIES: </li></ul><ul><li>Both are rule guided. </li></ul><ul><li>Both can be intentional or unintentional. </li></ul><ul><li>Both are culture-bound. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  10. 10. Verbal & Non-Verbal Communication <ul><li>DIFFERENCES: </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal communication is usually perceived as more believable. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal can be multi-channeled. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal is continuous. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  11. 11. Non-Verbal Communication Accounts for 65% - 93% of the total meaning of communication 08/06/09
  12. 12. Non-Verbal Communication <ul><li>Kinesics </li></ul><ul><li>Physical appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Paralanguage </li></ul><ul><li>Silence </li></ul><ul><li>Proxemics and personal space </li></ul><ul><li>Chronemics (time) </li></ul>Everything except the words! 08/06/09
  13. 13. Kinesics <ul><li>Body position and motion including those of the face </li></ul><ul><li>Posture can signal self-assurance. </li></ul><ul><li>Posture can tell others if you are open to interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal behaviors such as positioning, smiling, close seating and gazes signal how we feel about others. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  14. 14. Eyes <ul><li>“ The mirrors of the soul” </li></ul><ul><li>We tend to look at eyes to judge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honesty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul></ul> 08/06/09
  15. 15. Physical Appearance <ul><li>What message do you wish to send with your choice of clothing and personal grooming? </li></ul> 08/06/09
  16. 16. Color Influences Communication Yellow cheers and elevates moods. Red excites and stimulates. Blue comforts and soothes. In some cultures black suggests mourning. In some cultures white suggests purity. 08/06/09
  17. 17. Proxemics and Personal Space <ul><li>Every culture has norms for using space. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Pakistan we interact with acquaintances from 4’ to 12’ and within 18” or less for close friends or intimates. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People who want to even out power seek out neutral territory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater space may be assumed by those with higher status. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with greater power often invade others’ territory. </li></ul></ul> 08/06/09
  18. 18. Chronemics (time) <ul><li>How do we manage and react to others’ management of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punctuality </li></ul></ul> 08/06/09
  19. 19. Paralanguage <ul><li>Communication that is vocal but that does not use words themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds (gasps and murmurs) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal qualities </li></ul><ul><li>How we pronounce words </li></ul><ul><li>The accents we use </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of our sentences </li></ul> 08/06/09
  20. 20. Silence <ul><li>Silence can be comforting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When partners are so close they do not need to talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When there is an absence of disturbing noise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Silence can be discomforting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When you talk to someone and they do not reply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When children are disciplined by being ignored </li></ul></ul> 08/06/09
  21. 21. Non-Verbal Signals <ul><li>Vary from culture to culture </li></ul> 08/06/09
  22. 22. What does this symbol mean to you? <ul><li>In the United States it is a symbol for good job </li></ul><ul><li>In Germany the number one </li></ul><ul><li>In Japan the number five </li></ul><ul><li>In Ghana an insult </li></ul><ul><li>In Malaysia the thumb is used to point rather than a finger </li></ul> 08/06/09
  24. 24. How to Ace your Presentation? <ul><li>Give them what they want. </li></ul><ul><li>Map out your presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Be Prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Look and sound sharp. </li></ul><ul><li>Platform presence. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be nervous. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  25. 25. 1. Give them what they want. <ul><li>Know you audience’s needs and concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what motivates them. </li></ul><ul><li>State your idea(s) and support them </li></ul> 08/06/09
  26. 26. 2. Map out your presentation. <ul><li>Divide your presentation in 3 Blocks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20% - Lively Introduction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% - Body of Presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% - Conclusion. </li></ul></ul> 08/06/09
  27. 27. 3. Be prepared. <ul><li>Prepare before you present. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep visual aids simple. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you know how to operate the equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the equipment works. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  28. 28. 4. Look and sound sharp. <ul><li>Appearance is extremely important. </li></ul><ul><li>Use familiar words and phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid saying err, umm, eh, you know, like etc. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  29. 29. 5. Platform presence. <ul><li>Take control of the settings. </li></ul><ul><li>Dress so you stand out. </li></ul><ul><li>Make your voice an asset. </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse in front of a friend or colleague. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Always make eye contact. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  30. 30. 6. Don’t be nervous <ul><li>You are not facing an opponent. </li></ul><ul><li>Your audience wants you to succeed not faint. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  31. 31. Do’s of Presentation <ul><li>Analyze the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Always begin with attention getter. </li></ul><ul><li>Body language. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish eye contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Use large readables readables </li></ul><ul><li>Use gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage questions. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  32. 32. Do’s of Presentation <ul><li>Respond to questions </li></ul><ul><li>Control of feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Vary your pitch. </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t go too fast. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the discussion. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  33. 33. Introductions <ul><li>Identification with Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Reference to Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of Importance of Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise Audience with Claim or Statistic </li></ul><ul><li>Quotation </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul> 08/06/09
