C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                  Is f a h a n U n iv e r s it y o f...
C a d m iu m                         B io lo g y                         (An                         O v e r v ie w )B y: ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                         Outlines   ...
C a d m iu m In t r o d u c t io n
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       silver        ←              ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                               Cadmium:             ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                         Notable characteristics    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                        Properties of cadmium       ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                               Cadmium facts        ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                              Source...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Small rocks - Cadmium (Cd)Ju ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                          Cadmium base, CdJu n e 2 6...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Industrially produced cadmium...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                   Cadmium sifideJu ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s             Cadmium smithsonite contains cadmium im...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                The Name Smithsonite...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Cadmium ProductionJu n e 2 6 ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Cadmium ConsumptionJu n e 2 6...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       The Application of Cadmium   ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                     Cadmium Plating...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2                       T o t a l...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2                       T o t a l...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2                       T o t a l...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Nickel Cadmium BatteriesJu n ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                          Cadmium in paintsJu n e 2 ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Chrome yellow and Cadmium yel...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2                       T o t a l...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2                       T o t a l...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Cadmium Orange Poppies Art Pr...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2                       T o t a l...
C a d m iu mp h a r m a c o k in e t ic            s
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                      Inhalation    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s               Cigarette smokers, however, typicall...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                              Ingest...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                     Distribution   ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                  Metallothionein   ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                           Eliminati...
C a d m iu mM o l e c u l a r m e c h a n is m         o f t o x ic it y
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                            Classification of metals...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Borderline and Class B metals...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Cadmium is a heavy metal     ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Basis of toxicity of metals  ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Toxic effects of heavy metals...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s         Mechanisms of uptake and transport         ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Simple and facilitated diffus...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                 End...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                          Take-home messages        ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s              General mechanisms of metal toxicity  ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                 Oxidative damage   ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s             Heavy metals increase ROS production   ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                         Oxidative damage to DNA    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                         Oxidative damage to DNA    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s         TUNEL-detected DNA damage in Cd-exposed    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                Cd-induced apoptosis in zebrafish   ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                   Oxidative DNA damage may lead to ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s            Oxidative damage to proteins and lipids ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Mutagenicity of cadmium      ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Inhibition of DNA repair     ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s              Toxic metal can affect function of zin...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                 Take-home messages ...
C a d m iu mPat h o g e n e s is   effects
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                  Cadmium and renal effects         ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s              Markers of kidney               funct...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Cadmium and liver toxicity   ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                         Cadmium and fractures      ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                           Cadmium and fractures    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                         Cadmium and placenta       ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Cadmium and lung toxicity    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Cadmium and cancer risk      ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                    itai-itai diseas...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Is there a test for cadmium e...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                        Cadmium health effects      ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                        Cadmium health effects      ...
C a d m iu mD e t o x if ic at io n
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                                                    ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                          Take-home messages        ...
C a d m iu m  Summery
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s              discoverer=                           ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2                       T o t a l...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                Respiratory System                  ...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s                       Do we need cadmium for health...
C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s               The First Cadmium Enzyme – Carbonic A...
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Cadmium

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  • Cadmium (Latin cadmia , Greek καδμεία meaning "calamine", a Cadmium-bearing mixture of minerals, which was named after the Greek god, Κάδμος (Cadmus)) was discovered in Germany in 1817 by Friedrich Strohmeyer. Strohmeyer found the new element within an impurity in zinc carbonate (calamine) and for 100 years Germany remained the only important producer of the metal . The metal was named after the Latin word for calamine since the metal was found in this zinc compound. Strohmeyer noted that some impure samples of calamine changed color when heated but pure calamine did not. Even though cadmium and its compounds are highly toxic, the British Pharmaceutical Codex from 1907 states that cadmium iodide was used as a medicine to treat "enlarged joints, scrofulous glands, and chilblains". In 1927, the International Conference on Weights and Measures redefined the meter in terms of a red cadmium spectral line (1m = 1,553,164.13 wavelengths). This definition has since been changed (see krypton).
  • powder and pieces, Cd, Cd3As2, Cd3Sb2, CdCO3, CdCl2, CdF2,CdI2, CdMoO4, Cd2Nb2O7, Cd(NO3)2, CdO, CdP2, Cd3P2, CdSe, CdSeO3, Cd2SnO4, CdS, Cd2Ta2O7, CdTe, CdV2O6, CdO/ZrO2 from 99 % to 99.999 % lots delivered with analysis certificate
  • Smithsonite was named after James Smithson in 1832.  James Smithson was an English scientist, often referred to as the best chemist and mineralogist of his year.  He was an active member of many scientific organizations that benefited society and advanced scientific research.  James published at least 27 papers with topics in chemistry, geology, and mineralogy.  In 1802 James Smithson proved that zinc carbonates were true carbonate minerals, not zinc oxides.  This discovery lead to the breakdown of calamine into two separate minerals hemimorphite and smithsonite. After James Smithson's death in 1829 the bulk of his estate was given to his nephew.  Since his nephew died without any heirs the Smithson Estate was then given to the United States of America to found the Smithsonian Institution.
  • About three-quarters of cadmium is used in batteries (especially Ni-Cd batteries) and most of the remaining quarter is used mainly for pigments, coatings and plating, and as stabilizers for plastics. Other uses include: Other uses include: Used in some of the lowest melting alloys. Due to a low coefficient of friction and very good fatigue resistance, it is used in bearing alloys. 6% of cadmium finds use in electroplating . Many kinds of solder contain this metal. As a barrier to control nuclear fission . Compounds containing cadmium are used in black and white television phosphors and also in the blue and green phosphors for color television picture tubes. Cadmium forms various salts , with cadmium sulfide being the most common. This sulfide is used as a yellow pigment. Cadmium selenide can be used as red pigment, commonly called cadmium red . To painters who work with the pigment, cadmium yellows, oranges and reds are the most potent colours to use. In fact, during production these colours are significantly toned down before they are ground with oils and binders, or blended into watercolours, gouaches, acrylics, and other paint and pigment formulations. These pigments are toxic and it is recommended to use a barrier cream on your hands to prevent absorption through the skin when working with them. There is no such thing as cadmium blue, green or violet. Used in some semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide, cadmium selenide, and cadmium telluride , which can be used for light detection or solar cells . HgCdTe is sensitive to infrared. Some cadmium compounds are employed in PVC as stabilizers. Used to block voltage-dependent calcium channels from fluxing calcium ions in molecular biology.
  • Density=8.65g/cm³
  • The Comet Assay , also called single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), is a sensitive and rapid technique for quantifying and analyzing DNA damage in individual cells. As such, this is one of the techniques used in the area of cancer research for the evaluation of genotoxicity and effectiveness of chemoprevention. Swedish researchers Östling & Johansson developed this technique in 1984 [1]. Singh, et al., later modified this technique, in 1988, as the Alkaline Comet Assay [2]. The resulting image that is obtained resembles a "comet" with a distinct head and tail. The head is composed of intact DNA, while the tail consists of damaged (single-strand or double-strand breaks) or broken pieces of DNA. While most of the applications of the Comet Assay have been to study animal eukaryotes, there have been reports of successful application in the study of plant cells. Individual cells are embedded in a thin agarose gel on a microscope slide. All cellular proteins are then removed from the cells by lysing. The DNA is allowed to unwind under alkaline/neutral conditions. Following the unwinding, the DNA undergoes electrophoresis, allowing the broken DNA fragments or damaged DNA to migrate away from the nucleus. After staining with a DNA-specific fluorescent dye such as ethidium bromide or propidium iodide, the gel is read for amount of fluorescence in head and tail and length of tail. The extent of DNA liberated from the head of the comet is directly proportional to the amount of DNA damage. The Comet Assay can be used to detect DNA damage caused by double strand breaks, single strand breaks, alkali labile sites, oxidative base damage, and DNA cross-linking with DNA or protein. The Comet Assay is also used to monitor DNA repair by living cells [3].
  • EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
  • Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism. If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO 2 , NH 3 + or H 2 O, the biotransformation is called mineralisation
  • Snail= لیسک،حلزون
  • Handling of cadmium in human body
  • Cadmium

    1. 1. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Is f a h a n U n iv e r s it y o f M e d ic a l S c ie n c e , S c h o o l o f P h a r m a c y D e p a r t m e n t o f C lin ic a l B io c h e m is t r yJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 1
    2. 2. C a d m iu m B io lo g y (An O v e r v ie w )B y: A .N . E m a m i
    3. 3. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Outlines  Introduction  Pharmacokinetics  Molecular mechanism of toxicity  Pathogenesis effects  Detoxification  SummeryJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 3
    4. 4. C a d m iu m In t r o d u c t io n
    5. 5. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s silver ← cadmium → indiumn Zn ↑ Cd ↓ Hg Periodic Table - Extended Periodic TableJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 5
    6. 6. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium: A Co-product of Zinc SmeltingJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 6
    7. 7. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Notable characteristics  Cadmium is a soft, malleable, ductile, toxic, bluish-white bivalent metal. It is similar in many respects to zinc but reacts to form more complex compounds.  The most common oxidation state of cadmium is +2, though rare examples of +1 can be found.Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 7
    8. 8. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Properties of cadmium  Boiling point=765° C  Melting point=320.9° C  Silvery metal soft enough to be easily cut with a knife  Density=8.65g/cm³Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 8
    9. 9. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium facts  Date of discovery = 1817  Discoverer = Fredrich Stromeyer  Atomic number = 48  Atomic mass = 112.41 1776 - 1835Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 9
    10. 10. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Sources:  Natural rock weathering  Copper, lead and zinc smelting auto exhaust  Cigarette smoke (a cigarette contains 1-2 ug Cd)Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 1 0
    11. 11. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Small rocks - Cadmium (Cd)Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 1 1
    12. 12. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium base, CdJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 1 2
    13. 13. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Industrially produced cadmiumJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 1 3
    14. 14. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium sifideJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 1 4
    15. 15. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium smithsonite contains cadmium impurities and is yellow to yellow-green.Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 1 5
    16. 16. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s The Name Smithsonite  Smithsonite was named after James Smithson in 1832. James Smithson was an English scientist, often referred to as the best chemist and mineralogist of his year. He was an active member of many scientific organizations that benefited society and advanced scientific research. James published at least 27 papers with topics in chemistry, geology, and mineralogy. In 1802 James Smithson proved that zinc carbonates were true carbonate minerals, not zinc oxides. This discovery lead to the breakdown of calamine into two separate minerals hemimorphite and smithsonite. After James Smithsons death in 1829 the bulk of his estate was given to his nephew. Since his nephew died without any heirs the Smithson Estate was then given to the United States of America to found the Smithsonian Institution.Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 1 6
    17. 17. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium ProductionJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 1 7
    18. 18. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium ConsumptionJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 1 8
    19. 19. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s The Application of Cadmium  metal plating  nickel-cadmium batteries  solders  paint pigments  plastic stabilizers  photographic chemicals  fungicidesJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 1 9
    20. 20. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium Plating  COMMERCIAL  Cadmium has long been used for its superior corrosion protection. Cadmium as deposited is bright silver finish to which a clear or yellow chromate can be applied. The deposit is soft, ductile and solderable. Here at DeTray Plating Works we have both rack and barrel capabilities depending on your needs.Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 20
    21. 21. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 21
    22. 22. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 22
    23. 23. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 23
    24. 24. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Nickel Cadmium BatteriesJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 24
    25. 25. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium in paintsJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 25
