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  1. 1. Outline of Presentation Introduction Problem Statement Research Questions Objectives of the study Study Hypotheses Methodology Conceptual Model References
  2. 2. Introd’n Health is an indicator of development and themechanism for achieving development (Buor, 2008). Strong health systems are fundamental to improvehealth outcomes and accelerate progress towards health-related MDGs (WHO, 2009). The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard ofhealth is fundamental right of every human being (WHO,1946; UN, 2000; Human Right Council, 2002).
  3. 3. Intro Cont’d Indeed, the sine qua non of large and effectivelabour force is good health (Baidoo, 2009; Buor,2008). Wealth of a nation is a function of the well-being of the people (Sen, 1987; Todaro & Smith,2009).
  4. 4. The Problem Health system in Ghana has gone through series of changes since independence (van den Boom et al., 2004; Sowa, 2000). With burden of diseases and escalating costs of health services, there is urgency to extend health services beyond OM (Buor, 2008; WHO, 2010; Baidoo, 2009; Mutabazi, 2008). Doctor/population ratio=1:11,929 TMP/population ratio = 1:386 (MOH/GHS Report, 2009).
  5. 5. Problem Cont’dSpatial disparity in health care access is criticalin Ghana (Mensah, 2008; Buor, 2008). OM has failed in handling tropical mostdiseases -malaria, piles, boils, infertility (Gyasi etal., 2011; Buor, 1993).
  6. 6. Problem Cont’d TM is effective/cost-effective/available to thepeople (Gyasi et al., 2011; Fokunang et al, 2011;Kuete et al., 2007; Xu & Levine, 2008; WHO, 2008). In Ghana TM is trusted and practiced in line withthe socio-cultural background of people (Kitua, 2004;Graz et al., 2011). People by choice or necessity rely on TM forprimary health care needs (Gyasi et al, 2011;Tchiakpe, 2004).
  7. 7. Problem Cont’d Some studies associate the TM use withdemographic/socio-economic characteristics of patients(Peltzer, 2008; Dhalla et al, 2006; Thomas et al, 2007;Aydin et al, 2008; Mensah and Gyasi [in press]; Lorenc etal, 2009; Chao and Wade, 2008). There are other complex psycho-social, cultural andbelief factors (Gyasi et al, 2011; Osamor and Owumi,2010; Menniti-Ippolito, 2002; Bishop et al, 2007). Findings are mixed and not well understood.Investigating the determinants of use of TM in Ghanabecomes relevant.
  8. 8. Research Questions What demographic, socio-economic & psycho- social factors are associated with the use of TM in Ghana? Are there any differences in the utilization of TM between rural and urban areas in Ghana? To what extent does the NHIS impact the pattern of use of traditional medical services. What are the factors that militate against the efforts to integrating the TM into the mainstream health care delivery in Ghana?
  9. 9. Study Objectives Examine the predictors associated with the use ofTM in Ghana. Attempt a comparative analysis of the use of TMbetween rural and urban communities in Ghana. Investigate the impact of NHIS on the pattern of useof TM in Ghana. Analyse the determinants of integrating TM into themainstream health care system in Ghana.
  10. 10. Study Hypotheses The research will be based on the following hypotheses: Household income level does not show association withutilisation of TM. The education level does not influence the use of TM. Residential status has no association with the TM use inGhana. Affective behaviour of TMPs does not show a strongrelationship with the utilisation of TM. National Health insurance status has no relationship withutilisation of TM in Ghana.
  11. 11. Methods The study design Cohort and cross-sectional survey (Buor, 2004). Mixed method of quantitative & qualitative approaches (Trochim, 2006; Mack et al, 2005). The variable Response variable: utilisation of TM. Explanatory variables: demographic (eg. Age, sex), socio-economic (eg. Income, education), psycho-social (eg. Belief, culture) and accessibility factors (eg. Cost, availability).
  12. 12. Methods Cont’d Sampling Study Areas: Sekyere South District and KumasiMetropolis of Ashanti Study Communities: Atonsu, Tanoso, Tafo,Ayigya, Asawase, Bepoase, Jamasi, Agona,Asamang, Wiamoase.
  13. 13. Methods Cont’dStudy Sample & Size: Clients of TM (470), TMPs(20), OMPs (20) and key informants-MoH/GHS (2). Sampling Technique: Systematic randomsampling, snowball & purposive techniques.Sources of Data: 4-sets of primary data.Secondary information from archives & documents. Data Collection Tools: Questionnaire/ structuredinterviews (for Quantitative data) & In-depthinterviews (for Qualitative data).
  14. 14. Method Cont’dData Analysis: Quantitative: Bivariate/multivariate/Stepwise multiple regression techniques via PASW v.17.0; Percentages/frequency tables/charts will be used to present data.Significance: ≤ 0.05. Qualitative: Content analysis through themes & direct quotes.
  15. 15. Significance of the StudyIncrease knowledge and add to literature. Useful to MoH/GHS and Traditional/ Alternative Medicines Unit.Useful to WHO/WHA.
  16. 16. Significance Cont’dA mechanism for the actualization of Health For All Policy in Ghana. Contributes to the achievement of the health-related MDGs in Ghana.
  17. 17. References Buor, D. (2008). Analysing the socio-spatial inequities in the access of health services in sub-Saharan Africa Professorial Inaugural Lecture. Great Hall, KNUST, October 9, 2008. Gyasi, R. M., Mensah, C. M., Adjei, P. O and Agyemang, S (2011) Public Perceptions of the Role of TM in the Health Care Delivery System in Ghana. Global Journal of Health Science: Vol. 3, No. 2; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v3n2p40. Osamor, P. E and Owumi, B. E (2010) Contemporary and alternative medicine in the management of hypertension in an urban Nigerian community. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 10:36
  18. 18. References Cont’dKarl Peltzer, Natalie F Preez, Shandir Ramlagan and Henry Fomundam (2008)Use of traditional complementary and alternative medicine for HIV patients inKwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. BMC Public Health. 8:255.Trochim, W. M. K. (2006). Qualitative Methods. (Accessed: March,2012).Ghana Health Service/Ministry of Health (2009) Final draft of Annual ReportGraz, B., Kitua, A. Y and Malebo, H. M (2011) To what extent can TMcontributes a complementary or alternative solution to malaria controlprogrammes? Malaria Journal, 10 (Suppl 1):S6. Available at: