Good afternoon and thank you.Our nation’s highway network is vulnerable to disruption from a number of events including trafficincidents, planned special events, construction and weather events. These events often cause a loss in mobility and can significantly affect both public and responder safety. To mitigate the effects of these planned and unplanned events, and to ensure the safety of thetraveler and efficiency of the highway network, transportation and public safety professionals mustbe prepared to deal with these situations whenever they occur. Departments of transportation(DOTs), law enforcement, emergency management, fire and rescue, towing and recovery, and otheremergency responders, must recognize the importance of planning andpreparedness prior to an event as well as cooperation and communication during their response;have the resources and training necessary to manage any situation effectively; and commit toregular dialogue regarding their respective roles and best practices.
I will briefly talk about FHWA’s vision of the National Traffic Incident Program;Then provide the business case on why it’s extremely important to have a TIM program, followedBy the operational strategies presented by the NUG, an overview of the TIM process and end with some information on the Strategic Highway Research Program’s national TIM training.
Let’s start with a common definition of TIM –It’s a multi-discipline approach to detect, respond and clear traffic incidents in a safe and quick manner. The over-arching theme for TIM improving the safety of motorists, crash victims and all responders.
Through continuous and enhanced planning and training our vision is to:Help Reduce or eliminate injuries and fatalitiesPromote efficient and quick incident clearanceHelp Develop local TIM Programs that benefit states, corridors and regions and statesRaise local TIM programs as a core mission” for transportation and responder agenciesMeasure performance that demonstrates improved TIM responses and programsStandardize Training throughout the country
As transportation agencies, we share a common mission – to provide a safe and reliable Surface Transportation System Traffic crashes & incidents present a tremendous hazard for motorist – we lose an average of 4 people die every hour on our roads.
Responder Safety – a collaborative, multi-discipline TIM program will help lower the annual number of responders struck and killed nationally while working in or near moving trafficWe lose about 100 Transportation/Highway professionals every year and about 20,000 are injured- it’s our business mission in Reducing incident clearance times and helping improve first responder safety.
Crashes due to previous traffic incidents — orsecondary crashes—not only impact highway safety, they also have the potential to create an avalanche of further incidents and additional crashes. It is Estimated that 20-25% of all Incidents are secondary The odds of an incident lasting 35 minutes or more has almost a 100% likelihood of a secondary incident occurringOften secondary incidents are more severe than the primary incident a comprehensive TIM plan involving all stakeholders, including transportation, law enforcement, firefighters, emergency medical personnel, and towing first responders can limit the impact of secondary incidents
The societal impact can be upwards of $6 million per fatality. And Traffic crashes cost nearly 300 billion annually –
So how much does an incident like this cost?Towing – about $10 grandAmbulance - $4-5 thousandClean-up bout 6-7 grandState police – little bit over 4 grandTransportation – approx 13 thousandVehicle damage – upwards of 30 grandLoss by the trucking company – near 80 thousandLocal police – under a grandPossibly an emergency airlift would run about 5 thousandAll-in-all you’re looking at a bit over $150 thousand
Another aspect to consider is the impact on freight movement - Research has demonstrated that traffic crashes are closely related to increased traffic volumes which can limit freight movement and significantly decrease highway safety. The overall economic impact and public expense incurred responding to, processing, and investigating traffic crashes could significantly slow economic recovery and growth.
This graphic shows daily truck volumes back in 2009.The I-80 corridor in this area was running about 14,000 trucks back then. According to FHWA’s Freight Analysis Framework, the U.S. transportation system handled the movement of 44 million tons of freight (on average), worth $40 billion, each day back in 2009.
Surface freight movement and volume undoubtedly will increase in the future; projections indicate that daily truck volumes in another 30 years will nearly double
To help address all of these challenges, the NUG or National Unified Goal --- a national policy to help agencies get more involved with incidents and to adopt unified, multi-disciplinary policies, procedures and practices that will help improve the way traffic incidents are managed on our highways was developedThe NUG addresses three major themes or objectives: safety for all responders; safe, quick clearance; and prompt, reliable incident communications.Along with 18 strategies ---- 12 Core Strategies And 6 Cross-Cutting Foundational Strategies
the Core strategiesFor Responder Safety the core strategies include:Recommended Practices Move Over / Slow Down Laws;And Driver Training and Awareness. For Safe, Quick Clearance – strategies include:Promoting Multidisciplinary TIM Procedures;Response and Clearance TimeGoals; and24 / 7 Availability
Effective communications, information management and information sharing are critical aspects of traffic incident management. Whenever a number of people are gathered as the result of a traffic incident, the need to disseminate clear information and instructions to both the responders and the general public as quickly as possible is essential. Wyoming’s (ITS) Intelligent Transportation Systems infrastructure offer an excellent opportunity for state and local transportation agencies to provide real-time traveler information to their counterparts located at the emergency operations centers.
The 6 Cross-Cutting “Foundation” Strategies include establishing State & Regional partnerships & programs; TIM is a Team EffortIncident response involves response from multiple responders from a variety of organizations each with a specific role and responsibility at an incident scene. For traffic incident management to be effective it is important that all of these agencies work collaboratively, have common goalsGoals for Performance Measures & ProgressTIM ProgramsShare ITS resources and TIM TechnologiesEstablish Effective TIM PoliciesAnd have a continued training program promoting Awareness & Education
What the Traffic Incident Management process? The TIM process involves coordinating the resources of a number of different partner agencies and private sector companies to detect, respond to, and clear traffic incidents as quickly as possible to reduce the impacts of incidents on safety and congestion, while protecting the safety of on-scene responders and the traveling public.
Detection & Verification is the process that brings the incident to the attention of all responders.Incident victims are obviously the most vulnerableTraffic flow most disrupted and unpredictable Quick & accurate detection and verification is critical
Detection and verification:Automatic crash notification systems use on-board sensors to detect evidence of a collision. When the vehicle’s sensors detect a crash, the vehicle automatically communicates with a call center and transmits information on the vehicle’s location.Field verification by on-site responders and closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras to support confirmation of incident occurrence and enhance the assessment of incident needs and the subsequent dispatch of appropriate personnel and resources to the scene.Frequent or enhanced roadway reference markers and enhanced 9-1-1/automated positioning systems to support accurate identification of incident location by motorists or response personnel.5-1-1 systems, traveler information websites, and media partnerships to enhance the provision of traveler information to motorists who are primarily off-site in an effort to reduce traffic demand at the incident scene.
Response:Personnel, equipment resource lists and Vehicle Identification Guide to support the dispatch of appropriate resources to the incident scene.Instant tow dispatch procedures and towing and recovery zone-based contracts to speed response to the incident scene by towing and recovery personnel through expedited dispatch and reduced travel distances.Equipment staging areas and pre-positioned equipment to enhance availability of and reduce wait time for specialty equipment that may be slow to mobilize and to improve access to and speed deployment of supporting equipment, such as traffic control devices.Enhanced computer-aided dispatch (E-CAD), dual or optimized dispatch procedures, and motorcycle patrols to speed response to the incident scene by public safety personnel through reduced travel distances and increased maneuverability in congested conditions.
Site management and traffic control:The Incident Command System (ICS) is used for consistent on-scene authority and provide a unified command structure for decision making.Response vehicle parking plans are recommended to enhance on-scene maneuverability.High-visibility safety apparel and vehicle markings, on-scene emergency lighting procedures, and safe, quick clearance Move Over laws that require motorists approaching an incident to reduce speed and/or change lanes to enhance responder safety at the scene.High-visibility safety apparel worn by incident responders
The Incident Command System (ICS) is the systematic tool for the command, control, and coordination of an emergency response. ICS encourages agencies to work together using common terminology and operating procedures for controlling personnel, facilities, equipment, and communications at an incident scene.
Quick clearance and removal is a critical element of a successful TIM program which helps expedite the clearance of abandoned vehicles from the roadway right-of-way and minimize the risk for abandoned-vehicle-involved secondary incidents.Wyoming does have a “Move-over-law” which helps facilitate quick clearance and removal.Specialized equipment such as vehicle-mounted push bumpers, to speed the clearance of minor incidents also helpsMajor incident response teams to speed the clearance of major incidents through a high level of familiarity among the various team members and their authority to mobilize the necessary personnel and equipment to respond.Quick clearance techniques are designed to improve safety for drivers and responders alike; get traffic moving more rapidly; and reduce secondary accidents, which generate 18 percent of fatalities.
You’ve all heard the saying that what gets measured gets performed. Executive outreach helps ensure that the effectiveness of TIM programs is adequately demonstrated to decision makers and that TIM programs subsequently receive adequate attention in prioritization of projects for funding.
The top 3 performance measures some states are gathering include:“Roadway” Clearance Time -- the time between 1st notification and all lanes are open to traffic.“Incident” Clearance Time -- the time between the1st awareness and when the last responder has left the scene.andSecondary Crashes --the number of secondary crashes after the primary incident occurs
Here are examples of some of the parameters noted in a performance report along with example performance targets used thru-out the country.Measurable objectives of incident management can include:Reducing the time for incident detection and verification Reducing response time (the time for response personnel and equipment to arrive at the scene) Exercising proper and safe on-scene management of personnel and equipment, while keeping as many lanes open to traffic as possibleReducing clearance time (the time required for the incident to be removed from the roadway) andProviding timely, accurate information to the public that enables them to make informed choices
The towing industry is a key component on the roadway when it comes to incidents. Over the past ten years there has been made great strides in accepting and acknowledging them as a roadway partner. There are many tow training organizations out there now across the country that includes Incident Management as part of their program. They are the only public/private sector that comes to an incident. I encourage Wyoming DOT each of you to include towers in your training and welcome them to be part of the Incident Command process, The Wyoming Highway Patrol does not have a policy that requires tow companies to respond within 90 minutes of an incident/crash. I touched base with your State Police and they indicated that with Wyoming being mostly rural,and given certain circumstances such as wreckers out of position, during snow storms when towing services are in high demand, etc.), there may be times that their response times exceed 90 minutes.Just a thought, but Wyoming might consider some form of Towing and recovery quick clearance incentives to speed the clearance of major incidents.
Application of traffic control measures at an incident site and other affected facilities including alternate & detour routes to effectively reduce excess delay.Effective traffic control through on-site traffic management and advance warning systems can reduce the occurrence of secondary incidents.Basically want to avoid unnecessary delay and secondary incidents
Real-time, accurate traveler information is key to managing an incidentSome of the Key Functions that your TMC is doingMonitoring and control of roadside ITS devices such as web cameras and road weather information systems; Serving as a law enforcement communications hub for state and federal agencies; and Managing communication with the traveling public via the 511 Travel Information Service and direct contact with media outlets, visitor centers, and truck stops.
I understand that After-action reports are done here in Wyoming formajor crashes. And they are on a case by case basis and usually only multi-car crashes. If they identify gaps such as in communications, those challenges should be noted and addressed.An obligation by all is needed in the implementation of a working TIM program.
Some of the common information to be included within a typical Incident After-action review/Debriefing shouldReview basic details of incident, using pictures and/or videoA Roundtable discussion with opportunity for the various agencies to share their perspectives Discuss issues and Identify potential solutionsIt goes without saying, but finger pointing is always counter-productive.And try to identify at least one action item to walk-away withFormalize the process for and regularly conduct After-Action Reviews (AARs)Consider assigning the responsibility of conducting AARs to a position (rather than a person) to ensure continuity
Some of the major goals in developing a TIM Program is to achieve a more efficient response and effective resource management.encourage participation from all responding agencies and stakeholders (i.e. TIM Committee) - “get folks to the table”Establish and maintain relationshipsCollectively assess Where are we now?Collectively establish goals for performance and progress
Establish, confirm, reinforce goals/objectivesConsider a vision or mission development activity and subsequent “charter” or “MOU” signed by all participantsIdentify, discuss problem areas, needs Collaborate in developing solutions, strategiesConduct after-action reviews, debriefsPromote awareness of on-going TIM-related activities and initiativesMonitor training requirementsEstablish, reinforce and renew relationships
the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) Authorized by Congress to address some of the most pressing needs related to the nation’s highway systemAdministered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) :Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)The emphasis of Tier 1 training is response activities and thus targets incident responders. Tier 1 reviews on-scene activities such as detection/verification, response, site management, clearance/removal, and traffic management with a focus on responder safety. Only a team effort through a comprehensive TIM program will allow major freeway systems to remain safe and effective.