  34. 34. Conclusions <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Quotation </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge to Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Offer Vision of the Future </li></ul><ul><li>Quotation </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul> 08/06/09
  35. 35. VOICE
  36. 36. The Voice in Delivery <ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch </li></ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul><ul><li>Pauses </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Variety </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation and Articulation </li></ul> 08/06/09
  37. 37. Volume <ul><li>The relative loudness of a speaker’s voice while giving a speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Loudness depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>size of room/number of persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>availability of a microphone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>background noise </li></ul></ul> 08/06/09
  38. 38. Pitch <ul><li>The range of sounds from high to low. </li></ul><ul><li>It powerfully affects the meaning associated with spoken words. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conveys mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reveals level of enthusiasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expresses concern for the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>signals your overall commitment to the occasion </li></ul></ul> 08/06/09
  39. 39. Rate <ul><li>The most effective way to hold an audience’s attention and convey the meaning of your speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking rate - the speed with which a speaker talks </li></ul> 08/06/09
  40. 40. Pauses <ul><li>Pauses are important strategic elements of a speech that enhance meaning by providing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a type of punctuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasis of a point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attention to a key point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a moment for listeners to contemplate what is being said </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid vocalized pauses (“uh”, “er”, “um”...) </li></ul> 08/06/09
  41. 41. Vocal Variety <ul><li>The varied use of multiple vocal cues to achieve effective delivery. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  42. 42. Pronunciation & Articulation <ul><li>Pronunciation - the correct formation of word sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation - saying words with clarity and forcefulness so they are individually audible. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  43. 43. LISTENING
  44. 44. Listening <ul><li>The process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and / or nonverbal messages </li></ul><ul><li>To hear something with thoughtful attention. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  45. 45. Listening <ul><li>There are four types of listening: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listening for pleasure or enjoyment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Music, movies, comedy, plays… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to provide emotional support for speaker </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A shrink listens to a patient; you listen to a friend’s rant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to understand the speakers message </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direction to a friend’s house; in a class or seminar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to evaluate a message </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A campaign speech; a peer’s research paper </li></ul></ul></ul></ul> 08/06/09
  46. 46. Causes of Poor Listening <ul><li>Not Concentrating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daydreaming, mind wandering, dozing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listening too Hard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying to remember every fact, no matter how minute </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jumping to Conclusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting words into the speakers mouth; interrupting speaker, anticipating what speaker will say/do next </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focusing on Delivery Instead of Message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker’s accent, clothes, stuttering, presentation tools </li></ul></ul> 08/06/09
  47. 47. Better Listening <ul><li>Take Listening Seriously </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like any skill it takes practice and self-discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resist Distractions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When you catch your mind wandering make a conscious effort to pull it back on track; try to anticipate what the speaker will say/do next </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t be Diverted by Appearance or Delivery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln and Gandhi were strange in appearance but were excellent speakers </li></ul></ul> 08/06/09
  48. 48. Better Listening <ul><li>Suspend Judgment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a closed mind is an empty mind” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus Your Listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen for main points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen for evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen for technique </li></ul></ul> 08/06/09
  49. 49. VISUAL AIDS
  50. 50. Memory & Visual Aids 08/06/09
  51. 51. Types of Visual Aids <ul><li>Blackboard / Whiteboard </li></ul><ul><li>Flip charts </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead projectors </li></ul><ul><li>Slides </li></ul><ul><li>Film and Video </li></ul><ul><li>Handouts </li></ul><ul><li>Physical objects </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul> 08/06/09
  52. 52. Methods of Delivery <ul><li>Manuscript Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Memorized </li></ul><ul><li>Impromptu </li></ul><ul><li>Extemporaneous </li></ul> 08/06/09
  53. 53. Using Visual Aids During the Speech <ul><li>Reveal Only When Needed </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to Audience - Not Visual Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to Visual Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Visual Aid Visible as Needed </li></ul><ul><li>Use Handouts with Caution </li></ul> 08/06/09
  54. 54. Size Matters <ul><li>This is a 20 point font </li></ul><ul><li>This is a 32 point font </li></ul><ul><li>This is a 44 point font </li></ul><ul><li>This is a 54 point font </li></ul><ul><li>This is a 66 point f </li></ul> 08/06/09
  55. 55. Color can distinguish a presentation 08/06/09
  56. 56. Color affects how fast the audience can read What is important is that the combination has contrast—the one on this slide does not. 08/06/09
  57. 57. Color affects how fast the audience can read Combinations of red, green, and brown are difficult for many people to read 08/06/09
  58. 58. Color affects how fast the audience can read The color combination that is read most quickly is black on yellow. 08/06/09
  59. 59. Color affects the emotions of the audience Avoid having a hot color such as red or orange as your background color. 08/06/09
  60. 60. What not to do <ul><li>No bright text on bright background </li></ul><ul><li>No lot of pictures on one page </li></ul><ul><li>No animations unless it is relevant </li></ul><ul><li>No too much information on one page </li></ul><ul><li>No CAPITAL letters </li></ul> 08/06/09
  61. 61. FEEDBACK
  62. 62. Positive Non-Verbal Feedback <ul><li>Smiling </li></ul><ul><li>Nodding </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxed posture </li></ul><ul><li>Unbuttoned jackets </li></ul><ul><li>Leaning forward </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting on edge of chair </li></ul><ul><li>Hands in open position </li></ul><ul><li>Legs and arms uncrossed </li></ul> 08/06/09
  63. 63. Negative Non-Verbal Feedback <ul><li>Dead expression </li></ul><ul><li>Tight lips </li></ul><ul><li>Frowning </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Hands clenched or wringing </li></ul><ul><li>Turning away </li></ul><ul><li>Stiff or slumping posture </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting or leaning back </li></ul><ul><li>Crossed legs or arms </li></ul> 08/06/09
  65. 65. Stage Fright <ul><li>Anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  66. 66. What causes stage fright? <ul><li>Inadequate preparation. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of being judged. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfamiliarity with the audience or the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge about public speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Negative past experiences </li></ul> 08/06/09
  67. 67. Important understanding about stage fright. <ul><li>It is normal. Almost everyone experiences some nervousness about speaking in some situations. </li></ul><ul><li>It is mostly internal. You will usually feel more nervous than you look. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  68. 68. Important understanding about stage fright. <ul><li>Anxiety can be useful. Your nervousness can create a heightened state of readiness, allowing you to perform better than you might otherwise. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be managed. While you may never eliminate the nervousness you feel, you can deal with it and deliver a successful speech in spite of it. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  69. 69. Reducing Speech Anxiety <ul><li>Know your audience </li></ul><ul><li>Select an appropriate topic </li></ul><ul><li>Re-create the speech environment when you rehearse </li></ul><ul><li>Know your introduction and conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Be organized </li></ul><ul><li>Use visual aids </li></ul> 08/06/09
  70. 70. Reducing Speech Anxiety <ul><li>Think positively </li></ul><ul><li>Use the power of visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Know that most nervousness is not visible </li></ul><ul><li>Don ’ t expect perfection </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare, prepare, prepare … </li></ul> 08/06/09
  71. 71. Dealing with Nervousness <ul><li>Speechmaking is a common “greatest fear” </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation and rehearsal reduce fear by 75% </li></ul><ul><li>Proper breathing reduces fear by 15% </li></ul> 08/06/09
  72. 72. INTERVIEWS
  73. 73. Interviews <ul><li>Interview is a conversation with a purpose . </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewing uses all the forms of communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul> 08/06/09
  74. 74. Interviewers look for? <ul><li>Intelligence & analytical ability </li></ul><ul><li>Creative & flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Work experience & required technical skills </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership qualities / team playing ability </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative & entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Energy & stamina </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in the position </li></ul><ul><li>Personal qualities & personality </li></ul> 08/06/09
  75. 75. Types of Interviews SCREENING INTERVIEW IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW MULTIPLE INTERVIEWS STRESS INTERVIEW Largest number of candidates Smallest number of candidates 08/06/09
  76. 76. The Ten Commandments <ul><li>Stop Talking. </li></ul><ul><li>Put The Talker At Ease. </li></ul><ul><li>Show Him That You Want To Listen. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove Distractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Empathize With Him. </li></ul><ul><li>Be Patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Hold Your Temper. </li></ul><ul><li>Go Easy On Arguments And Criticism. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask Questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Stop Talking! </li></ul> 08/06/09
  77. 77. PLAN, PREPARE, POLISH, PRACTICE, PRESENT <ul><li>The better you know your material the less anxious you’ll be about presenting it. </li></ul><ul><li>Smile and act natural. Don’t apologize for being nervous. No one will know you’re nervous unless you call attention to it. </li></ul> 08/06/09
  78. 78. Thank You <ul><li>Kindly send your feedback to: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul> 08/06/09