By Tommy Cherisme, Chris/Sam Ward,
And James Barry
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starting with
the cells in the tissue of the breast. The tumor
becomes malignant when a group of cancer cells
become invasive in the tissues and "metastasize" to
other areas of the body.
What is it?
Breast cancer consists of two main types: Ductal
carcinoma (which starts in the ducts that transport
milk from the breast to the nipple).
Another common source of breast cancer can come
for the tissues of the breast around the glanular
It is very important to understand this disease occurs
most often in women, but men can get it, too!
What is it (continued)?
Symptoms of breast cancer vary from person to person. Some
common breast cancer signs and symptoms include:
1. Skin changes, such as swelling, redness, or other visible
differences in one or both breasts
2. Nipple discharge other than breast milk
3. General pain coming from the breast
4. Lumps or nodes felt on the breast
5. Irritated or itchy breasts
6. Change in breast color (redness)
7. Increase in breast size or shape
8. Peeling or flaking of the nipple skin (inverted nipple)
Are there any ways to
detect breast cancer?
Although there’s no definite reasons behind getting breast cancer, there
are a few risk factors that link especially with breast cancer. Some of these
risk factors include:
3. family history
5. dense breast tissues
6. breast cancer DES
8. Not breast feeding
9. Any radiation of your breast or nearby skin earlier in your life
10. Lobular carcinoma in situ
What are some risk factors
associated with breast cancer?
Treatment with DES: Women who were given the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) during
pregnancy have a slightly increased risk of getting breast cancer.
Dense breast tissue: Dense breast tissue means there is more gland tissue and less fatty tissue.
Women who have this are at a higher risk and it may be harder for doctors to find it.
Lobular carcinoma in situ: In this condition, cells that look like cancer cells are in the milk-
making glands (lobules), but do not grow through the wall of the lobules and cannot spread to
other parts of the body. It is not a true cancer or pre-cancer, but having LCIS increases a
woman's risk of getting cancer in either breast later.
Family history: Breast cancer risk is higher among women whose close blood relatives have
this disease. Still, most women who get breast cancer do not have a family history of this
disease, so not having a relative with breast cancer doesn’t mean you won’t get it.
Breast radiation early in life: Women who have had radiation treatment to the chest area (as
treatment for another cancer) as a child or young adult have a greatly increased risk of breast
cancer. The risk from chest radiation is highest if the radiation were given during the teens,
when the breasts were still developing.
Risk factors (detailed
Although there are many ways to help treat it the
following are the most common.
Total molestomy: surgery that evolves removing the
entire infected breast from the body.
With this option the patient may go for
How do you treat it?
Chemotherapy treatemnet uses drugs to stop the growth
of cancerous cells. By stoping them from dividing. (note
this treatment kills good cells as well as bad.
Chemotherapy can be injected from the mouth into a
Once the substance is in the patient it travels into the
blood stream to reach the cancerous area. This is also
known as systemic chemotin.
Specifically radiation therapy uses high energy x rays or
other types of radiation to kill cancer cells which keep
them from growing.
There are two distinct types of radiation therapy; internal
External radiation uses a machine located outside the
body to send radiation directly to the spot conatining the
Internal radiation is quite similar but instead has
radioactive properties in needles, seeds, or wires which
are placed directly or around the cancerous area.
So, obviously cancer looks really scary to have so here are some
precautions to take to lower the risk of getting it:
Certain kinds of birth control: Women who are using birth control pills
or an injectable form of birth control called depot-medroxyprogesterone
acetate (DMPA or Depo-Provera®) have a slightly greater risk of breast
cancer than women who have never used them.
Avoid exposure to radiation and environmental pollution: Medical-
imaging methods, such as computerized tomography, use high doses of
radiation, which have been linked with breast cancer risk. Reduce your
exposure by having such tests only when absolutely necessary. While
more studies are needed, some research suggests a link between breast
cancer and exposure to the chemicals found in some workplaces,
gasoline fumes and vehicle exhaust
How do we prevent it?
Not breastfeeding: Some studies have shown that
breastfeeding slightly lowers breast cancer risk, especially
if breastfeeding lasts 1½ to 2 years.
Limit alcohol: The more alcohol you drink, the greater
your risk of developing breast cancer. The recommended
amount would be at most a glass a day.
Control your weight: Being overweight or obese increases
the risk of breast cancer. This is especially true if obesity
occurs later in life, particularly after menopause.
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