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- 1. Subject: Mathematics Topic: Addition of Similar Fractions Grade Level: Grade Two Prerequisite Skills: Basic operations, Distinguishing fractions, Expressing fractions in lowest terms Duration: 120 - 180 minutes / two class meetings Materials: ● different colors of crayons ● pencils ● pens ● pizza illustrations ● handouts for the activities References: Kennedy, Leonard. (2004). Mathematics. USA: Thomson Wardsworth. Objectives: By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to: ● Define and understand similar fractions. ● Identify the characteristics/features of similar fractions. ● Determine and/or distinguish similar fractions. ● Add similar fractions through visual representations ● Add similar fractions through numerical representations ● Solve word problems involving similar fractions. ● Apply the concept of adding similar fractions to daily and practical life. ● Appreciate the value of fractions in their application in practical life. ● Show that they are able to share their blessing however small or minimal it may be. II. Lesson Proper Activity #1 (Review) Express these fractions in their lowest terms and box your final answer: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
- 2. Motivational Activity. Show the students a set of crayons, a set of pencils, and a set of pens. Get a number of crayons from the set and ask them to represent this number in fractions. Do the same with the other sets. Then, get two crayons and two pencils. Ask the student this: “If I add two crayons to this set of pencils, do I get four crayons? (No) How about four pencils? (No) Why? (Unlike objects).” Stress the difference between the two objects. This will give you a launching point for your lesson introduction. Discussion. First, let the children identify and name the parts of the fractions (numerator, denominator). You could use the fractions presented on the first activity as examples. You could also draw visual representations (like pizza slices) of these fractions to show the children to prove your point further. Use different colored pens for the numerator and the denominator to stress the difference between the numerator and the denominator. Stress the fact that only like denominators can be added, so they have to find the lowest terms of the two denominators before they can add. Give an example. Point out to the students that they should recall and apply the previous lesson about reducing numbers to the lowest terms in this particular task. After the numbers in the denominator have been reduced and are already the same, the child can now add the numerator like whole numbers. The teacher will show four more examples after this discussion to prove her point: two examples of fractions with like denominators and two fractions with unlike denominators. Activity #2 (Practice) Write this on the board and let the children solve. Add these fractions and express them in lowest term. BOX your final answer. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Synthesis. Numerators and the Denominators are different parts of the fractions. When adding, denominators should be the first thing that the student should look at because only fractions with like denominators can be added. If the denominator is not the same, then reduce to the lowest terms so that they can be alike. Afterwards, add the numerator like whole numbers.
- 3. Discussion (Word Problem Solving). After the students, have mastered the adding of similar fractions, present them with word problems. Review the step-by-step process of solving word problems by asking the students what they are -- allow them to enumerate and name these parts. (Usually presented in question forms for Primary Grade students -- What is asked? What is/are the given? What is/are the operation(s) to be used? Showing the solution. And finally, determining the final answer.) Present a word problem on the board: Mother brought home a box of pepperoni pizza one night. It was sliced into 12 parts. Kuya ate three slices. While father ate another three. What part of the pizza did they ate together? Then, ask the children the answers to the step-by-step solutions they have come up with earlier. What is asked? The part of the pizza that Kuya and father ate. What are the given? A pizza (12 slices), The 3 slices that Kuya ate. The 3 slices that father ate. What operation is to be used? Addition Solution: ● Express the given into fraction form => the part of the pizza which Kuya ate. => the part of the pizza which father ate. ● Add the two parts which they ate to come up with the answer Final answer: They ate or of the pizza together. If the use of illustrations are deemed necessary, show the problem first through illustrations/ models. Proceed with the step-by-step process afterwards. Also, you could ask the students to draw it by themselves to show understanding of the topic. Synthesis. Discuss (or reiterate) the importance of following the step-by-step process. Word problems are easy to solve as long as they follow the step-by-step process. This would help them as students to identify the important and relevant parts of the problem. Also, it would enable them to identify what operations are to be used. Thus, enabling them to come up with the right answers or solutions.
- 4. III. Evaluation A. Class Activity (The boat is sinking...) 1. Ask the children how many they are in the class. Make sure that every children know the class population. 2. Explain the rules of the game. a. Teacher will say a number and students would group themselves accordingly to that number. 3. Say, “The boat is sinking! Group yourselves into (number)!” 4. If there were children who weren’t able to form the required number for group, ask them to identify which part of the class they are. [(excess)/(class population)] 5. Ask one group to identify which part of the class they are. Say they have grouped themselves into six, they are 6/(class population). 6. Ask the children who weren’t able to meet the desired number of members this: “If you are to get together with the one complete group (group of children who were able to group themselves accordingly), what part of the class would you be together?” 7. After doing so, let the excess students sit. 8. Repeat these steps until few students remain or if you have determined winners. B. Individual Activity Quiz. See attached worksheet Prepared by: Abasolo, Krizza Flores, Ma. Daniella Louise Guillermo, Steffani Kim Margallo, Raymund Pingol, Katrisha Faye
- 5. Quiz # ____ Name: ________________________________ Date: __________________ Part I Instructions: Identify which part of the illustration is shaded. Express this in fraction form. Add. Show the answer by shading in the equivalent part of the illustration provided and by showing it in fraction form. The first one is done for you. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
- 6. Part II Instructions: Add the fractions below. Express the answer in their lowest terms. The first problem is already done for you. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part III Instructions: Solve the problem below. Show your solution. Anna loves working with beads. She has a total of 20 beads -- eight are colored black, four are blue, six are white, and two are red. Which part of the total beads are: a. black and white beads together? b. blue and red beads together? c. white and blue beads together?

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