Quick clearance techniques are designed to improve safety for drivers and responders alike; get traffic moving more rapidly; and reduce secondary accidents, which generate 18 percent of fatalities.The Training bringsall TIM players to the table to provide a tool to all stakeholders….everyone has a role and can benefit by working together
Train the Trainer: After completing the TtT course participants will be equipped to provide the training to a larger audience of incident responders in their discipline. Classroom Training: Allows trainers to reach a broader audience of incident responders locally across a region or state
I’d like to close my presentation with a pitch for our Peer to peer program and as a quick read the Best Practices in TIM summary.Here is my contact info – please contact me if I can be of any assistance. This presentation is available at the following link:Thank you
Wydot tim 3 26-13 by ray murphy
Traffic Incident Management Wyoming DOT Supervisors Meeting Cheyenne, WY Ray Murphy, US DOT – FHWA March 26, 20131
Presentation Topics I. National TIM Program… FHWA’s vision II. Business Case for TIM… why it’s important III. National Unified Goal… working together IV. TIM Process… it’s a team effort V. SHRP2 TIM Training 2
Traffic Incident Management (TIM) TIM consists of a planned and coordinated multi-disciplinary process to detect, respond to, and clear traffic incidents so that traffic flow may be restored as safely and quickly as possible Effective TIM reduces the duration and impacts of traffic incidents and improves the safety of motorists, crash victims and emergency responders 3
National TIM Program Vision… Reduce or eliminate responder & motorist injuries & fatalities Promote rapid incident clearance TIM Programs that benefit corridors, regions and states Emphasize TIM as a system operations “core mission” Measure performance / improved TIM responses and programs Standardize Training 4
II. Business Case for TIM Quantifying the Problem - Motorist Safety Every hour, car crashes kill an average of four people on Americas roads. “Traffic crashes really need to be moved to the forefront of the American discussion as the public safety (and) health threat that they are," observes AAA . 5 Evolving Business Case: Why TIM?
Quantifying the Problem - Responder Safety Average annual number of responders struck and killed nationally while working in or near moving traffic: Highway: 100 /year + 20,000 injured Fire/Rescue & EMS: 6 to 8 /year As of March 2013 Killed in the Line of Duty Law Enforcement: 10 to 12 /year Law Enforcement 14 Tow/Recovery: 50 /year Fire Fighters 6 EMS 7Source: Emergency Responder Safety Institute Tow/Recovery 5 6 Evolving Business Case: Why TIM?
Quantifying the Problem -Secondary Incidents Estimated 20-25% of all incidents are secondary They generate ~18 percent of accident fatalities The likelihood of a secondary incident increases ~3% for every minute An incident lasting 35 minutes or more has almost a 100% likelihood of a secondary incident occurring7 Evolving Business Case: Why TIM?
Quantifying the Problem - Societal Costs “The emotional toll for Americans who lose a friend or loved one in a motor vehicle crash has a steep financial counterpart - an average $6 million per fatal accident” Annual cost of traffic crashes: $299.5 B Cost per person ≈ $1,522 8 Evolving Business Case: Why TIM?
Quantifying the Problem -Responder Costs Courtesy of the Washington DOT9
Quantifying the Problem - Freight Issues High volume long haul trucking Lack of alternate route options Motor Carrier Regulations – 11 hours behind wheel Parking and rest areas 10 Evolving Business Case: Why TIM?
