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Disaster Management and Local Knowledge
 

Disaster Management and Local Knowledge

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    Disaster Management and Local Knowledge Disaster Management and Local Knowledge Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Layout of the Presentation
      • This study largely focuses upon all stages of disaster situation in the context of rolled played by local knowledge and wisdom in mitigating the disaster situation
      • Local Knowledge: Local knowledge is a collection of facts and relates to the entire system of concepts, beliefs and perceptions that people hold about the world around them. This includes the way people observe and measure their surroundings, how they solve problems and validate new information. It includes the processes whereby knowledge is generated, stored, applied and transmitted to others. (Warburton and Martin ,1999)
      • Disaster: A disaster is an extreme disruption of the functioning of a society that causes widespread human, material, or environmental losses that exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using only its own resources. “(Quarantelli E.L. 1998)
      • Hazards: Refers to the potential occurrence, in a specific time period and geographic area, of a natural phenomenon that may adversely affect human life, property or activity to the extent of causing a disaster. (Quarantelli E.L. 1998)
      • Vulnerability: Susceptibility to loss, damage, destruction, or casualty from potential disasters.(Dorothea Hilhorst. 2004)
      • Mitigation : T he permanent reduction of the disaster risk and can be categorized as “primary mitigation” which refers to reducing the presence of the hazard and of the vulnerability, and “secondary mitigation”, which refers to reducing the impact of the hazard. (David MacCollum , 2006)
      • Preparedness : C overs the measures that insure the organized mobilization of personel, funds, equipment and supplies within a safe environment for effective relief, “response” can be defined as the set of activities implemented after the impact of a disaster in order to assess the needs, reduce the suffering, limit the spread and the consequences of the disaster and open the way to rehabilitation. (David MacCollum , 2006)
      • The literature suggest that Disaster is a very complex phenomena which starts at pre-disaster and its linkages goes on the ill planning and attribute and preferences.
      • In the past there is limited or in the form of ad hoc studies that explores casual linkages and relationships between pre-disaster and mitigation stages. Recent flood in Pakistan is typical example of ill planning to handle the disaster situation in sindh.
      • The study attempts basically to review, what could be the part of local knowledge that may influence public policy towards revising sustainable policy to handling disaster situation.
      • To assess the role of local knowledge, skills and
      • resources for preparedness and mitigation measures in reduction of vulnerability in
      • coastal Communities against disaster in
      • Sindh province of Pakistan
        • To review socio-economic details of families in the disaster prone area of Sindh;
        • Explore major causes of disaster in coastal belt of Sindh;
        • To asses the extent of damages caused by various natural disasters in past 20 years in coastal area of Sindh;
        • Explore local knowledge and wisdom towards handling pre and post disaster situation in the coastal belt;
        • To develop policy and suggestions.
      • People in the costal area significantly lack public response (i.e., education; employment opportunities; health and etc). Consequently, poverty has risen alarmingly in the area.
      • In weak public policy illiteracy, poverty and mishandling of natural resources are the significant causes towards disasters.
      • The incidence disasters in coastal areas has increase in past 20 yeas, consequently loss of property and correlated damages have been significantly increased.
      • There is ample avoidances that shows significant relationship between pre and post disasters management and the role of local knowledge. However, public sector response and strategies fail to optimize the knowledge base.
      • Sample size : 360
      • Sampling technique : Multistage Sampling
      • Data
      • Primary and secondary data
          • Secondary data
            • Public and private sector offices working on Disaster Management.
          • Primary data
            • Household survey
            • Target population: Badin and Thatta
      • Analysis of Data.
      • Techniques like percentages, charts, tables, figures, Microsoft excel, sample cross table, and SPSS used to analyze the data
      • Research Design
          • Descriptive survey
          • Focused group interviews
          • Secondary reviews.
      Stages of Sampling District Stages Total First Second Third Fourth Selected Taluka UCs/ Taluka Villages/UC H.H/ village Badin Badin 2 10 9 180 Thatta Jati 2 10 9 180 Total 360
    • Source: Study survey 2010
    • Figure 4 shows that in the study area women’s economic condition is very worst which is leading to less participation in decision making and make them most vulnerable of the society. In the study area 80% of 360 respondents were earning less than 5000 per month. Among these 360, 90 are women and 71% of them are unemployed and 16% of 270 men are unemployed. Which is clearly indicating trends of poverty and lack of resources, which leads vulnerability of community. Source: Study survey 2010 Respondents Number Percentage Men 270 75 Women 90 25 Total 360 100
    • Figure 5 shows that in the study area of both districts 15% of total respondents are unemployed. Due to massive losses in disasters people’s trends from traditional occupations (i.e. farming and fisheries) has been changed into labor. Moreover as they are unskilled so they are not getting according to their needs. Source: Study survey 2010
    • Figure 6 shows that, in stead of modern hospitals in the area, there are only few Basic health units with low standard equipments, which are also not in the access of the people because of the distance. About 45% of total BHUs are at the distance of 6 to 10 KM, in remote and poor infrastructural area utilizing this facility is impossible. Source: Study survey 2010
    • Source: Study survey 2010
    • Figure 8 shows that in selected villages of study schooling situation is alarming, only 9 percent people have the access to high schools. At primary and middle level there is no significant difference. Only 21% have the access to middle schools because government did not took any interest to educate this community. Source: Study survey 2010
    • Source: IFAD 2010. Spate Irrigation, Livelihood Improvement and. Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change
    • Figure 9 shows that vulnerability is related to level of preparedness for any disaster. Community are found less sustainable when they are poor to social and economic impact.
    • Figure 10 shows that, rate of disasters increased in last decade as compared to last 53 years. This is due to impacts of global climate change after 1990s in Pakistan. Source: Quarterly Journal of PDMA-PaRRSA, August 2010
    • Source: Global natural disaster occurrence and impact: 1980–2007.
      • Global climate impacts on South Asia/Pacific countries
      • Temperature rise to 0.5-2C by 2030 and 1-7C by 2070
      • Greater rainfall during summer, monsoon and winter rainfall declines
      • Strongest precipitation events
      • Fast melting Himalaya and Hindu-Kush glaciers
      • Increasing global sea-level.
      • Impacts on Pakistan
      • Temperatures are increasing rapidly in arid areas of Northern Pakistan.
      • Temperatures in the country’s coastal areas have risen since the early 1900s by 0.6 to 1C
      • Precipitation has decreased 10 to 15% in the coastal belt and hyper-arid planes over the last 40 years
      • Summer rains increased and winter decreased in Northern Pakistan
      • Himalaya glaciers that feed whole Indus River system in Pakistan is melting rapidly
      Source: IFAD. (2007). climate change impacts in the Asian/Pacific region . The Global Mechanism
    • Figure 12 shows that disaster has inverse relationship with income. i.e. low income fall under key target of disaster and its distraction scale.
    • Province/ State Deaths Injured Houses damaged Affected Population Baluchistan 45 98 79,720 312,774 KpK 1,070 1,056 262,713 3,820,173 Punjab 103 350 375,773 8,200,000 Sindh 72 680 879,978 2,269,849 AJ& K 69 83 6,843 245,000 Gilgit Baltistan 183 60 3,157 8,516 Total 1,542 2,327 1,608,184 11,581,875
    • Source: ADRC, Japan based on CRED EM-DAT database, Asia 88% Europe 1% America 3% Africa 8%
    • Source: Study survey 2010
    • Fig 16 shows that different type of disasters came in sindh province. From 1947 to 2010 most of these disasters, Flood and Cyclone are on top rank. These floods and cyclone damages life of millions people, socially and economically. Source: Provincial Disaster Management Authority (2008). DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN SINDH PROVINCE
    • Fig 17 shows overall trend of rate of disaster occurrences in last decade throughout the country, the Sindh province faced increasing number of disasters from late last decade to till now. Moreover , increasing climate changes further put Southern region of country i.e. Sindh towards greater number of expected disasters due to its geological position. Source: Provincial Disaster Management Authority (2008). DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN SINDH PROVINCE
    • Figure 18 shows that as compared to all other countries in South Asia, Pakistan bear most losses. However, the severity of any natural hazard is approximately same in whole South Asia, but Pakistan impacted most because of people’s vulnerability as well as because of mismanagement in disaster management. Source: Pakistan Institute of Development Economics. Islamabad, Pakistan. September 27, 2010
    • Source: World Bank (2010). Pakistan 2010 Floods Damage and Needs Assessment Province No. of Houses Damaged No. % Crop Area Damaged (000 ha) No. % Water Courses Damaged No. % Livestock Damaged 000 No. % AJK 6843 0.425 33.1 1.58 657 5.04 0.6 0.04 Baluchistan 79720 4.96 132.4 6.33 47 0.36 1176.3 77.17 FATA 5419 0.34 7.2 0.34 n/a 14.6 0.96 GB 3157 0.20 7.9 0.38 960 7.36 12.1 0.79 NWFP 257294 16 121.4 5.80 1790 13.72 140.2 9.20 Punjab 375773 23.37 746.8 35.69 2598 19.92 4.8 0.31 Sindh 879978 54.72 1043.5 49.87 6990 53.60 175.6 11.52 Total 1608184 100 2092.3 100 13.42 100 1524.2 100
    • From Fig 19 it is clear that most affected districts from different disasters in sindh province are Karachi, Badin and Thatta. These areas are mostly coastal areas, and among these Thatta and Badin are more vulnerable because of their socio-economic condition. Source: Provincial Disaster Management Authority (2008). DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN SINDH PROVINCE
    • Table 3. shows the damages to target population in previous disasters from 1999 to 2010. Table shows extreme losses in life, property, livestock and assets and massive displacement has been occurred. Source: Study survey 2010 Damages Assessment of Study Area in Previous Disasters (Percentage)   Life Displacement Property Livestock Assets Badin 11 52 41 42 24 Thatta 19 59 47 44 28
    • Above figure shows after disaster situation. Fig 20.1 shows overall support provided by different stakeholders to disasters victims. Only 6% of total respondents got support from different organizations including government. Rest of 94% did by their selves or by support of community or did not get any support. Which is alarming situation. Means this community can’t resist to any disaster in future. Source: Study survey 2010
    • Fig 19 Show that among 360 respondents only 21% got Disaster mitigation training like awareness, emergency response and 15.83% out of 360 got support in construction. With out any technical and financial support people repeated pre-disaster construction pattern which did not bring any change in their vulnerability against disasters. Source: Study survey 2010
    • As pressure release model shows that pressure from three progressions of vulnerability is increasing and from other side expected hazards are also increasing, therefore in the cohesion of hazard and vulnerability “ risk ” is increasing and hence put the whole population in exposure.
      • Illiteracy and low standard of education, lack of middle and high schools.
      • Large families size and joint family structures but low income.
      • More expenditures and less income and hence not able to respond disasters. Moreover having no land to utilize after disaster for effective self recovery.
      • Lack of sufficient BHUs for effective treatment of people in case of any accident by disaster, people have to move to city and sometimes die in the way
      • Lack of sufficient cyclone shelters ( emergency camp)
      • Lack of adequate transportation to move to cyclone shelters during cyclonic period
      • Incorporate local knowledge in disaster management
      • local knowledge practices should be used because of their c ost effectiveness and to build local trust that ultimately could help in motivating local communities
      • Sustainable measures could be develop to predict disasters using their a bility to identify and interpret early warning signals of cyclone based on environmental indicators, weather interpretations/ predictions, smells, sounds, direction and types of wind, unusual appearance and movements of wildlife etc
      • Ability of local population to interpret the landscape and indicators of past cyclones such as the location of past cyclones by looking at the shape, direction, and nature of the wind, sea waves, geology, morphology, etc could help in forecasting disasters.
      • Post-disaster measures could be applied at right time.
      • Pre-disaster measures could be implemented smoothly
      • Agrawal, A. (1995) .Dismantling the Divide between Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge., Development and Change, Vol. 26 . Hague: Institute of Social Studies 1995
      • Anderson, M. and Woodrow, P. (1989 ) Rising from the Ashes : Development Strategies in Times of Disaster . Paris:UNESCO.
      • Bankoff, G. (2001) .Rendering the World Unsafe: Vulnerability. as Western Discourse., Disasters , 2001, 25(1): 19-35. Oxford: Blackwell.
      • Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), (2006), Natural Hazards and Disaster Management . Delhi: Preet Vihar.
      • Dekens, J. (2007). local knowledge on desaster preparedness in chitral district, Pakistan. Kathmandu: ICIMOD.
      • Dorothea Hilhorst. 2004. Mapping Vulnerability . Sterling: Earthscan
      • David MacCollum (December 18, 2006). Construction Safety Engineering Principles: Designing and Managing Safer Job Sites
      • DRA Workshop, 24 July, 2003. Asian Disaster Reduction Center.
      • EM-DAT: Emergency Events Database. (online database, accessed in August 2008).
      • Grenier, L. (1998). working with indegenous knowledge, Aguide for researchers. Ottawa: IDRC.
      • IFAD 2010. Spate Irrigation, Livelihood Improvement and. Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change.
      • IFAD. (2007). climate change impacts in the Asian/Pacific region . The Global Mechanism
      • Larson, R.C., M.D. Metzger, and M.F. Cahn.”Responding to emergencies: lesson learned and need for analysis”. Interfaces 37(6)(2006): 486-501.
      • Pakistan Institute of Development Economics. Islamabad, Pakistan. September 27, 2010.
      • Provincial Disaster Management Authority (2008). DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN SINDH PROVINCE
      • Quarterly Journal of PDMA-PaRRSA, August 2010.
      • Quarantelli E.L. (1998). Where We Have Been and Where We Might Go. In: Quarantelli E.L. (ed). What Is A Disaster? London: Routledge. pp146-159
      • Warburton and Martin (1999) and FAO Web site for Gender, Agrobiodiversity and Local Knowledge.
      • World Bank (2010). Pakistan 2010 Floods Damage and Needs Assessment.
      • World International Studies Conference (WISC) at Bilgi University.Istambul, Turkey, 24- 27 August 2005
      • Young, E. (1997). Dealing with hazards and disasters: risk perceptions and community participation in manaement. Australian Journal of Emergency Management .
    • Thank You