Chapter 1: Understanding Psychology Part 1

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Chapter 1: Understanding Psychology Part 1

  1. 1. Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology
  2. 2. Links to Learning Objectives WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY LO 1.8 Case studies & surveys LO 1.1 LO 1.9 Correlational techniques Definition and goals LO 1.10 Experimental design PSYCHOLOGY THEN LO 1.2 LO 1.3 LO 1.11 Placebo/experimenter effects Structuralism and functionalism Early approaches LO 1.12 Amabile’s experiment ETHICS & CRITICAL THINKING PSYCHOLOGY NOW LO 1.13 Ethical concerns LO 1.4 Modern perspectives LO 1.5 Psychiatrists, Psychologists… LO 1.14 Critical thinking PSYCHOLOGY THE SCIENCE LO 1.6 Scientific method LO 1.7 Naturalistic/laboratory settings Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  3. 3. What is psychology?
  4. 4. How Write is psychology defined? 1.1 What defines psychology and what are its four primary goals? • Psychology is… – the scientific study of… – behavior and… – mental processes Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  5. 5. What are the goals of Psychology? Description Explanation Control Prediction Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  6. 6. Psychology Then
  7. 7. How are mind & body related? • Philosophers – Aristotle (384 - 322 B.C.) • connection between soul and body – Plato (427 - 347 B.C.) • dualism – body and soul are separate but interrelated – Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650) • modified dualism – mind and body have reciprocal interaction via pineal gland • How do mind and body interact? Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  8. 8. What is structuralism? 1.2 How did structuralism and functionalism differ? EXPERIENCE Wilhelm Wundt • First psychology lab in Germany (1879) • Mind consists of basic elements analyzed via objective introspection THO EMOTION Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  9. 9. What is structuralism? Edward Titchener • Introspect about physical objects AND thoughts • ―Tell me about things that are yellow.‖ Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  10. 10. What is structuralism? Margaret Washburn • First woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology (1894) • Author of The Animal Mind Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  11. 11. What is functionalism? • William James (1842-1910) – ―stream of thought‖ vs. elements of mind – Focus on adaptation, living working, playing— functioning in the real world Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  12. 12. Gestalt Psychology 1.3 Basic ideas and important people in early approaches • What do Gestaltists mean when they say that the ―whole is greater than the sum of the parts‖? Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  13. 13. Gestalt Psychology • Gestalt - ―good form‖ – people naturally seek out patterns (―wholes‖) in available sensory information Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  14. 14. Gestalt principles are relevant to cognitive issues such as learning, memory, problem solving and relationships.
  15. 15. What is psychoanalysis? Sigmund Freud • Neurologist in late 18th century Vienna • Psychoanalysis – insight therapy for fear & anxiety – unconscious – early childhood Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  16. 16. JOHN B. WATSON AND BEHAVIORISM “Watson wanted to bring psychology back to a focus on scientific inquiry, and he felt that the only way to do that was to ignore the whole “consciousness” issue and focus only on observable behavior...He based a lot of his ideas on the work of Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (shown here).” -Page 10 (Ciccarelli & Meyer) Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  17. 17. Of Babies and Rats Fear is learned when a neutral stimulus is paired Watson believed with an aversive stimulus like a loud noise. fears are learned via experience. This sounds really bizarre–what does scaring a baby have to do with the science of psychology? Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  18. 18. Psychology Now
  19. 19. Modern Perspectives 1.4 What are the basic ideas behind the seven modern perspectives? Psychodynamic Focus on the unconscious and early development, not sex Behavioral Humanistic Biopsychological Cognitive Sociocultural Evolutionary Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  20. 20. Modern Perspectives Psychodynamic Focus on operant conditioning, punishment and reinforcement Behavioral Humanistic Biopsychological Cognitive Sociocultural Evolutionary Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  21. 21. human free will potential Bonsai tree animation by Augosto Flores People have the freedom to choose their own destiny umanistic perspective
  22. 22. Modern Perspectives Psychodynamic Attribute human and animal behavior to biological events Behavioral Humanistic Biopsychological Cognitive Sociocultural Evolutionary Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  23. 23. Modern Perspectives Psychodynamic Memory, intelligence, perception, learning, etc. Behavioral Humanistic Biopsychological Cognitive Sociocultural Evolutionary Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  24. 24. Modern Perspectives Psychodynamic Relationship between social behavior and culture Behavioral Humanistic Biopsychological Cognitive Sociocultural Evolutionary Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  25. 25. Modern Perspectives Psychodynamic Biological, mental traits shared by all humans Behavioral Humanistic Biopsychological Cognitive Sociocultural Evolutionary Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  26. 26. Types of Psychological Professionals 1.6 How does a psychiatrist differ from a psychologist? 1 Psychiatrist 2 Psychoanalyst 3 Psychiatric Social Worker 4 Psychologist Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking
  27. 27. Pseudopsychologies • Pseudopsychologies – unscientific systems explaining behaviors – Phrenology – Palmistry – Graphology Astrology Definitions Structural Functional Early Modern Professionals Sci Method Settings Case studies Correlations Experiments Ethics Trends Critical Thinking

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