different driving personalities — from cautious, in which it is more likely to yield to another car, to aggressive, where it is more likely to go first
HK: many cars
Driver-related factors Driving inattentively Driving too close to vehicle in front Lost control of vehicle Careless lane changing Careless cycling
The keys to climate control are in your hands. You can boost the overall fuel-efficiency of your car as much as 30% by simple vehicle maintenance and attention to your style of driving. Here are some tips on fuel-efficient driving that will not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, but could save you hundreds of dollars a year in fuel costs. TIPS FOR FUEL-EFFICIENT DRIVING: Avoid aggressive driving. "Jack-rabbit" starts and hard braking can increase fuel consumption by as much as 40%. Tests show that "jackrabbit" starts and hard braking reduces travel time by only four percent, while toxic emissions were more than five times higher. The proper way is to accelerate slowly and smoothly, then get into high gear as quickly as possible. In city driving, nearly 50% of the energy needed to power your car goes to acceleration. Drive steadily at posted speed limits. Increasing your highway cruising speed from 55mph (90km/h) to 75mph (120km/h) can raise fuel consumption as much as 20%. You can improve your gas mileage 10 - 15% by driving at 55mph rather than 65mph (104km/h). Note how quickly efficiency drops after 60 mph.
Two-second rule From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia a way for the defensive driver to judge the minimum safe following distance to help avoid collisions under ideal driving conditions. The red car's driver picks a tree to judge a two-second safety buffer. a rule of thumb by which a driver may maintain a safe following distance at any speed---a driver should ideally stay at least two seconds behind any vehicle that is directly in front of the driver's vehicle. The two-second rule is useful as it can be applied to any speed. It is equivalent to one vehicle-length for every 8 km/h (5 mph) of the current speed, but drivers can find it difficult to estimate the correct distance from the car in front, let alone to remember the stopping distances that are required for a given speed two-second rule gets around these problems, and provides a simple and common-sense way of improving road safety. dramatically reduce risk of collision, and also the severity of an accident should an accident occur; avoid tailgating and road rage for all drivers. The risk of tailgating is largely caused by the accident avoidance time being much less than the driver reaction time. Driving instructors advocate that drivers always use the "two-second rule" regardless of speed or the type of road. During adverse weather or hazardous conditions such as black ice, it is important to maintain an even greater distance of three or four seconds. The two-second rule tells a defensive driver the minimum distance needed to reduce the risk of collision under ideal driving conditions. The allotted two-seconds is a safety buffer, to allow the following driver time to respond. To estimate the time, a driver can wait until the rear end of the vehicle in front passes any distinct and fixed point on the roadway - e.g. a road sign, mailbox, line/crack/patch in the road. This should be done without looking up for more than one second, which would defeat the purpose. After the car ahead passes a given fixed point, the front of one's car should pass the same point no less than two seconds later. If the elapsed time is less than this, one should increase the distance, then repeat the method again until the time is at least 2 seconds. One can count the duration of time simply by saying "zero... one... two" but for greater accuracy, it is suggested that drivers say "only a fool breaks the two-second rule". At a normal speaking rate, this sentence takes approximately two seconds to say, and serves as a reminder to the driver of the importance of the rule itself. The National Safety Council suggests that a three-second rule -- with increases of one second per factor of driving difficulty -- is more appropriate. Factors that make driving more difficult include poor lighting conditions (dawn and dusk are the most common); inclement weather (ice, rain, snow, fog, etc.), adverse traffic mix (heavy vehicles, slow vehicles. impaired drivers, pedestrians, bicyclists, etc.), and personal condition (fatigue, sleepiness, drug-related loss of response time, distracting thoughts, etc.). For example, a fatigued driver piloting a car in rainy weather at dusk would do well to observe a six-second following distance, rather than the basic three-second gap.
The characteristics of this driverless car is the gps sensor, which made it able to drive it by itself Normally, being the driver, we need to drive the car Now, with this special ability, people now can even work in the car Obviously, this can help to increase productivity And we have come up with some data to illustrate how its going to raise productivity In US, an average of 61.1% people drive to work And they usually spend more than an hour on commuting With this driverless car, it can help this majority of people to save more than an hour everyday Which then increase the productivity Also contributing to the increase in US GDP http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/03/05/americans-commutes-not-getting-longer/1963409/
Another application of the driverless car would be on trucks With this application, the truck can jus move by itself transferring stocks from one place to another place 1. More trucks can be used in transferring stuff increase productivity 2. As we all know truck drivers are usually working long hours and need to drive for long distance esp in HK Theres a news reporting that a truck driver at the container terminal who named Au Sau-ninis working 14 hours per day from 8am to 10pm. Working long hours causes drivers easily get fatigue and exhausted Introducing the driverless car, reduce the burden of the truck drivers, though there maybe some setbacks… Extending the application of the truck industry, actually it can also be widely applied in various industry For example, the taxi industry Somehow it is quite costly to own a car How about you can use the car when you really need it? Theres a possibility of creating a driverless car renting industry proiding car-sharing services and also entering the tai industry
http://cityminded.org/how-will-driverless-cars-affect-our-cities-6526 After dropping off passengers, driverless cars will independently seek parking (or their next car-share customers) As soon as driverless cars are common enough, the demand for adjacent parking will dwindle and parking lots in areas where land is sufficiently valuable will be ripe for conversion to other land use.
So in this picture, we see a kid sitting on the driver’s seat Maybe the heading is a bit misleading Its not about the kid can drive With the driverless car, we can imagine it acts as a driver And drive this kid from one point to one point Sometimes maybe the kids’ parents are not available to pick up the kids This car would then be a very useful tool to help the parents And we can say tht now with this driverless car everyone can drive!
Breakdown in middle of road – require a mechanic or computer/robotics specialist? If travelling to rural areas, no computer engineer/ google specialist… who to ask for repair?
Range: Imagine instructing your car in garage from your room in a typical US house; Imagine instructing your car not at your garage, but in the neighborhood, perhaps having just sent your kids to school Security: Encryption Imagine situation you drop your bluetooth device, cell phone (bluetooth situation) VS secure log-in, immediate shut down of access to network/servers (wifi situation) Interconnectivity: e.g. car manufacturer, autopilot service provider, police dept, transport dept
Google's Driverless Car Project
Google’s Driverless Car ProjectYIP, Chi Wai (Ray) (10414352)LEUNG, Hong Kiu (Kimmy) (10238057)YIU, Wing Hei (Adia) (10033500)KAM, Xin’er Elissa (10466850)CHIANG, Joan (10474223)ENGG1150Spring 2013
Google Driverless Car Project What? A project dedicated to development of driverless car technology When? Informally since 2005 From 2010, by a formal team of 15 engineers from Google Progress so far? Google currently lobbying for driverless car laws in more states in theUS Nevada as the 1ststate having passed such law in mid-2011(operation of driverless cars) Florida and California as the 2ndand 3rdstate in early and late 2012respectively (though limited to only testing purpose) First and only license issued in Nevada in early 2012 to a Google-owned, modified Prius
Seeing is believing…Google’s Driverless Car on TED by Sebastian Thrunhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7CyqfwStKZc2:30 – 2:42
Devices involvedLaser sensor on the roof(1.5 millionmeasurements persecond)Radar sensor in frontand rear bumpersGPSSettings of driving personalitiesSelf-learning Program HD camera looking out and inwardfrom the windshield
Map of the surroundingsNo blind spot – e.g. pedestrian emerged from betweentwo parked cars
Effective and efficient parking Use of sensor Measuring parking space available Determining if there is sufficient space Steering itself into the space In essence, automatic search for suitable parking spacewithin designated area, and then execution
6. Application in various industry Elimination of breaks in between Lessen the burden of the truckdriversTaxi industry??
7. Saving of parking space Independentlyseek parking Demand foradjacentparkingdecrease Conversion toother land uses
8. Transportation will no longer bea hindranceThe previously excluded-The disabled-The elderly-Even the kids
ChallengesCost IssueTotal cost: US$ 300,000includes:•Laser system - $ 70,000•Hi-tech Equipment - $ 150,000Estimated market of $ 2 Trillion in the US aloneOVERVALUED Market?Is it a US Opportunity?Or a GOOGLE Opportunity?Sources: Forbes.com
Challenges“Driverless car” still illegal in 50 statesBut progress to accepting these cars is happening…Nevada Department of Transportation: developing regulations todriverless cars with a goal for it to go mainstream
ChallengesImpacts on public transportindustryImpacts on Taxi/ Public transport industry
ChallengesEnvironmental IssuesMore Cars on the road..
Does the Innovation make theproduct more profitable? Short Term- Difficult to make this innovation profitable as thetechnology requires expensive sensors, computingpower and software.- Market is still small needs time to grow- Issue of economies of scale Long Term- Demand is higher. Automated driving means morepeople can use cars, and more cars can be fittedsafely on roads.More profitable because of cost saving- Cars don’t have to be as robust (Less accidents)- More time as passengers, so they are less aware ofhow well a car performs. (Manufacturers changefocus)
Use of Wifi (incl. 3G) technologyCritical criteria(in order ofsignificance)Wifi BluetoothRange 300 feet+ ~30 feetSecurity Higher(if configured properly)LowerInterconnectivitywith relevantstakeholdersHigher(server/network concept)Lower(device-to-device concept)Cost Higher(yet acceptable)LowerOverall Better Worse
SourcesNo Hands, No Feet: My Unnerving Ride In Googles Driverless Carhttp://www.forbes.com/sites/joannmuller/2013/03/21/no-hands-no-feet-my-unnerving-ride-in-goo/Google Cars Drive Themselves, in Traffichttp://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/10/science/10google.htmlFasten Your Seatbelts: Googles Driverless Car Is Worth Trillionshttp://www.forbes.com/sites/chunkamui/2013/01/22/fasten-your-seatbelts-googles-driverless-car/How Googles Self-Driving Car Workshttp://jalopnik.com/5851324/how-googles-self+driving-car-works
SourcesHow will driverless cars affect our cities?http://cityminded.org/how-will-driverless-cars-affect-our-cities-6526Look, no handshttp://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21576224-one-day-every-car-may-come-invisible-chauffeur-look-no-handsFasten Your Seatbelts: Googles Driverless Car Is Worth Trillionshttp://www.forbes.com/sites/chunkamui/2013/01/22/fasten-your-seatbelts-googles-driverless-car-is-worth-trillions/How Googles Self-Driving Car Workshttp://jalopnik.com/5851324/how-googles-self+driving-car-works