    26. 26. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Chrome yellow and Cadmium yellowJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 26
    27. 27. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 27
    28. 28. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 28
    29. 29. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium Orange Poppies Art PrintJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 29
    30. 30. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 30
    31. 31. C a d m iu mp h a r m a c o k in e t ic s
    32. 32. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Inhalation  Smelters, cigarette smoke  15-50% absorbed Shenyang Copper SmelterJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 32
    33. 33. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s  Cigarette smokers, however, typically sustain significantly higher exposure. Cadmium inhaled through cigarette smoke is more easily taken up by the body than cadmium in food or water. From 40 to 60 percent of the cadmium inhaled in smoke is absorbed into the bloodstream as opposed to the 5 to 10 percent absorbed through foods. Each cigarette contains roughly 1 to 2 micrograms of cadmium, and smokers absorb an additional 1 to 3 micrograms of cadmium into their systems daily for every pack they smoke. Studies have shown that smoking more than 20 cigarettes daily can increase cadmium levels in the body tenfold.Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 33
    34. 34. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Ingestion  Main source is liver and kidney of meats  6% absorbed, greater if deficient in calcium, zinc or ironJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 34
    35. 35. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Distribution  bound to albumin in plasma and red blood cells  transported to liver, pancreas, prostate and kidney, with eventual transfer to kidney  50-75% of total body Cd is found in liver and kidneyJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 35
    36. 36. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Metallothionein protein rich in cysteine  Traps Cd esp. in kidney  Synthesis induced by CdJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 36
    37. 37. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Elimination Urine  half-life in humans is 20 - 30 yearsJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 37
    38. 38. C a d m iu mM o l e c u l a r m e c h a n is m o f t o x ic it y
    39. 39. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Classification of metals Class A Borderline Class B (oxygen-seeking) (sulphur- or nitrogen- seeking) Calcium Zinc Cadmium Magnesium Lead Copper Iron Mercury Manganese Chromium Silver Potassium Cobalt Strontium Nickel Sodium Arsenic VanadiumJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 39
    40. 40. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Borderline and Class B metals and metalloids are important pollutants  Nitrogen- and sulphur-seeking  High affinity to proteins and other biological ligandsJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 40
    41. 41. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium is a heavy metal  Heavy metals are chemical elements that have a specific gravity (a measure of density) at least five times that of water.Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 41
    42. 42. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Basis of toxicity of metals  Substitution of essential metals in active centers of enzymes  Interference with intracellular signaling pathways and Ca2+ metabolism  Oxidative stress (excessive production of free radicals)  Interference with DNA transcription, translation and repairJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 42
    43. 43. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Toxic effects of heavy metals  Heavy metals (HM) exert their toxic effects by combining with one or more reactive groups (ligands) essential for normal physiological functions  Nearly all organ systems are involved in heavy metal toxicity; however, the most commonly involved organ systems include the CNS, PNS, GI, hematopoietic, renal, and cardiovascular (CV).Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 43
    44. 44. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Mechanisms of uptake and transport of metals  Lipid route  Plays limited role in metal transport  Hg may diffuse through the membrane in the form of neutrally charged chlorocomplexes  Hg2++2Cl- ↔ HgCl2  Aqueous routes  Simple diffusion  Yes  Facilitated diffusion  Very much so  Active transport  Little or no roleJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 44
    45. 45. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Simple and facilitated diffusion  Ion channels  Ca2+ channels  can transport Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+  SH-rich Zn2+ channels  can transport Cd2+  Carrier proteins  Divalent cation transporter 1 (DCT1)  Major carrier protein for uptake of Fe2+, Zn2+ but can also transport Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 45
    46. 46. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Endocytosis  Receptor-mediated endocytosis  Iron-binding proteins - transferrin, ferritin, lactoferrin can bind other metals Out In Out In Out In Fe3+ ApotransferrinJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 46
    47. 47. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Take-home messages  There are multiple pathways of metal uptake into the cell  No specific pathways of uptake exist for “toxic” metals  Toxic metals use uptake routes, which have evolved for uptake of essential metals such as iron, copper and zincJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 47
    48. 48. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s General mechanisms of metal toxicity  Metals have multiple intracellular targets  Proteins  Substitution of essential metals in active centers of enzymes  Binding to thiol (SH) groups  Oxidative damage  Membranes  Membrane permeability  Oxidative stress  DNA  Interference with transcription, translation and repair  Oxidative damage  Interference with intracellular signaling pathways and Ca2+ metabolismJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 48
    49. 49. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Oxidative damage A hallmark of heavy metal toxicity Free radical (ROS, RNS) Increase in free radical Decrease production in antioxidantsJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 49
    50. 50. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Heavy metals increase ROS production  Direct effects  Haber-Weiss reactions Meox+O2•-→ Mered+O2 Mered+H2O2→ Meox+ OH• +OH- Net: H2O2+O2•-→ O2+OH• +OH-  Indirect (inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain)Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 50
    51. 51. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Oxidative damage to DNA  Single Cell Comet Assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) SCGE  Detects DNA fragmentationJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 51
    52. 52. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Oxidative damage to DNA TUNEL (TdT-mediated X-dUTP nick-end labeling) assay Terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) is a common Detects free –OH method for detecting DNA fragmentation that groups created by results from apoptotic signaling cascades. The assay relies on the presence of nicks in the strand breakage DNA which can be identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, an enzyme that will catalyze the addition of dUTPs that are secondarily labeled with a marker. It may also label cells undergoing necrosis or cells that have suffered severe DNA damage.Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 52
    53. 53. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s TUNEL-detected DNA damage in Cd-exposed zebra fish embryos Control 100 µ M Cd Chan & Cheng (2002)Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 53
    54. 54. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cd-induced apoptosis in zebrafish Control embryo Cd-exposed embryos Cd-exposed embryo Chan & Cheng (2002)Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 54
    55. 55. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Oxidative DNA damage may lead to mutations  AT –GC transitions  Deamination of adenine or cytosine  G—C → G - - U (deamination) → G—C + A - -U (replication) → G—C+ A—T (replication)  GC-TA transversions  8-hydroxyguanine  G—C → 8HOG—C → 8HOG - - A + G—C → T—A + G—C (replication)Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 55
    56. 56. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Oxidative damage to proteins and lipids  Lipids  Malondialdehyde (MDA)  Lipofuscin  Proteins  Carbonylation  Loss of iron fromJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 56
    57. 57. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Mutagenicity of cadmium Jin et al., 2003 Nature GeneticsJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 57
    58. 58. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Inhibition of DNA repair Isolated human cells exposed to Cd in vitro Jin et al., 2003 Nature GeneticsJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 58
    59. 59. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Toxic metal can affect function of zinc- finger proteins Hartwig (2001)Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 59
    60. 60. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Take-home messages  Heavy metals affect a wide variety of intracellular molecules and functions.  Two major mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity are:  Binding to –SH and nitro-groups of biomolecules  Cofactor substitution, conformational changes, etc.  Oxidative damage due to direct catalysis of ROS production and/or to inhibition of ETC in mitochondriaJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 60
    61. 61. C a d m iu mPat h o g e n e s is effects
    62. 62. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium and renal effects  Cadmium accumulates especially in the kidneys leading to dysfunction of the kidney with increased secretion of e.g. proteins in urine (proteinuri) and other effects.  The proximal renal tubular dysfunction creates low phosphate levels in the blood hypophosphatemia, causing muscle weaknesses and coma. The dysfunction also causes Gout, a form of arthritis due to the accumulation of sodium urate crystals in the joints because of high blood levels of uric acid (hyperuricemia). Another side effect are increased levels of chloride in the blood (hyperchloremia). The kidneys can also shrink up to 30%.Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 62
    63. 63. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s  Markers of kidney function: tubular function: Urinary excretion of  NAG  RBP  ß2-microglobulin  AA  CaJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 63
    64. 64. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium and liver toxicity  Intraperitoneal injection of CdCl2 in animals cause:  Elevation of hepatic enzymes  Morphological changes in mitochondry and endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes  Decrease of intracellular pH from 6.8 to 6.6 due to:  Cadmium interaction with Cl-/HCO3 channelsJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 64
    65. 65. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium and fractures  Chronic exposure to cadmium may promote urinary calcium loss  Cadmium may interfere with the metabolism of calcium, vit. D, collagen  Severe cadmium poisoning is associated with ostemalacia or osteoporosisJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 65
    66. 66. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium and fractures  In postmenopausal women, urinary cadmium correlated negatively with bone density.  The population-based risk for fractures in districts near the smelters was 35%. Conclusion: cadmium may promote skeletal demineralisation, which may lead to increased bone fragility and raised risk of fractures.Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 66
    67. 67. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium and placenta  Cadmium induces placental necrosis at lower doses than renal toxicity  Deposited in placenta, little into fetus  Blocks nutrient and blood flow: growth retardation, fetal death  Interferes with zinc  Responsible for the growth retardation caused by smokingJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 67
    68. 68. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium and lung toxicity  edema and emphysema by killing lung macrophagesJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 68
    69. 69. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium and cancer risk  Several occupational studies have reported an excess risk of lung cancer in humans from exposure to inhaled cadmium.  Animal studies have reported cancer resulting from inhalation exposure to several forms of cadmium, while animal ingestion studies have not demonstrated cancer resulting from exposure to cadmium compounds.  EPA(Environmental Protection Agency) considers cadmium to be a probable human carcinogen (cancer-causing agent) and has classified it as a Group B1 carcinogenJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 69
    70. 70. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Itai itai Itai itai Itai itai Itai itai Itai itai Itai itai Itai itaiJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 70
    71. 71. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s itai-itai disease  The itai-itai disease (Japanese: イタイイタイ病 , literally: ouch-ouch- disease) From 1939 to 1954, some two hundred people near Fuchu, Japan suffered from a condition termed Itai-itai‘  There are a number of symptoms associated with cadmium poisoning. The two main organs affected are the bones and the kidneys. The bones get soft (osteomalacia) and lose bone mass and become weaker (Osteoporosis). This causes the pain in the joints and the back, and also increases the risk of fractures. In extreme cases of cadmium poisoning the body weight alone might cause a fracture.  The second affected organ is the kidney, which loses its function to remove acids from the blood, a so called proximal renal tubular dysfunction. The kidney damage due to cadmium poisoning is irreversible and does not heal over time, and the victims of the itai-itai disease still have this disorder.Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 71
    72. 72. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Is there a test for cadmium exposure?  There are several tests that indicate if someone has been exposed to or been harmed by cadmium exposure. Urine or blood samples can be tested to indicate current and past exposure and may even be useful in determining if kidney damage has occurred. Hair and fingernails or toenails are also excellent biomarkers — biological indicators — for cadmium exposure and can reveal past exposure to the metalJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 72
    73. 73. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium health effects  Long-term exposure to cadmium at levels around 0.1 milligrams per cubic meter of air may cause kidney stones and lung damage, and have been linked to lung cancer and high blood pressure.  Short-term exposure at ten times that level may irritate the lungs. Our everyday diet, however, only gives one-tenth the amount that could possibly affect long-term health, but if you eat large amounts of shellfish, liver and kidneys, or if you smoke, you may consume more cadmium than you should.Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 73
    74. 74. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Cadmium health effects  The EPA has set a limit of 5 parts of cadmium per billion parts of drinking water (5 ppb). EPA doesnt allow cadmium in pesticides.  The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limits the amount of cadmium in food colors to 15 parts per million (15 ppm).  The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) limits workplace air to 100 micrograms cadmium per cubic meter (100 µg/m³) as cadmium fumes and 200 µg cadmium/m³ as cadmium dust.Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 74
    75. 75. C a d m iu mD e t o x if ic at io n
    76. 76. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de to xi fi Detoxification of metals ca ti on  Biotransformation  Not possible for most metals  Biotransformation (methylation) of Hg makes it more toxic  Binding to intracellular ligands  Reduces the amount of biologically active form (free ion)  Deposition of insoluble metal granulesJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 76
    77. 77. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de Intracellular ligands for metal to xi fi ca ti on binding Histidine  Metallothioneins  Glutathione  CRP(cysteine rich proteins)Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 77
    78. 78. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de to xi fi Metallothioneins ca ti on  Low molecular weight (60-68 aa, 6-7 kDa)  Cysteine-rich  In mammals – 20 Cys, bind eqiuvalent of 7 bivalent metals  Cys positions are highly conservedJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 78
    79. 79. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de to xi fi ca ti on Rat MT I Blue crab MT IIJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 79
    80. 80. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de Cadmium bound to metallothionein to xi fi ca ti on subunitJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 80
    81. 81. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de to Metallothionein is induced by exposure to xi fi ca ti on heavy metals Nucella lapillus Leung & Furness (1998)Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 81
    82. 82. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de to xi fi ca Metallothionein protects from Cd toxicity ti on Experimental exposure to toxic Cd levels Survival: Cd- pretreated>control Liver damage: Control>Cd- pretreated Klaasen & Liu (1998)Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 82
    83. 83. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de t ox MT-knockout mice studies support protective role if ic a ti on of MT against Cd toxicity 5 weeks 10 weeks Liu et al., 1999Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 83
    84. 84. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de t ox MT-knockout mice studies support protective role if ic a ti on of MT against Cd toxicity Liu et al., 1999Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 84
    85. 85. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de to xi fi Cellular functions of metallothionein ca ti on  Storehouse for Zn  Protection against Cd-toxicity  Free-radical scavengerJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 85
    86. 86. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de to xi fi Short peptide metal chelators ca ti on  Glutathione  PhytochelatinsJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 86
    87. 87. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de to xi fi Phytochelatines ca ti onJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 87
    88. 88. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de to xi fi Cysteine-rich (intestinal) protein ca ti on Zn2+ Zn2+Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 88
    89. 89. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s de Deposition of insoluble granules to xi fi ca ti on (invertebrates only) Lysosome-derived granule in a snail Littorina littorea Marigomez et al. (2002)Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 89
    90. 90. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Take-home messages  Specialized proteins (metallothioneins) and polypeptides can protect cells from heavy metal toxicity by binding metals  Cysteine has high affinity for metals and therefore is a key amino acid in metal-binding proteins  Some invertebrates (mollusks, crustaceans, annelids) can detoxify metals by deposition and excretion of insoluble metal-containing granulesJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 90
    91. 91. C a d m iu m Summery
    92. 92. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s discoverer= crystal structure= nickel-cadmium Fredrich color=bluish white hexagonal batteries Stromeyer date of discovery poisonous =1817 boiling point= Cadmium paint pigments 765°C properties & application atomic number solders =48 compounds atomic Are mass= density=8.65g/cm³ oxidation state=2 toxic 112.41Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 92
    93. 93. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t sJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 93
    94. 94. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Respiratory System Kidney Pneumonitis, Proteinuria, kidney stones, destruction of glomerular & tubular mucous membranes damage Cancer Placenta Excess risk of lung cancer Cadmium Deposition & necrosis Classified in group B1 Block nutrient & blood flow carcinogens effects Growth retardation & fetal death Reproductive System Skeletal System Testicular necrosis, Loss of bone density and estrogen-like effects, mineralisation, affection of steroid-hormon Itai-Itai disease synthesisJu n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 94
    95. 95. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s Do we need cadmium for health? Though trace amounts of many metals are essential for the health of living things, there is no scientific evidence showing a nutritional role for cadmium.Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 95
    96. 96. C a d m iu m M e t a b o l is m & P a t h o g e n e s is E f f e c t s The First Cadmium Enzyme – Carbonic Anhydrase 2 from the Marine Diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii Cadmium is generally thought to be toxic and was not thought to be used by nature in anyway. X-ray absorption experiments on a marine diatom showed that Cadmium is not only of biological importance, but plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. Lane, T.; Saito, M. A.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.; Prince, R. C.; Morel, F. F. M. "Isolation and Preliminary Characterization of a Cadmium Carbonic Anhydrase from a Marine Diatom" Nature, 2005, 435, 42Ju n e 2 6 , 2 0 1 2 T o t a l s l id s : 9 6 96
    97. 97. Q u e s t io n s ?
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