Average Daily Long-Haul Freight Truck Traffic on theNational Highway System: 2009 2009 ~14,000 per day ~25,000 per dayOur highway systemhandled the movement of44 million tons of freight (onaverage), worth $40 billion,each day in 2009. 11 Evolving Business Case: Why TIM?
Projected Average Daily Long-Haul Freight TruckTraffic on the National Highway System: 2040 2040 ~20,000 per day ~40,000 per day projections indicate that these numbers will climb to approximately 74 million tons and $108 billion per day by the year 204012 Evolving Business Case: Why TIM?
III. NUG Strategies 12 Core StrategiesObjective 1: Responder Safety1. Recommended Practices for Responder Safety2. Move Over/Slow Down Laws3. Driver Training and AwarenessObjective 2: Safe, Quick Clearance4. Multidisciplinary TIM Procedures5. Response and Clearance Time Goals6. 24/7 Availability 14
12 CoreIII. NUG Strategies StrategiesObjective 3: Prompt, Reliable, Interoperable Communications7. Multidisciplinary Communications Practices and Procedures8. Prompt, Reliable Responder Notification9. Interoperable Voice and Data Networks10. Broadband Emergency Communications Systems11. Prompt, Reliable Traveler Information Systems12. Partnerships with News Media and Information Providers 15
6 Cross-Cutting StrategiesIII. NUG Strategies6 Cross-Cutting Foundational Strategies:13. TIM Partnerships and Programs14. Multidisciplinary NIMS and TIM Training15. Goals for Performance and Progress16. TIM Technology17. Effective TIM Policies18. Awareness and Education Partnerships 16
IV. The TIM Process Detection Verification Detection & Verification Response Response Traffic Site Management Traveler Site Management Management Information Clearance/RemovalClearance / Removal Traffic Management Traveler Information After-Action Review / Debrief After-Action Review/Debrief 17
Detection and Verification The process that brings the incident to the attention of responders Incident victims most vulnerable Traffic flow most disrupted and unpredictable Quick, accurate detection / verification is critical 18
Strategies and/or EnhancementsDetection and Verification Mayday and Automated Crash Notification(ACN) systems Data Trauma Response CCTV surveillance Accident Site Fire/Rescue in high-crash locations I 80/US 189 Interchange – MM 18 Enhanced reference markers 911 and 511 systems 19
Strategies and/or EnhancementsResponse Deployment of: Requires appropriate understanding of the personnel, incident’s nature, equipment, scope and what it will take to clear and communications, restore to normal traffic management, operating conditions. traveler information “Ready Response” Trailers Emergency Response Call-Out Pre-positioned TIM Equipment Staging Policies Enhanced Public Safety Dispatch/CAD 20 Linkages
Strategies and/or EnhancementsSite Management The process of accurately assessing the incident, establishing priorities, coordinating and communicating with responders Incident Command System Vehicle Markings … provides structure Lighting Policies High Visibility Apparel ANSI/ISEA 107-2004 Performance Class 2 or 3 ANSI/ISEA 207-2006 Public Safety Vests 21 http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/
Incident Command System (ICS) ICS is a subset of the Department of Homeland Security’s National Incident Management System (NIMS). Unified Command Utilized when incidents require multijurisdictional or multiagency response Allows all agencies to: Work together respecting authority, responsibility or accountability Manage an incident together by establishing a common set of incident objectives and strategies 22
Clearance / Removal Restoration of capacity May require specialized equipment Often most critical step due to length of time Quick clearance and removal Wyoming “Move-Over Law” Statute: § 31-5-22423 common clearance goals
Measuring SuccessWhat Gets Measured Gets Performed... Quantifying TIM benefits will advance program continuity: Builds program support from managers & elected officials: • Supporting what works Ensures buy-in from diverse stakeholders: • Multiple agencies, coordinated responseNewly Released Supports allocationCost technical and budget resources “Traffic Incident Management of Management and Cost Recovery Primer” http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop12044/fhwahop12044.pdf 24
TIM Performance Measures“Roadway” Clearance Time The time between first recordable awareness of an incident (detection/ notification/verification) and confirmation that all lanes are available for traffic flow.“Incident” Clearance Time The time between the first recordable awareness and the time at which the last responder has left the scene.Secondary Crashes The number of secondary crashes beginning with the time of detection of the primary incident where a collision occurs 25
Performance Measure ReportingExample PerformanceMeasures Report Example Performance TMC Verification Time Targets… Roadway Clearance Incidents involving a Time fatality - 90 minutes Incident Clearance Time Incidents involving an Road Ranger Responses injury - 60 minutes Benefit Cost Analysis Incidents involving Travel Reliability property damage only - Travel Time Index 30 minutes Secondary Crashes 26
Towing and Recovery towing industry is a key component accepting and acknowledging them as a roadway partner encourage that you include them in your trainings The Wyoming Highway Patrol does not have a 90 minute policy 27
Strategies and/or Enhancements Traffic Management Traffic Control Standard Operating Guidelines and Training Emergency Alternate Route/Detour Planning Pre-Identified Decision Points Pre-positioned TIM Equipment Ramp Closure Gates/Barricades avoid unnecessary delay and secondary incidents 28
Strategies and/or EnhancementsTraveler Information Real-time, accurate traveler information is key to managing an incident Road Weather Information System 511 Media Partnerships Technology at Rest Areas 29
After-Action Review (AAR) / Debrief A function of an on-going TIM Program (not at the incident scene) Helps ensure success Facilitates inter-agency relationships Evaluation What went well? What went not so well? How can we do better? 30
AAR / DebriefingsTypical Incident AAR/Debrief Incident Debrief Info Review basic details of incident Incident location Utilize pictures and/or video to illustrate Incident duration incident scene Brief description Roundtable discussion/agency Timeline of events perspectives Road closures/alternate Discuss issues and/or areas of concern routes used Identify solutions/enhancements List of responding agencies No finger pointing! Best practices Opportunities for Identify at least one action item per improvement AAR/Debrief 31
Developing a TIM Program The goal of a TIM program Identify, involve, encourage is not to create a response, participation from all responding but rather to allow for a agencies and stakeholders more effective, efficient (i.e. TIM Committee) response for all responding Establish & maintain relationships agencies Collectively assess the “climate” TIM programs and - Where are we now? associated committees Collectively establish goals for and/or task forces are performance and progress - Where do we want/need to go? sustained and on-going 32
TIM Program… Committees Meet regularly to: Establish, confirm, reinforce goals/objectives Consider a vision or mission development activity and subsequent “charter” or “MOU” signed by all participants Identify, discuss problem areas, needs Collaborate in developing solutions, strategies Conduct after-action reviews, debriefs Promote awareness of on-going TIM-related activities and initiatives Monitor training requirements Establish, reinforce and renew relationships 33
National Traffic Incident Management Responder TrainingThe emphasis of Tier 1 training is response activities andthus targets incident responders. 34
National Traffic Incident ManagementResponder Course Audience: Objectives of Program: • Law Enforcement officers Quick Clearance • Fire and Rescue personnel Improved responder safety • Transportation Professionals Improved reliability • Public works Improved motorist safety • Emergency medical services • Towing and recovery • Hazmat responders Approach: • Coroners/medical examiner Core competencies All disciplines participated every step Development of multi-disciplinary training program for all responder stakeholders Cross-training in TIM core competencies 35
In-Person DeliveryTrain the Trainer:Multi-discipline full curriculumdeveloped in SHRP2 L12 project.Classroom Training:Multi-discipline trainers trainedthrough the TtT courses will conductclassroom-based training.Bringing the Paul Jodoin, TIM Program Manager Training to Wyoming FHWA Office of Operations please (202) 366-5465 contact: Paul.Jodoin@dot.gov 36
Thank you! Any questions?FHWA Technical Assistance Programthat provides public sectortransportation stakeholders to tap intothe growing TIM knowledge base.http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/eto_tim_pse/p2p/index.htm Ray Murphy, FHWA Office of Technical Services firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/ fhwahop10050x/fhwahop10050x.pdfThis 37 presentation: