Lean Instructional Design  TM   For Today’s Competitive Environment DocTrain East - October 2008 Ray Magnan  M.Ed. Educati...
Agenda <ul><li>Examine the challenges of training in today’s competitive business environment.  </li></ul><ul><li>Brief di...
Background: Ray Magnan <ul><li>Design education solutions for software, insurance, and banking industries. </li></ul><ul><...
And You Are? <ul><li>Involved with training? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part time <...
Challenges of Training in Today’s Competitive Business Environment
Challenges <ul><li>In today’s competitive business environment, training professionals are under constant pressure to deli...
The Past <ul><li>Traditionally, training departments were often separate from their organization’s day-to-day business.  <...
The Distant Past <ul><li>Nuremberg Funnel  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humorous description of a mechanical way of learning and ...
The Present: Increased Efficiency <ul><li>Distance education was a step in the right direction.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red...
The Future <ul><li>Besides efficiently delivering training, today’s training departments must be tightly aligned and integ...
When Projects Go Bad <ul><li>Example 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive needs analysis conducted to determine the need for int...
When Projects Go Bad <ul><li>Example 2:  </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Web-Based Training Center </li></ul><ul><li>Included o...
When Projects Go Bad <ul><li>Common Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Unrealistic goals or expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Lack o...
Approaches to  Process Improvement <ul><li>William Deming - Early Innovator </li></ul><ul><li>Six Sigma  </li></ul><ul><li...
Deming: Early Innovator <ul><li>William Edwards Deming (1900 - 1993)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely credited with improving...
Deming: Key Points <ul><li>“ By adopting appropriate principles of management, organizations can increase quality and simu...
Six Sigma - History <ul><li>Business management strategy, originally developed by Motorola around 1986.  </li></ul><ul><li...
Six Sigma - Origins of Name <ul><li>Sigma (the lower-case Greek letter σ) is used to represent the standard deviation (a m...
Six Sigma - Key Elements <ul><li>Uses quality management methods, including statistics. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a specia...
Six Sigma Assertions:  <ul><li>Continuous efforts to achieve stable and predictable process results (i.e. reduce process v...
Lean Production <ul><li>Lean manufacturing or lean production is often known simply as Lean. </li></ul><ul><li>Considers t...
Lean Production - TPS <ul><li>Main goals of Toyota Production System (TPS)  are to eliminate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overbu...
Lean Six Sigma <ul><li>Combines elements of Six Sigma and Lean Production </li></ul><ul><li>Core concepts: </li></ul><ul><...
Lean Six Sigma: Key Themes <ul><li>A process that makes a lot of errors cannot keep up its speed.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S...
Lean Six Sigma - Emphasis On: <ul><li>Documenting how work gets done </li></ul><ul><li>Examining the flow of work </li></u...
Lean  Instructional Design  TM
Central Themes of Lean ID <ul><li>Unnecessary complexity adds cost, time, and waste.  </li></ul><ul><li>Only customers can...
Skills Needed for Lean ID <ul><li>Instructional Design Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education courses, certificate program...
Applying  Lean Instructional Design  TM   to the ADDIE Model
What is ADDIE? <ul><li>Widely used methodology for developing new training programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: Flexibl...
Classic ADDIE Model <ul><li>Phases </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul>...
Enhanced ADDIE Model <ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create project char...
Roles <ul><li>Project stakeholders  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with a stake in the success of the project </li></ul></ul>...
Analysis A DDIE
Training Request <ul><li>Request from senior management or other departments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New product </li></ul>...
Business Analysis <ul><li>Does this require training?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there other alternatives?  </li></ul></ul...
Analysis: Info Resources  <ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matter experts (SMEs) </li></ul><ul><li>Product m...
Needs Assessment <ul><li>Interview cross-section of target audiences and management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they nee...
Audience Analysis <ul><li>Who are the audiences for the training? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of audience. Location. </li><...
Media Analysis <ul><li>Which delivery methods should you use? </li></ul><ul><li>What technology is available?  </li></ul><...
Media Analysis <ul><li>Budget considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider time, money, personnel, other resources. </li>...
Media Analysis <ul><li>Sample Alternatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor led training: Classroom or distance education...
Results of Analysis <ul><li>Create an initial proposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize your analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Project Charter (Proposal) <ul><li>Defines scope of project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate feedback from initial analys...
Design A D DIE
Design Phase <ul><li>Using information from the analysis phase:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline modules and lessons. </li><...
User Interface <ul><li>Goal is consistent U.I. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks more professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ea...
Prototype <ul><li>Very useful to create a prototype or pilot  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially if using new technology </l...
Development  AD D IE Development
Project Plan <ul><li>Use project planning methodology for large scale projects. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep on track with m...
Content Production <ul><li>Incorporate feedback from prototype </li></ul><ul><li>Create the module and lesson content for ...
Assessments <ul><li>Develop assessments that tie into the learning objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Could include:  </li></ul...
Review <ul><li>Subject Matter Expert (SME) Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completeness and accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Development/Review Process <ul><li>Alternatives when using complex ID technology </li></ul>1. 2. Subject Matter Expert Ins...
Implementation ADD I E
Implementation Phase <ul><li>Produce Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Announce availability of training </li></ul><ul><li>Targe...
Evaluation ADDI E
Why Evaluate Training? <ul><li>Ensure that training is effective.  </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Levels of Evaluation <ul><li>Donald Kirkpatrick: 4 Levels of evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Level 1 - Reaction/Satisfaction:...
Level 1: Did They Like It? <ul><li>AKA Smile Sheets. Questions about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall Course:  </li></ul></u...
Level 2 - Did they learn it? <ul><li>Option:  </li></ul><ul><li>Learner self-assessments  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess the...
Level 2 - Did they learn it? <ul><li>Option:  </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations or final project...
Level 2 - Suggested Strategy <ul><li>Pre-assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure baseline knowledge. Do not report scores...
Level 3 and 4 <ul><li>Level 3 – Were they able to apply it to their job? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to measure.  ...
Time Tracking
Time Tracking <ul><li>Track  the time that is spent on each aspect of the project: ADDIE </li></ul><ul><li>Use for cost/be...
Questions?
 
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  • Ray Magnan - Lean Instructional Design

    1. 1. Lean Instructional Design TM For Today’s Competitive Environment DocTrain East - October 2008 Ray Magnan M.Ed. Education Technology Consultant [email_address] http://www.linkedin.com/
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Examine the challenges of training in today’s competitive business environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Brief discussion of various approaches to business improvement such as Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on a systematic approach to training program development using Lean Instructional Design TM principles and the ADDIE model. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Background: Ray Magnan <ul><li>Design education solutions for software, insurance, and banking industries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily distance education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor-led, self-paced, or blended. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based learning portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structured training paths with links to a full range of additional resources. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. And You Are? <ul><li>Involved with training? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not currently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthcare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotel/Restaurant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software/Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance/Banking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Challenges of Training in Today’s Competitive Business Environment
    6. 6. Challenges <ul><li>In today’s competitive business environment, training professionals are under constant pressure to deliver more of the right training in less time with fewer resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Key challenges include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reductions in corporate resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to attract and retain talented people </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. The Past <ul><li>Traditionally, training departments were often separate from their organization’s day-to-day business. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-day live classroom training was the primary approach. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive from a dollars and resource perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to schedule because of travel arrangements and other work commitments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management frequently viewed training as necessary but costly. </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Distant Past <ul><li>Nuremberg Funnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humorous description of a mechanical way of learning and teaching. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evokes images of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A student learning his lessons almost without effort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A educator teaching everything to even the &quot;stupidest&quot; pupil. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. The Present: Increased Efficiency <ul><li>Distance education was a step in the right direction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced travel costs and scheduling issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other initiatives such as web-based training, mentoring, blended learning, and just-in-time learning are also beneficial. </li></ul><ul><li>However, this is like picking the low-hanging fruit on a tree. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional savings and improvements require more innovative approaches. </li></ul>
    10. 10. The Future <ul><li>Besides efficiently delivering training, today’s training departments must be tightly aligned and integrated with their organization’s business goals and needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Common goal is to drive higher performance and create strong business results by improving employee performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Lean Instructional Design TM is an improvement process designed to help organizations meet their goals and their customers’ needs. </li></ul>
    11. 11. When Projects Go Bad <ul><li>Example 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive needs analysis conducted to determine the need for internal training on the company’s complex technical products. </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous interviews and focus groups held to outline need. </li></ul><ul><li>Created detailed proposal listing over 20 needed courses. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: No courses were created because of resource issues. </li></ul>
    12. 12. When Projects Go Bad <ul><li>Example 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Web-Based Training Center </li></ul><ul><li>Included only high-level information about all products. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not meet student’s need for more detailed information. </li></ul><ul><li>Overly rigid structure resulted in many pages being flagged as “under construction” </li></ul>
    13. 13. When Projects Go Bad <ul><li>Common Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Unrealistic goals or expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of buy-in from all participants </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of focus on customers’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of focus on business needs </li></ul><ul><li>Too much time/resources spent on issues that were not important to the customer. </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate use of educational technology. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Approaches to Process Improvement <ul><li>William Deming - Early Innovator </li></ul><ul><li>Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Lean Production </li></ul><ul><li>Lean Six Sigma </li></ul>
