TEACHING APPROACHES IN SECONDARY SOCIAL STUDIES (EDUC161) “ THE CONCEPTUAL APPROACH” BSE31 BORNASAL, RAY JASON BRIONES, BRYAN BUENO, AMADO
THE CONCEPTUAL APPROACH - choosing and defining the content of a certain discipline to be taught through the use of or pervasive ideas as against the traditional practice of determining content by isolated topics
- emphasis is not on the content perse, but in the big ideas that pervade the subject; using the content as a means of leading the students to discover the laws and principles or generalization that govern a particular subject/ discipline
- not a particular teaching method with specific steps to follow; it is more of a viewpoint of how facts and topics under a discipline should be dealt with
- stresses cognitive learning; the learning of content or the acquisition of knowledge
- involves more data collection usually through research while the discovery approach actively involves students to undertake experimental and investigative work
a. Never tell the students the principles or rule which the students are supposed to state at the end of the lesson.
b. Should help the students gather sufficient data to enable them to form the expected generalization.
c. Should be able to master the cognitive hierarchy of his discipline.
d. Should categorize all knowledge pertinent to his area: -from facts to concepts -from concepts to generalizations -from generalizations to principles -and all of these should be organized around conceptual schemes which are the pervasive ideas embodying the whole discipline.
Conceptual Scheme Principle Generalization Concept Fact Hierarchy of Cognition next
Term Fact Meaning Simple statement of truth Examples Ice melts, water freezes, wax, liquid solidifies, water vapor, condenses, mothballs sublimate back
Term Concept Meaning Synthesis or constellation of related facts Examples Ice, water, wax, water vapor, and mothballs are all matter back
Term Generalization Meaning General statement relating two or more concepts Examples By relating matter with physical change, the general statement may likely be. “ All matter undergo physical change.” back
Term Principle Meaning Statement of fundamental processes, true with out exception within the stated limitations, capable of demonstration or illustration Examples The principle involved in the physical change of matter is conversation. back
Term Conceptual Scheme Meaning The main pervasive theme underlying a major field of study Examples Understanding the environment through matter and energy back
Important Notes: Flow of ideas from facts up to conceptual schemes is from simple to complex-allowing students to organize their thoughts from bits of information to larger cognitive level.
Students should be given lots of opportunities to read, listen, and write to expose them to as many situations as possible and lead them to categorize information.
EMPHASIZING CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING Many a time, our teaching is devoted only to memorization of isolated facts for purposes of examinations and grade. When we teach facts only, the tendency is we are able to cover more for your students to commit to memory and for you to cover in a test but our teaching ends up skin- deep or superficial, thus meaningless. If we emphasize conceptual understanding, the emphasis goes beyond facts. We integrate and correlate facts, concepts and values in a meaningful manner.
The many facts become integrated into a less number of concepts, yet more meaningful and consequently easier to recall. When we stress on conceptual teaching, we are occupied with less, but we are able to teach more substantially. It is a case of “less is more”! This is precisely the emphasis of the Basic Education Curriculum.
+-- CONCEPT PATTERN ORGANIZER Concept Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics Example Example Example Example Example Example Example