    15. 15. Deming: Early Innovator <ul><li>William Edwards Deming (1900 - 1993) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely credited with improving production in the US during World War II. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best known for his work in Japan from 1950 on. Focus on improvements in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant contribution to Japan's reputation for innovative high-quality products. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although considered a hero in Japan, only began to win widespread recognition in the U.S. at the time of his death. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Deming: Key Points <ul><li>“ By adopting appropriate principles of management, organizations can increase quality and simultaneously reduce costs (by reducing waste, rework, staff attrition and litigation while increasing customer loyalty). The key is to practice continual improvement and think of manufacturing as a system, not as bits and pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>His 85/15 rule stated that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85% of problems were built into the way work was done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 15% was the fault of individual employees. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Six Sigma - History <ul><li>Business management strategy, originally developed by Motorola around 1986. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by previous quality improvement methodologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Other early adopters include Honeywell and General Electric. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally developed to improve manufacturing processes and eliminate defects and errors. </li></ul><ul><li>Later extended to other types of business processes. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Six Sigma - Origins of Name <ul><li>Sigma (the lower-case Greek letter σ) is used to represent the standard deviation (a measure of variation) of a statistical population. </li></ul><ul><li>If one has six standard deviations between the mean of a process and the nearest specification limit, there will be practically no items that fail to meet the specifications. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Six Sigma - Key Elements <ul><li>Uses quality management methods, including statistics. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization (Black Belts) who are experts in these methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Each Six Sigma project follows a defined sequence of steps and has quantified financial targets (cost reduction or profit increase.) </li></ul>
    20. 20. Six Sigma Assertions: <ul><li>Continuous efforts to achieve stable and predictable process results (i.e. reduce process variation) are of vital importance to business success. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and business processes have characteristics that can be measured, analyzed, improved and controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving sustained quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization, particularly from top-level management. </li></ul><ul><li>A clear commitment to making decisions on the basis of verifiable data, rather than assumptions and guesswork. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Lean Production <ul><li>Lean manufacturing or lean production is often known simply as Lean. </li></ul><ul><li>Considers the use of resources for anything that does not create value for the customers to be wasteful, and something to be eliminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from the Toyota Production System (TPS) 1948 to 1975. </li></ul><ul><li>TPS organizes manufacturing and logistics, including interaction with suppliers and customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on work by Deming and Henry Ford. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Lean Production - TPS <ul><li>Main goals of Toyota Production System (TPS) are to eliminate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overburden or stress in the system (muri) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistency (mura) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste (muda) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal is to design a process that runs smoothly, can flex without stress, and eliminates waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Using TPS, Toyota was able to reduce lead-time and cost, while improving quality. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Lean Six Sigma <ul><li>Combines elements of Six Sigma and Lean Production </li></ul><ul><li>Core concepts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only customers can define quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Things that do not meet customer needs are called defects. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenge: How to define and measure defects. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In training this could include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information gaps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Out of date information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not delivered on time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of focus on business needs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Lean Six Sigma: Key Themes <ul><li>A process that makes a lot of errors cannot keep up its speed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So, high quality makes it possible to attain fast speed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A process that works slowly is prone to errors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long lead times, wait times, queues, or delays can cause problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low quality and slow speed make processes (and services and products) expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Unnecessary complexity adds cost, time, and waste. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Lean Six Sigma - Emphasis On: <ul><li>Documenting how work gets done </li></ul><ul><li>Examining the flow of work </li></ul><ul><li>Giving people the knowledge and methods they need to constantly improve that work. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Lean Instructional Design TM
    27. 27. Central Themes of Lean ID <ul><li>Unnecessary complexity adds cost, time, and waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Only customers can define quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Anything that does not meet a customer need can be considered a defect. </li></ul><ul><li>Is the customer willing to pay for “improvements”? </li></ul><ul><li>Low quality and slow processes make the corresponding services and products expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate waste. </li></ul><ul><li>By focusing on improvements to the process flow, we can improve training development speed, quality, and integration with organizational business goals. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Skills Needed for Lean ID <ul><li>Instructional Design Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education courses, certificate programs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instructional Technology Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courses, hands-on, self-study. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business courses, industry publications, conferences, company training. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Applying Lean Instructional Design TM to the ADDIE Model
    30. 30. What is ADDIE? <ul><li>Widely used methodology for developing new training programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: Flexible and scalable. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a step-by-step system for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of students’ needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and development of materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of training effectiveness </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Classic ADDIE Model <ul><li>Phases </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul><ul><li>Implement </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul>
    32. 32. Enhanced ADDIE Model <ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create project charter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Course outline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User interface (UI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototype. Test technology and UI. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review, edit, QA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roll out to trainers and students. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was training effective? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Track Time Spent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use for future projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prove Return on Investment (ROI) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ongoing Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodate new features or versions. </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Roles <ul><li>Project stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with a stake in the success of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project sponsor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training department management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional designers, developers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject matter experts (SMEs) </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Analysis A DDIE
    35. 35. Training Request <ul><li>Request from senior management or other departments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancements to existing product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with existing product or process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders: Have a vested interest in the success of the training. </li></ul>Analysis
    36. 36. Business Analysis <ul><li>Does this require training? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there other alternatives? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job aids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existing resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Other higher-priority training projects? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales pipeline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Budget for training? </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery date? </li></ul><ul><li>Departmental or corporate business issues? </li></ul>Analysis
    37. 37. Analysis: Info Resources <ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matter experts (SMEs) </li></ul><ul><li>Product managers </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Existing documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional and technical specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test guides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales and marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales pipeline. Business benefit. </li></ul></ul>Analysis
    38. 38. Needs Assessment <ul><li>Interview cross-section of target audiences and management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they need to know to do their job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential issues </li></ul></ul>Analysis
    39. 39. Audience Analysis <ul><li>Who are the audiences for the training? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of audience. Location. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is there any overlap in the required skills? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could use a modular approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different combinations for different users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Gaps </li></ul>Analysis
    40. 40. Media Analysis <ul><li>Which delivery methods should you use? </li></ul><ul><li>What technology is available? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development and delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be careful about using new authoring or development software in a major project. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the learning curve of the new technology. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will it speed up or slow down development? </li></ul></ul></ul>Analysis
    41. 41. Media Analysis <ul><li>Budget considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider time, money, personnel, other resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance costs with quality of learning. Example. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations and interactivity are resource intensive. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use them where they give you the best return on investment (ROI) or “Most bang for your buck.” </li></ul></ul></ul>Analysis
    42. 42. Media Analysis <ul><li>Sample Alternatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor led training: Classroom or distance education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-paced online learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blended learning: Instructor-led and self-paced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web portal with training materials and links to additional resources </li></ul></ul>Analysis
    43. 43. Results of Analysis <ul><li>Create an initial proposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize your analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the audiences and tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include high level outline of training modules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed delivery methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide alternate proposals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan A: Comprehensive. 6 months development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan B: Less comprehensive. 3 months development. </li></ul></ul>Analysis
    44. 44. Project Charter (Proposal) <ul><li>Defines scope of project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate feedback from initial analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get approval and buy-in from stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project plan with milestone dates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify sponsor, stakeholders and others involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SMEs, reviewers, technical and other resources. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define responsibilities and time availability for input and feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication strategy for this group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rollout plan for training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan for handling Scope Creep and RAID . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risks, Assumptions, Issues, and Dependencies </li></ul></ul></ul>Analysis
    45. 45. Design A D DIE
    46. 46. Design Phase <ul><li>Using information from the analysis phase: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline modules and lessons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create detailed instructional objectives for all modules and lessons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create sequence of learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the delivery method for each portion of the training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish look and feel of user interface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideally, you already have a UI you can use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design assessment strategy to match the objectives. </li></ul></ul>Design
    47. 47. User Interface <ul><li>Goal is consistent U.I. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks more professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier for student to navigate through material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Templates - Paper and online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User interface for web delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online quizzes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul></ul></ul>Design
    48. 48. Prototype <ul><li>Very useful to create a prototype or pilot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially if using new technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validate with stakeholders and SMEs </li></ul><ul><li>Receive feedback early in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Example of possible issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with plug-ins for web browser. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users who travel may prefer to download material rather than connect to network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make necessary corrections </li></ul>Design
    49. 49. Development AD D IE Development
    50. 50. Project Plan <ul><li>Use project planning methodology for large scale projects. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep on track with milestone dates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a clear view of interdependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep project plan overhead in scale to the project. </li></ul>Development
    51. 51. Content Production <ul><li>Incorporate feedback from prototype </li></ul><ul><li>Create the module and lesson content for the selected delivery methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Include appropriate exercises, interactions, and activities to enhance learning. </li></ul><ul><li>If appropriate, plan group activities. </li></ul>Development
    52. 52. Assessments <ul><li>Develop assessments that tie into the learning objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Could include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quizzes during training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-assessment </li></ul></ul>Development
    53. 53. Review <ul><li>Subject Matter Expert (SME) Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completeness and accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due date for feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow time to incorporate their feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Editor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatting and standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate branding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance (QA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test interface and links in technology solutions </li></ul></ul>Development
    54. 54. Development/Review Process <ul><li>Alternatives when using complex ID technology </li></ul>1. 2. Subject Matter Expert Instructional Designer & Developer Learning Management System Subject Matter Expert Instructional Designer Developer Learning Management System
    55. 55. Implementation ADD I E
    56. 56. Implementation Phase <ul><li>Produce Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Announce availability of training </li></ul><ul><li>Target employees that management wants to take the training. </li></ul><ul><li>If mandatory, announcement should come from senior level management. </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make web site available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roll out to trainers (ILT). Include any instructor specific materials. </li></ul></ul>Implementation
    57. 57. Evaluation ADDI E
    58. 58. Why Evaluate Training? <ul><li>Ensure that training is effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did the students learn the material? </li></ul><ul><li>Prove return on training investment (ROI) </li></ul><ul><li>Reality check </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did the training work as planned? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was your analysis correct? </li></ul></ul>Evaluation
    59. 59. Levels of Evaluation <ul><li>Donald Kirkpatrick: 4 Levels of evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Level 1 - Reaction/Satisfaction: Did they like it? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>75% of US companies use this. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2 - Learning: Did they learn it? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>41% of US companies do this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 3 - Transfer/Application. Apply it to their job? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to measure. Could use surveys after training. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 4 - Business Results. Did it make a difference to the business? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to measure. Hard to separate from other factors. </li></ul></ul></ul>Evaluation
    60. 60. Level 1: Did They Like It? <ul><li>AKA Smile Sheets. Questions about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall Course: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Would you recommend it to others? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did it meet your needs? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will you be able to apply it to your job? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Course materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provided appropriate level of detail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Included realistic examples, exercises, and assessments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online materials well-organized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of learning activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any technical issues </li></ul></ul></ul>Evaluation
    61. 61. Level 2 - Did they learn it? <ul><li>Option: </li></ul><ul><li>Learner self-assessments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess their learning and ability to apply it to the job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to validate due to subjectivity </li></ul></ul>Evaluation
    62. 62. Level 2 - Did they learn it? <ul><li>Option: </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations or final projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great testing tools but potentially expensive because of the time involved. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on exam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be necessary for certain types of skills. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delivering presentations. Driving a car. Sailing a boat. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most commonly used method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effective and relatively simple to create. </li></ul></ul></ul>Evaluation
    63. 63. Level 2 - Suggested Strategy <ul><li>Pre-assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure baseline knowledge. Do not report scores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quizzes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce learning. Provide immediate feedback. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepares for post-assessment. Do not report scores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assignments and exercises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures success of training. Report scores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures overall success of training. Report scores </li></ul></ul>Evaluation
    64. 64. Level 3 and 4 <ul><li>Level 3 – Were they able to apply it to their job? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to measure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could use surveys after training – 30 or 60 days. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be difficult to get enough participation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 4 - Did it make a business difference? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very difficult to measure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to separate from other factors. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    65. 65. Time Tracking
    66. 66. Time Tracking <ul><li>Track the time that is spent on each aspect of the project: ADDIE </li></ul><ul><li>Use for cost/benefit analysis of this and other projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for planning future projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs of course development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers of students trained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results of evaluations </li></ul></ul>Time Tracking
    67. 67. Questions?

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