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  • 1. Designing for Emerging Markets Design of Products and ServicesIndustrial Design Engineering
  • 2. Designing for Emerging Markets Design of Products and ServicesEdited byPrabhu KandacharIlona de JonghJan Carel Diehl
  • 3. Colophon Printed on recycled paper Editors: Prabhu Kandachar, Ilona de Jongh and Jan Carel Diehl Cover design: Ilona de Jongh Designing for Emerging Markets, Design of Products and Services IDE Master’s Projects - 3 Edition March 2009 ISBN 978-90-5155-052-8 © 2009 Delft University of Technology All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronically or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any other information storage and retrieval system without explicit written permission from the authors. Delft University of Technology Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering Landbergstraat 15 2628 CE DELFT Phone +31 (0) 15 278 3034 Fax +31 (0) 15 278 1839 E-mail 3
  • 4. Project Focus EducationEach project in this booklet is performed with thought forall three pillars of responsible business: People, Planetand Profit. Sometimes however, a more nuanced focus isdistinguished. This distincton is indicated for each project Healthon the upper left side of the page, using the followingsymbols. People Food & Nutrition Planet Water € Profit EnergyLegend HousingOn the right side of the pages with project summaries, thespecific domain(s) of the project are indicated with use oficons. On the right side of this page all icons are shown withthe correspding domain in words. This can be used as a Materialsreference throughout this book, or as a search tool for casesin a specific domain. € Company Kamworks Graduation date December 14, 2007 Mobile Solar Kiosk for Micro-Entrepeneurs Connectivity Miriam Reitenbach Despite recent progress, the Cambodian economy still technical requirements. application of glass fibre reinforced plastic an attractive and has to reconstitute from the effects of the civil war. The Interviews with potential customers of the solar products eye-catching form of the carrier could be achieved. population often lacks education and productive skills, revealed that Cambodians were not yet familiar with solar In the context of a holistic approach this project did not which leads to a high unemployment rate, especially in energy in general and that the way of communicating and only focus on the design and construction of the kiosk, but the countryside. About 40% of the population lives below explaining products forms a major criterion for the success also presented recommendations on how to communicate poverty line and has to live of less than 1$ per day. As of the sales results. to the local customers in an effective and adequate way, 90% of the Cambodian population does not have access The outcomes of this research were translated into a final such as a LED display and posters explaining the benefits to a secure electricity infrastructure, economic and social concept that was refined by means of iteratively building and and cost savings of solar products. Additionally, a new Designing & Tools progress are slowed down as well. testing the prototype to guarantee not only the technical bilingual brand name and logo was created that made it These circumstances set the framework of Kamworks’ feasibility of the mobile store, but also acceptance among possible to communicate with Khmer customers as well as business idea: securing sophisticated energy and light the future users - the micro-entrepreneurs. Western stakeholders and contributes to a quality image of supply and creating new jobs for young Cambodians. As the mobile solar kiosk. Biking without pedaling the country receives approximately five full sun hours each The final design was a three-wheeled electric bicycle that Local Production and maintenance day, solar energy is one of the promising technologies. The can be recharged by solar energy. By making use of this When designing the mobile kiosk, only locally available objective of this graduation project was the design and renewable energy technology and being remarkably lighter materials and production techniques were considered in development of a mobile solar kiosk for Cambodian micro- than existing mobile stores, this vehicle is less polluting than order to generate local income, as local manufacturing was entrepreneurs, enabling the setup of a self-sustaining traditional motorised stores and can contribute to promote one of the greatest requirements for the design. These business by distributing solar products to the rural area of sustainable energy in an effective way. User tests showed manufacturing experts of the kiosk would also be able to Cambodia, in continuation of the intensive collaboration that an electric bike caught the attention of the customer take care of the maintenance and reparations, keeping all between Kamworks and Delft University of Technology, see immediately as most rural people never saw someone the work and the money local. In order to get an understanding on how the anticipated customer reacted page 116 . € on the mobile store, the Cambodian translator was asked to drive around driving on a bike without pedalling before. the rural areas to obtain feedback. In the first place he acted as micro- Extreme road conditions In order to cope with the bad road conditions a new Entrepreneurship entrepreneur who sells products, consequently he interviewed the potential Through intense user and context research in Cambodia, suspension system was developed that can damp the customers. technical and usability criteria were defined, as well as wheels individually which makes it much easier to drive and social and cultural influences. These formed the framework steer the vehicle, even on bumpy and unpaved roads. of this project. The first constraint was the underdeveloped In the front part of this mobile solar kiosk a yellow carrier road network and the extremely bad road conditions. Also, is mounted that serves not only to transport the solar with heavy rain seasons from May until October the road € products, but also as a store front when the lid is opened. conditions get even worse which poses a challenge to the Due to the, for the local context, innovative material The bilingual logo on the side of the glass fibre reinforced carrier. 56 57 4
  • 5. Photo: Jimmy Ho5
  • 6. Rice Fieldsnear CulikBali, Indonesia 6
  • 7. The number of student projects at the Faculty of IndustrialPreface Design Engineering relevant to the Base of the Pyramid (BoP) has increased enormously since 2002, when the course “Advanced Products” for Master’s students started a small experiment with projects focused on developing countires was started. The increase of projects is due to several reasons. Firstly, students of our Faculty have shown great interest and enthusiasm to design products and services to meet the needs of the citizens of the BoP. Secondly, the concept of BoP has attracted the attention of many Dutch and European entrepreneurs, leading to several assignments for Base of the Pyramid projects executed all over the world by students from our students, often in collaboration with people living at the Delft University of Technology, in the time period between 2004 and 2009. economic BoP. Thirdly, the supervising staff of our Faculty is equally active in supporting such initiatives. And lastly, more and more Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), both in the Netherlands and in some BoP countries, have been opening up their doors to such trials. But what is this BoP? Base of the Pyramid (or Bottom of the Pyramid, as it is sometimes termed) refers to the 4-billion plus poor mostly in non-western countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, living on incomes less than $32601 per year. Some parts of these geographical regions, such as China, India, Brazil, Russia, have markets experiencing phenomenal economic growth not unnoticed 1 Monica Touesnard, 7
  • 8. by the affluent west. Millennium Development Goals Preface Although the BoP strategy to serve the underserved, The extensive response to these ideas is likely due to thenamely the poor in developing countries, has attracted the limited success of developmental assistance to alleviateattention of scientists and entrepreneurs worldwide, the poverty in the past 50 years. For more than 50 years, thescientific publications in this area until now are often from World Bank, donor nations, various aid agencies, nationalmanagement sciences, often extending the concepts of governments, and civil society organizations have all foughtcorporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc. the good fight, but have not been able to eradicate poverty The uniqueness of our Faculty of Industrial Design yet. The adoption of the Millennium Development GoalsEngineering lies in its human centered approach. Needs are (MDG) by the United Nations only underscores that reality.the central driving force uniting technology and business. Poverty has remained one of the world’s most dauntingBy tradition our Faculty has propagated the practice of problems even as we enter the 21st Century. Prahaladdesigning products and services to meet the human needs. advocates an alternative approach to help the poor.The BoP strategy has stimulated us to look also at the needs Science Spread over the Worldof the underserved, which represent a huge market and The projects described in this book are a result of severalwas hitherto unattended. students, entrepreneurs and academic staff stimulated by The foundation for the BoP strategy was laid by Prahalad this strategy. The BoP concept is spreading to all parts of the& Hart2, in their publication published in the first quarter world, both within the rich and in the poor countries. Thisof 2002, promising fortune for entrepreneurs and at the is also reflected by the geographical spread of the projectssame time offering perspectives to the poor world majority executed at our Faculty, as can be seen in the picture onto escape from the poverty. This caught public attention the opposite page.and unleashed an extensive response from academics, It can also be observed that the projects cover verybusinesses, NGOs and others. Prahalad’s book3 delves in diverse needs, from Water to Energy, from Healthcare todepth by proposing a framework for the active engagement Education, and more. These projects could not have beenof the private sector and suggesting a basis for a profitable executed without the involvement of students, companies,win-win engagement. This vision of untapped great wealth NGOs, and professors. Together they have set up a basein the world waiting to be explored & exploited by human to develop a new knowledge domain full of challenges andingenuity, by designing products and services to meet the opportunities. Thank you all!needs of the world’s poor, and then efficiently manufacturing& distributing by the capabilities of the modern corporation,Prahalad contends, needs innovations.2 The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Strategy+business, Prabhu Kandachar issue 26, First quarter 2002, p. 1- 14 (Booz Allen Hamiliton) Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering3 The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty Delft University of Technology Through Profits, ISBN-10: 0-13-146750-6; ISBN-13: 978-0-13- 146750-7 (Published 2004) Pages: 432. March 2009 8
  • 9. Project Focus 2Table of Contents Preface 6 Introduction Prabhu Kandachar Challenges for Industrial Designers 10 Student Projects Inge van de Wouw Dec 8, 08 Lamp with insect repellent 26 Aparna Bhasker 2009 India Moves: Economic Empowerment of Rural Disabled 28 Ambika Samabasivan Oct 30, 08 Global Opportunities in Renewable Lighting 30 Lieke Pijpers Oct 24, 08 PRO-PORTION Affordable milk for kids 32 Sierk Hennes Sep 23, 08 Design a PSS for drinking water 34 Kirsten Rijke Aug 26, 08 Solar shop in rural Cambodia 38 Tom van Diessen Aug 22, 08 Solar Home System for rural Cambodia 40 Linda Schnieders Jul 28, 08 Redesign of a Smoke free Batana Extractor 42 Lumen Jun, 08 LUMEN light solution 44 Judith Goor Apr 04, 08 A battery charging system for youngsters 46 Jan Willem Findlater Feb 8, 08 Culturally appropriate coffins for Botswana 50 Water4Kenya Feb, 08 Water4Kenya 52 Alexander van der Kleij Feb 1, 08 Comparing Contexts; Solar Dew Technology 54 Miriam Reitenbach Dec 14, 07 Mobile Solar Kiosk for Micro-Entrepeneurs 56 Koos Munneke Oct 24, 07 Better Brace Project 58 Bernard Hulshof Oct 19, 07 Affordable Solar Lighting for rural Madagascar 62 Rutger Bonsel Oct 12, 07 Holy Cow or Cash Cow 64 Hoi-Kee Wong Aug 8, 07 Cooking in rural China 66 Fire4India May, 07 Fire4India 68 Yu-Kuan Chang Nov 27, 06 Knowledge Gaps in Product Development 70 Culture & Design Annemiek van Boeijen Design & culture in the BoP Domain 74 Annemarie Mink Nov 10, 06 Reeling Machine for Silk Yarn Producers 78 Marion de Groot Sep 21, 06 Support Tool for the Chinese Village Doctor 80 Cathelijne Huis in ‘t Veld Aug 31, 06 Design of a Malaria Diagnostics Device 82 Roelie Bottema Aug 4, 06 Personal Water Purifier 84 Mijntje de Caluwé Jul 29, 06 Knowledge Framework: Design4Billions 86 9
  • 10. Elselien Epema Jul 7, 06 Product Service System for Plant Oil Stove 90 Table of ContentsGhanaMoves Jul-06 Tricycle for Disabled Entrepreneurs 92Willem Glasbergen Jun 21, 06 Human Powered Bamboo Splitting Tool 94Marike Bijtelaar Jun 16, 06 Improving the Climate of Cooking Areas 96Maria Nguyen Apr 28, 06 Safe Drinking Water 98Leonie Ideler Apr 4, 06 Adoptable Woodstove 102Fernando Del Caro Secomandi Apr, 06 Water Supply in Slums:P.I.P.A. System 104Jon Rodriguez Feb 3, 06 Contextualizing Products 106Cale Thompson Sep 14, 06 Online Microfinance: into(context) 108Jonathan Stranders Dec 23, 05 Creating Market Insight for Designers 110Suzanne Hendrikse Nov 11, 05 Device for Early Oral Cancer Detection 114Stephen Boom Oct 28, 05 Solar Lighting 116Roseliek van der Velden Oct 21, 05 Adoptability of the U-Specs 118Joan Boekhoven Oct 18, 05 Natural Fibres in Doors and Windows 120H.S. Smallenbroek 2004 Small scale cassava starch processing 122Epilogue J.C.Diehl The first learning experiences of Design for the BoP 126Acknowledgements 130About the Editors 131PhotosP.I.P.A. system Brazil Fernando Del Caro Secomandi CoverRice Fiels near Culik Bali, Indonesia Jimmy Ho 4Kids swimming and playing Jakarta, Indonesia Ilona de Jongh 24Girl Java, Indonesia Mirjam Lindgreen 36Man Fishing on Citarum River Java, Indonesia Kees van Gastel 48Man and horse at work Java, Indonesia Mirjam Lindgreen 60Market for Holi Colours India Prabhu Kandachar 72Boats Cambodia Stephen Boom 76Girl Getting Water in Favela Rio de Janeiro Ferry 88Girls in Favelas Rio de Janeiro Linda Schnieders 100Man at Home Chongming Island Jaap Daalhuizen 112Toilet in a Rural Village Chongming Island Jaap Daalhuizen 124 10
  • 11. Introduction Challenges for Industrial Design Engineers Prabhu Kandachar About two thirds of the world’s population of 6 billion people spend their lives searching for food and shelter, fighting for physical survival, and fearing for the future. These are the individuals who earn less than three dollars per day: the people living at the economical Base of the Pyramid (BoP). This does not go unnoticed. Global poverty, its extent and distribution, is of daily news screaming for the attention of all world citizens. The challenge at world level is enormous. In Africa alone, poverty and hunger, unemployment, disease, malnutrition, lack of shelter, gender inequity and environmental deterioration are some of the main challenges in addressing poverty. Millennium Development Goals Millennium Development Goals Eight Millennium Development Goals, to be achieved in 2015. The developments in the last century have attracted the Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty attention of world leaders. At the Millennium Summit in and hunger September 2000 the largest gathering of world leaders in Goal 2: Achieve universal primary history adopted the UN Millennium Declaration, committing education their nations to a new global partnership to reduce extreme Goal 3: Promote gender equality poverty and set out a series of targets with a deadline and empower women of 2015, which have become known as the Millennium Development Goals1. The image on the left shows the eight Goal 4: Reduce child mortality goals. Goal 5: Improve maternal health The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the world’s time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases poverty in its many dimensions - income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion - while Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability promoting gender equality, education, and environmental sustainability. Also included are basic human rights - the Goal 8: Develop a Global right of each person on the planet to health, shelter, and Partnership for Development 1 11
  • 12. Introductionsecurity and there are specific aims at combating child beyond the immediate horizon and opportunities, and formortality, AIDS, Malaria and other diseases. having a voice in public decision making. A sustainable The MDGs are an agreed set of goals that can only be end to world poverty as we know it, as well as the path toachieved if all actors work together and do their part. Poor peace and security, requires that citizens in every countrycountries have pledged to govern better, and invest in their are empowered to make positive choices and provide forpeople through health care and education. Rich countries themselves and their families. This can only be achievedhave pledged to support them, through aid, debt relief, and if everyone is given a chance to learn in a high-qualityfairer trade. schooling environment at least through primary school. As an institution which is an expert in designing products At a country level, education is considered to be anand services to meet human needs, it could be that some important determinant of economic growth and is frequentlyof the needs of the population at the Base of the Pyramid hailed as one of the primary contributing factors to theare addressable by the expertise available at the Faculty dramatic economic growth in East Asia. Individuals with aof Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of strong educational attainment also have good earnings. ATechnology. Most problems can be grouped in the domains greater access to good quality education is a key poverty-of education, healthcare, food & nutrition, water, energy, reduction strategy advocated throughout the developing world.housing, materials, connectivity, designing & tools, and More and more children, youth and adults have aentrepreneurship. Each of these domains will be discussed, chance to learn and the number of children in schoolgiving an overview of the needs and problems. The rest continues to grow. Today 680 million children are enrolledof the book presents student projects that aim at solving in primary schools around the world. Yet, a lot more stillproblems within one or more of these domains, with needs to be done. More than 100 million children, overtwo different chapters: on page 74, an insight is giving half of them girls, never get a chance to see the insideon “design and culture at the BoP”, and the epilogue on of a classroom. Furthermore, the poor quality of educationpage 126 reflects on the student projects and draws some provided, resulting from irrelevant and obsolete curricula,preliminary conclusions about the lessons learned. overcrowded classrooms, untrained teachers, etc., causesEducation high incompletion rates.An essential ingredient for the full realization of human Literacy empowers and nurtures inclusive societies andcapacity, education is considered to provide everyone the contributes to the fair implementation of human rights. Inopportunity to make a better life for themselves. Education the case of mothers, literacy leads to an enhanced qualityprovides the basis for making informed choices, for seeing of life for their families and improved education outcomes 12
  • 13. for their children. Parents’ education, and particularly mothers’ education, is seen to result in lower fertility, lower maternal mortality, and better child health and nutrition status. It is also suggested that individuals with at least World Income Distribution 2000 some education respond better to HIV/AIDS prevention messages. Nevertheless literacy remains a low priority for national governments and the donor community. Worldwide, 781 million adults are illiterate (as of April 2006) and about 100 million children are out of school. A large number of those who enrol drop out before attaining literacy skills and some of those who complete primary education remain illiterate. Literacy is an indispensable means for effective social and economic participation, contributing to human development and poverty reduction. Goal 2 of the Millennium Development Goals has set out by the year 2015 to ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling. The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in and for education is rapidly expanding in many countries, and is now seen worldwide as both a necessity and an opportunity. In different countries policies and strategies to integrate information and communication technologies in education are being developed. While ICT use in education in developing countries is relatively recent, it has nevertheless made an impact on the education system. It has generated a wealth of experience, good practices and lessons for the benefit of countries where ICT application and integration in education are being established2. 2 Everyone knows the resources in the world are not divided evenly over theentire population. This inequal distribution of money and power needs action.13
  • 14. Healthcare the challenge of providing access to sustainable healthcare Differences in health standards between rich & poor in developing countries. Money is the single biggest barriercountries are very high. Life expectancy varies between to improving healthcare in the developing world. In many36 and 85 years. A child born in a rich country receives countries people do not have enough food or access to avaccinations, adequate nutrition and good schooling. When clean water supply, no hospital or clinic in which to receivea girl becomes a mother she will benefit from high-quality treatment and few healthcare professionals to care for them.maternity care. Growing older, she may eventually develop Often the governments of these countries simply do notchronic diseases, but excellent treatment and rehabilitation have the resources needed to address the healthcare needsservices will be available. On the other hand, a child born in of their people. The World Bank estimates that an annuala poor country has little chance of receiving immunizations healthcare expenditure of $14 per person is the minimumand a high probability of being underweight throughout needed to provide the most fundamental services. Yet thechildhood. She will probably marry early and give birth average expenditure in sub-Saharan Africa, for example, isto many children without the assistance of a trained birth currently only $63.attendant. One or more of her babies will die in infancy, and Food and Nutritionshe herself will be at high risk of death during childbirth. Food security and insecurity are terms used to describeIf she survives middle age she, too, will develop chronic people’s access to sufficient quality and quantity of food.diseases but, without access to adequate treatment, she will They are affected by factors such as poverty, health, fooddie prematurely. production, political stability, infrastructure, access to markets, This illustrates what medicine and public health can and natural hazards. Improved food security is important forachieve, and shows unmet needs in a world of vast and global reduction of hunger and poverty, and for economicgrowing health inequalities. The key task of the global development. One aim of the Millennium Developmenthealth community is therefore to close the gap between Goals (MDG) is to eradicate poverty and hunger, includingsuch contrasting lives. Real progress in health depends “to reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer fromvitally on stronger health systems based on primary health hunger” between 1990 and 2015. However, by 2003 thecare. Attention is needed across all levels of the health care proportion of world population that was undernourishedsystem to integrate health promotion and disease prevention had only decreased from 20% to 17% (823 to 820 millionon the one hand and treatment for acute illness and chronic people). It is predicted that many regions will not reachcare on the other. their MDG targets, particularly sub-Saharan Africa where Experiences from past decades, fighting against diseases a third of the population is food insecure and there is anacross the world, show that there are no easy solutions to 3 The World Health Report 2006, 14
  • 15. actual increase (through population growth) in the number of hungry people. Southern Asia is also not expected to meet its goal, with increasing numbers of undernourished people in countries such as Bangladesh and Nepal. The factors affecting this problem include: (1) availability of food, or the amount of food that actually exists (local production and other sources) (2) people’s physical, economic and social access to food (3) the quality or nutritional adequacy of that food; and (4) people’s ability to utilize this food, including the patterns of control over who eats what and the physical ability to absorb nutrients (affected by health status factors such as intestinal parasites). Malnutrition, a widespread problem, is caused by deficiencies or imbalances in energy, protein and/or other nutrients. Signs include wasting (thinness), stunting Shortage of Health Service Providers (shortness), or being underweight (low weight for age due to wasting/stunting). Protein-energy deficiency is a leading cause of child death in developing countries. Deficiencies in micro nutrients (vitamins and minerals) can also affect mental and physical health. Micronutrient malnutrition is a major global public health problem affecting more than a third of the world population. Consequences of this malnutrition are widespread and severe. For example iron deficiency anaemia remains a major health problem and can negatively impact on health, life expectancy, work productivity and economies. It has been estimated that iron deficiency impairs the mental development of 40 to 60% of children in developing countries. Also, vitamin A deficiency Countries with a critical shortage of health service providers (doctors, nurses and midwives) are coloured dark. [World Health Organization, Global Atlas of affects 40% of children, and is a factor in 1 million child the Health Workforce] deaths per year. Thirdly, iodine deficiency during pregnancy15
  • 16. causes mental impairment in 18 million babies born every Households (%) That Lackyear. Several strategies have been proposed to address In-House Improvedthese problems. They include food fortification, dietary Connection to Drinking Improveddiversification, dietary supplementation, nutrition education, Water Water Sanitationand public health measures to control intestinal parasites China 41 23 56and other infectious diseases. Also, when people do have Russia 19 4 13access to food, more efficient and healthy food preparation Mexico 11 9 23methods and tools can address the problem of unhealthy Colombia 15 8 14preparation. Peru 28 19 28Water In China two-fifth of the households lack an in-house connection to water,The most common substance on earth is water. Ninety- almost a quarter lacks improved drinking water and more than half of allseven percent of it is seawater, unfit for human use. Of Chinese lack improved sanitation [United Nations Habitat].the remaining 3%, two-thirds is locked up in glaciers or iceand snow around the poles. Only 1% of the entire world’swater is available for human consumption. Even this smallpercentage should be enough for all, water being infinitelyrenewable. However, water is not distributed evenly. Canada, The Global Water ChallengeAustria and Ireland, have more water than they can possiblyuse; Australia, northern China and the Middle East, have toolittle. In India and Bangladesh, rainfall is highly seasonal:almost all the years supply may arrive within a few months.Water is also heavy, which makes it costly to transport overlong distances. In many countries, millions of poor people(usually women) must walk for several hours a day to getwater; or they pay exorbitant prices to private water vendors.And often water quality is poor. Inadequate sanitation makesmatters worse. As much as 60% of the worlds illness iswater-related. Water shortage is expected all over the world In developing countries, less than 10% of the naturally available waterin the coming 20 years as shown in the figure on the right4. is withdrawn [Adapted from Grey and Sadoff, 2006, The Global Water4 Water Scenarios in 2025, WBCSD, August 2006, Challenge]. 16
  • 17. One of the millennium targets requires that an additional 1.5 billion people gain access to some form of improved water supply by 2015, which is 100 million people each year (or 274,000 people each day). Energy Energy is required for most of the human activities. In 2003, no less than 80% of the worlds energy consumption came from fossil fuels. The extensive use of energy technologies, especially when utilizing fossil energy resources, has also generated undesirable by-products, wastes and pollution Worldwide Energy Consumption that threaten human health, climate and ecosystems. The extraction, conversion to useful energy (such as electricity for a home or gasoline for a car), and combustion of fuels like oil, coal, natural gas, etc, releases into the atmosphere approximately 80% of human-induced (termed anthropogenic) greenhouse gas emissions. The environmental consequences are causing concern firstly from the reliance on natural resources, and secondly from the damage to global, regional, and local environments from emissions. The global requirements for energy are increasing rapidly as the global population increases and the under-developed nations become more advanced. Nearly two billion people in our world of rapidly approaching six billion people currently do not have access to commercial energy services. Understanding and assisting in putting to use the laws of nature for the transition towards a sustainable energy system is the fundamental challenge of today’s and tomorrow’s scientists & engineers. One of the greatest challenges ahead Prognosis after 2000 assumes a global economic growth of 3% and a globalpopulation of 9 billion people by 2050 [Deutsche Shell, is to connect the 1.6 billion people in developing countries international/spiegel/0,1518,grossbild-685811-429968,00.html]. currently without access to modern energy services in an17
  • 18. environmentally benign manner. Other challenges include the Housing and Urbanizationongoing urbanization throughout the world creating higher Some 1.2 billion people worldwide live on the equivalentand higher energy demand densities, increasing demand for of less than one dollar per day. The United Nations Centremobility, especially in developing countries, and additional for Human Settlements (UNCHS) has estimated that 1.1energy needs for new processes such as desalination. billion people are living in inadequate housing conditions inClearly, meeting such a challenge requires a proactive & a urban areas alone, and that figure is expected to double byco-operative contribution from all involved. 2030. UNCHS has also estimated that some approximately In Africa, for instance, overcoming energy poverty is one of 35 million new housing units are required each year inthe main challenges. The majority of Africans currently have developing countries to accommodate growth in the numberno access to modern energy services and technologies. of households during the period between 2000 and 2010 This has wide-ranging social and environmental period. The bulk of these, some 21 million units, are requiredconsequences. Lack of access to electricity means no to cater for the needs of the increasing number of households.refrigeration for medicines or food, limits on what type of The rest is needed to meet the requirements of people whobusinesses can be developed, as well as no effective lighting. are currently homeless or living in inadequate housing. InAs a result, children cannot easily study in the evenings. other words, some 95,000 new urban housing units have toMost Africans, even in urban areas, still use firewood, crop be constructed each day in developing countries to improveresidues or charcoal for cooking and cook on inefficient housing conditions to acceptable levels. Some 14 millionstoves, resulting in a high incidence of respiratory diseases additional units would be required each year for the nextbecause of smoke. Many women and girls have to spend 20 years if the current housing deficit were to be replacedhours collecting firewood, and cutting trees contributes to by 2020. Among an estimated 100 million homeless peopledeforestation. around the world, available data suggest that increasing There are also opportunities. A recent study5, by the proportions are women and children.German Aerospace Center and Ecofys in The Netherlands, But the main event of the demographic change is in thecommissioned by Greenpeace and Europes Renewable cities of the developing world — and most of it in squatterEnergy Council. claims that half of the worlds energy needs cities, the teeming slums of the uninvited. A billion peoplein 2050 could be met by renewable energy and by improved live in squatter cities now. Two billion more are expected byefficiency. According to this study, alternative energy sources, 2050. Squatters are nearly one-sixth of all humans now, one-such as wind and solar, could provide nearly 70% of the fourth to one-third in the nearby electricity demand and 65% of global heat demand. Historically, cities have been the driving force in economic and social development. At present approximately 307 million5 Report: Energy Revolution, Jan 2007 18
  • 19. Indians (31% of the population) live in nearly 3700 towns and cities spread across the country. This is in sharp contrast to only 60 million (15%) who lived in urban areas in 1947 when the country became independent. During the last fifty years the population of India has grown two and half times, but Urban India has grown by nearly five times. In numerical terms, Indias urban population is second largest in the world after China, and is higher than the total urban population of all countries put together barring China, USA and Russia. Facilities in houses are also of big challenge. Less than 20% of households in Africa are connected to piped water, and only 40% have piped water within 200 meters of their home. In the developing world, 29% of cities have areas considered as "inaccessible" or "dangerous" to the police. In Latin America and the Caribbean, this figure is 48%. Less than 35% of cities in the developing world have their wastewater treated. In countries with economies in transition, 75% of solid wastes are disposed of in open dumps. Housing problems have far-reaching consequences. The high cost of housing leaves low-income families little money for other basic necessities like food, clothing or health care. Substandard housing can endanger the health and safety of its occupants, erode their hope and self-worth, and impair their childrens ability to succeed in school. Materials and Resources Developing countries are concerned with promoting technological advancement as a means of economic development, which in turn contributes to social development. Raw materials and local resources provide basic building blocks for such developments. Developed countries are much19
  • 20. further in application of material and resources by means contribute significantly to the income and food securityof industrial production wherein energy and raw materials of poor farmers and workers in fibre industries. For someare fed continuously into the production process, resulting developing countries natural fibres are of major economicin useful products as well as waste or other by-products. importance, for example, cotton in some West AfricanIncreasing concern worldwide for environmental protection countries, jute in Bangladesh and sisal in Tanzania. In otherand growing economical constraints have led to development cases these fibres are of less significance at the national leveland utilization of new materials based on renewable but are of major local importance, as in the case of jute inresources such as natural fibres and plant materials, as well West Bengal (India) and sisal in northeast recycling of industrial by-products. Challenges in this area include attaining economic growth Developing countries have often abundant local renewable by designing and commercializing products based on suchmaterials and basic expertise. For instance natural fibres local renewable natural resources without raising theproduced from animals or plants are plentifully available in ecological pressure on the planet.developing countries. Animal fibres are derived from sources Connectivitysuch as sheep, goats and rabbits, and the cocoon of the Communications in the richer part of the world by meanssilkworm. Vegetable fibres are derived from the stem, leaf or of newspapers, radio, TV, telephones are self-evident. Theseed of various plants. Close to 30 million tonnes of natural latest technology, mobile phones, has become indispensablefibres are produced annually in the world, of which cotton is in the rich world. But they are even more useful in thedominant with 20 million tonnes, wool and jute each around developing world, where the availability of other forms2 to 3 million tonnes followed by a number of others. of communication—roads, postal systems or fixed-line Natural fibres form an important component of clothing, phones—is often limited. Even though there is a substantialupholstery and other textiles for consumers, and many of subscriber growth in much of the developing world, onlythem also have industrial uses in packaging, papermaking a small proportion of people (affordability is the “biggestand in composite materials with many uses, including obstacle” to broader adoption) —around 5% in both Indiaautomobiles. and sub-Saharan Africa—have their own mobile phones.Apart from their importance to the consumer and in their Using cell phones, fishermen and farmers check prices invarious industrial uses, natural fibres are an important different markets before selling produce. Cell phones alsosource of income for the farmers who produce them. In help people to find work, allow quick and easy transferssome cases they are produced on large farms in developed of funds and boost entrepreneurship. A village can sharecountries, but in many developing and least developed phones and prepaid calling plans reduce the need for a bankcountries proceeds from the sale and export of natural fibres account or credit check. 20
  • 21. Grameen Bank, a pioneer in the practice of micro-credit lending, has created a cell phone company to bring cell phones into the villages of Bangladesh. The bank gave loans to the borrowers to buy a cell phone and start selling phone services. It became a growing business, especially with women entrepreneurs. They never saw a telephone in their life before, but they have accepted it as a business idea, and more than 100,000 telephone ladies all over Bangladesh are doing good business while connecting Bangladesh with the rest of the world. A recent study has shown that, in a typical developing country, a rise of ten mobile phones per 100 people boosts GDP growth by 0.6 percentage points. Mobile phones are, Number of People Without Electricity in short, a classic example of technology that helps people 1979-2030, by region help themselves. Nevertheless, the absorption of digital technologies throughout the world has not been uniform, such that the concept of digital divide has emerged. The digital divide is the gap between those with regular, effective access to digital technologies and those who do not have that option. Also, the divide refers to those who can benefit from those digital technologies and those who do not. Countries with a wide availability of internet access can advance the economics of that country on a local and global scale. In todays society, internet is becoming increasingly important influencing jobs and education. In countries where the internet and other technologies are not accessible, education is getting affected, and uneducated people cannot compete in our In the sub-saharian Africa and South Asia, it is projected that people are global economy. The digital divide is also a term used to increasingly living without electricity [IEA 2002b]. refer to the gap between people who have access to the21
  • 22. internet (the information haves) and those that do not (the Entrepreneurshipinformation have-nots). It can also refer to the skills people Entrepreneurs are regarded as bearers of risk, agents thathave – the gap between people who are at ease using digital bring together the factors of production, or organizers oftechnology to access and analyse information and those who innovation. Entrepreneurship is essential in developingare not. countries, as it has played an important role in economic The digital divide is just as much a gap in understanding as growth, innovation, and competitiveness, and it may alsoit is a gap in connectivity. There are often clear fundamental play a role over time in poverty alleviation.differences between what is proposed by technology Over 400 million individuals in developing countriesvisionaries, many of whom have never even seen a village, are owners or managers of new firms. Of these, over 200and what is actually needed by end-users, many of whom million are found in China and India alone, compared with just 18 million entrepreneurs in the United States. Yet, inhave never used a telephone or a computer. one of the best general books on the state of research on A number of ICT initiatives offer a promise of closing the entrepreneurship, China is mentioned on two pages andgap that separates the some four billion people living in rural India is not mentioned at all6.communities from a future with greater literacy, productivity, Entrepreneurs in developing countries face a differentand quality of life. While the end goal is clear – broadband set of circumstances than their counterparts in developedconnectivity everywhere – many ICT initiatives have faltered economies. These differences are rooted in the underlyingdue to a lack of a well-adapted, step-by-step approach that economies in which they operate. Emerging markets lack aconsiders social factors and the staging of capital investments stable or mature market and the consistency that such marketsas well as technology. offer. Consequently, the opportunity for entrepreneurship in Wireless technology has not only revolutionized the way emerging markets is pervasive. While Western entrepreneursthe developed world communicated; it also offers developing operate at the fringes of the economy, emerging marketcountries an opportunity to “leap-frog” over wire line entrepreneurs operate closer to the core – the needs andinfrastructures to the forefront of communications. However, opportunities are more widespread. Another difference lies insince many different types of wireless technologies exist, it the access to financial resources. Internal finance comprisesis important to choose the technology that best matches the the majority of financing for small and medium enterprisesneeds of these new markets. While some wireless techniques in most developing countries. Another major difference lieshave been very successful in urban areas, the rural ICT market in the access to technological advances which are largelyhas its own set of unique requirements, including: low-cost, 6 Amar Bhidé, The Origin and Evolution of New Businesses, New York: Oxfordlow-power, scalability, robustness, and ease of use. University, 2000, ISBN-13: 978-0195131444 22
  • 23. developed and held by developed countries. Entrepreneurs are a crucial link in implementing designs of products and services developed specifically to meet the needs of the BoP markets. They are the motors of economic growth and poverty reduction. Small, micro and medium- sized enterprises (SMMEs) are often the backbone of the private sector in the developing world, creating jobs and providing a tax base for local government. And frequently SMMEs offer the only employment available to millions of Focus of Base of the Pyramid Research poor people. Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering Design and Research Delft University of Technology Back in 2002, an experiment was conducted to design a A model for design processes for the Base of the Pyramid product to serve rural healthcare needs of China, specifically [Prabhu Kandachar, Jan 2008]. diabetes mellitus. In this project, students and staff of the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering collaborated with staff from a Multinational Corporation. Almost at the same time the first paper expounding the Base of the Pyramid strategy by Prahalad & Hart appeared, promising fortune for entrepreneurs and at the same time offering perspectives for the poor world7 majority to escape from poverty. Needs of human beings are the central driving force uniting technology and business, resulting in products and services. By tradition Delft has 7 Strategy + Business, Issue 26, pdf/bottompyramid.pdf, first quarter 2002.23
  • 24. propagated the practise of designing products and servicesto meet human needs. Even though it is set up in an engineering environment,such an activity needs an integrative approach from severalsciences: technical, social, management sciences, andworking together with entrepreneurs. Although several earlieractivities at Delft had been carried out in poor countries,they were almost always within the context of developmentalassistance. The Base of the Pyramid strategy has stimulatedthis Faculty to look also at the needs of the underserved,which represent a huge market and was hitherto unattended.It provides an opportunity to apply the well tried out modelat Delft (see figure at the left) for poor countries, but thistime within the context of alleviating poverty by means ofbusiness endeavours. 24
  • 25. Photo: Ilona de Jongh25
  • 26. Kids swimmingand playing inflooded roadsJakarta, Indonesia 26
  • 27. Insect Repellent Lamp € Company Philips Consumer Lifestyle Graduation date December 8, 2008 for the Indian Market Inge van de Wouw Insect bites are an unpleasant fact of life in most parts of the world. In addition to severe nuisance, mosquitoes can also spread diseases such as Malaria, Dengue, Filariasis,Two user researches in India (48 families in 2.5 months) provided very useful Japanese Encephalitis and Chikungunya. Malaria alone insights for the improvement and further development of the IRL. causes an estimated 1.3 million deaths and 400 million cases worldwide, and around 20,000 deaths and 15 million cases in India, each year. Liquid repellent Philips Research Asia in Bangalore has developed the initial product idea of an Insect Repellent Lamp (IRL) to provide insect free environments for families in the Middle & Base of the Pyramid of both urban and rural India. The proposed lamp integrates an insect repellent ability with the normal household light bulb, by using the waste-heat dissipated by the lighting device to vaporize the liquid based mosquito repellent. The aim of this project was to assess if, and how, the idea could really become a successful and profitable product for Philips. The project started with a thorough analysis phase in the Netherlands to explore the mosquito problem, current insect repellents in India and the target group. Also the working principle and characteristics of the Insect Repellent Lamp were investigated and effectiveness tests were done. After the analysis phase a field test was conducted in India with the initial Philips prototype and two competitive IRLs. In India, insights were gained on the magnitude of the insect problem, current use of insect repellents, expenditure, preferences regarding the three IRLs, local culture and traditions, the actual target group and the context of use.27
  • 28. & portabilityWith the obtained information, several suggestions forimprovements were given. First of all, a compact fluorescentlamp (CFL) should be used as light source instead of a lightbulb. Regarding the repellent, it should be vaporized at thecorrect temperature of the wick and bottled liquids shouldbe used. The lamp itself should provide more flexibility; thehanging type of lamp should be changed into a portablelamp. Lastly, instead of only in the evening, people shouldalso be able to use the repellent at night together with anight light. The input from the field test was translated into a redesignof the IRL. The redesign of the IRL is portable with 3m ofwire, uses a 14W CFL and bottled liquids, has two switchesto use the lamp and repellent separately or together (day,evening and night mode) and has an additional blue nightlight that is lit together with the repellent. A preliminarycost price estimation showed that a selling price of Rs. 500 Two switches(€7.50) can be possible. make it possible to use the lampFirst reactions and repellentWith the manufactured 13 prototypes a second field test separately orwas conducted in India. The response of the target group together (day, evening and nighton the improved IRL was very positive and it seemed that mode).The bluethe insect repellent functionalities, the energy saving lamp, night light thatthe portability and the two switches (different modes is lit when the repellent is active.possible) provided very useful benefits for them. Currently, different departments of Philips have showninterest in the IRL and possibilities are explored to bring theproduct to the market. 28
  • 29. IndiaMoves; exploratory € Company Movendi Foundation Graduation date 2009 research study Aparna Bhaskar Movendi foundation strives to improve the quality of life for Cooka et al: A product-service system (PSS), also known as a function- physically disabled people. The foundation’s primary focus oriented business model, is a business model, developed in academia, is on developing countries and communities with a great that is aimed at providing sustainability of both consumption and need for expertise in the field of movement technology and production1. physical therapy. The goals are achieved through start-ups 1. M.B. Cooka, T.A. Bhamrab and M. Lemonc (2006). “The transfer and and coaching projects using local knowledge and skills to application of Product Service Systems: from academia to UK manu- arrive at creative solutions for different problems faced by facturing firms”. Journal of Cleaner Production (Elsevier Ltd) 14 (17): the physically disabled. Movendi is also involved in setting 1455–1465. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.01.018. up rehabilitation workshops and training of local therapists and technicians. GhanaMoves Movendi has previously worked in a business development project for disabled people in Ghana. The project aimed to improve the lives of the disabled by providing them with a means to support themselves, see page 92. Four students investigated the business opportunities for the disabled and they came up with a hand-driven tricycle with which the disabled could sell ice-cream on the streets of Madina- Accra. The tricycles were manufactured at a local workshop, MAK-D, which profited as well from the business by selling tricycles, the ice-cream was supplied by Fanmilk, Ghana’s largest dairy producer and the disabled were able to obtain a small credit (micro-credit) from a local bank at a very reasonable interest rate. For more detailed information a summary of the project is enclosed. Taking GhanaMoves as a starting point and as an inspiration, seeing the benefits it Concept areas; a market analysis of these individual concept areas and new generated for disabled persons, Movendi wished to initiate business opportunities and product service systems for self employment of a similar venture in India. This project is an exploratory first rural disabled within these areas are part of the results. step in that direction, identifying strategies and business29
  • 30. www.movendifoundation.orgopportunities. entrepreneur are presented.The second part of the project focused on generating self employment opportunitiesEntrepreneurial businesses suitable for locomotor disabled persons. In order to do so,In a country like India, the poor face numerous challenges it was imperative to analyse the Indian market situation.and poverty in itself is a handicap. The less fortunate This included study of the consumer markets, with specialoften have to deal with illiteracy, hunger and daily battle attention to rural India, and an overview of lives of the poorfor basic necessities, barely managing to make ends meet. in rural India. On the basis of this research, seven product-In addition to being born poor, if one has a disability, he/ service-systems (PSS, see box on the left page) that can beshe is confronted with an uphill battle at all stages of life. operated by rural disabled persons were developed.The disabled poor are one of the most neglected andmarginalized communities with limited access to resources Strategies & PSSsand employment opportunities. These issues are magnified Ideas for product-service-systems are elaborated to levelsmany times over when it comes to rural India. This strategic of market potential, consumer segmentation and role ofdesign project focuses on identifying and developing different stakeholders in the enterprise system. Ideas arebusiness opportunities that would empower the disabled provided for enterprise alliances with private, governmentalpoor in rural India, by creating entrepreneurial businesses. and non-profit sector.The first step is research. The project was initiated by the Movendi team and the results are primarily intended for use by Movendi. TheDisability at the BoP India report and its content are meant to support future initiativesIn order to develop business opportunities, a thorough by Movendi in India. The report provides a comprehensiveanalysis of disability at the BoP in India was performed; an overview to disabled persons and disability sector in India,in-depth understanding of the disability sector and disabled and would be of value to future Movendi project teams inpersons in rural India. The need for employment amongst India. However the content of report is of value to otherrural disabled was confirmed and the target group was reader groups as well: Disability Institutions, Rehabilitationdefined clearly. It answers questions such as; who amongst organization and NGO’s in India: The report highlights newthe rural disabled or what sections of the disabled population possibilities and approaches for the betterment of locomotorrequire additional support in terms of employment? Who disabled in India. Organizations working in disability sectoramongst locomotor disabled are capable/ not capable of are ideally placed with appropriate resources and priortaking up responsibility of entrepreneurship? Additionaly, experience.symbiotic business opportunities with benefits for HindustanUnilever Limited and Project India Moves & the disabled € 30
  • 31. Energy as a consumer € Company Philips Light Graduation date October 30, 2008 product Ambika Samabasivan In recent years, the poor are slowly being recognized as consumers in their own right and therefore as potential markets for business. Philips is one of the few global companies committed to developing such markets. The BoP, represented by the 4 billion poorest people around the world, are becoming both a strategic focus for long-term growth and critical for promoting social equity in line with the company’s sustainability policy. Energy represents one such growing market. This project focuses itself to electricity access. Electricity has traditionally remained in the realm of public infrastructure. However, from various insights, it is abundantly clear that the conventional grid is not the answer to the electricity problem of the poor. Only about 56% of the BoP is connected to the grid. A large number of poor households cope with candles, kerosene, generators or rechargeable car batteries. These energy sources are unsafe, inefficient and expensive in the long-run. Despite this, end-use patterns are changing dramatically. Households are investing in comfort and entertainment. Changes in consumption are driven by changes in preferences, by big declines in prices for consumer electronic goods, and by the increasing energy efficiency of these goods. Studies indicate that BoP customers are ‘tired of waiting’ for governments to act and feel empowered by the choice offered to them in the market. ‘Buy and Play’ Opportunities in Base of the Pyramid markets: Powered by the four global energy providers, consumer electronic applications could include mobile There is a need for clean, safe and affordable energy phone chargers, lanterns, radios, table fans and more. solutions that can be available to BoP customers on the31
  • 32. term. With the rise of renewable energy, it is possible delivered in a unique way. To hone a keener competitiveto think of energy as a consumer product, where customers edge, it is essential to work deeply with local communitieshave greater choice, flexibility and control over the range in order to bring out the variations in product needs andof technology and solutions. This project defines a market desires, bringing about a feeling of ‘this is our solution’. Toniche for Philips using supporting arguments from contextual achieve this, Philips must consciously work with a variety ofanalysis, customer research and competitor mapping. This social organizations and informal partners. In addition, it ismarket niche is labeled as ‘buy and play’ energy designed crucial to invest in building local capacity to fulfill societalto cater to small-scale household requirements, pertaining and business goals. Small-scale ‘buy and play’ energy canto an energy output of <0.1kWh/day. Two categories of deliver a variety of benefits:products are of interest. The first is individual appliances • Provide basic energy services to those who arewith a built-in power source (~ <0.01kWh/day). The currently off the grid, taking the first step towards energysecond is an energy platform or a power pack (~0.1 kWh/ independence. Complete energy independence can beday) that would be flexible enough to power two or more achieved by a series of short steps, and ‘buy and play’applications. energy can be promoted as the first step toward this goal. • Offer energy services for those who expect to beFlexible set of solutions connected in the near future as a transition to the grid.These products can be powered by four potential energy Communities living close to the grid are often temporarytechnologies; human powered, solar PV, micro-wind and/or extra-legal settlements.and pico-hydro. Applications can include mobile phone • Promote the use of renewable energy for those who arechargers, lanterns, radios, table fans and so forth. It is connected to an often unreliable and expensive grid as aalmost impossible to have one standardized solution for BoP back-up for power shortages, a grid supplement.customers. Renewable energy choices are dependent ongeographical variations. Product choices are dependent on Global sustainabilityhousehold requirements. As in the case of the product, the Energy is an important enabler for a more modern lifestylebusiness system is influenced by a range of local factors; for the poor. The wide range of energy services can have athe target customer group, value proposition, partner major impact in facilitating sustainable livelihoods, improvingnetwork, available infrastructure and cost structures. To health and education and significantly reducing poverty.serve such diverse markets, Philips needs to have a flexible By addressing the needs of base of the pyramid marketsset of solutions or a toolbox of options and conduct multiple through ‘buy and play’ energy, Philips hopes to firmlymarket experiments. This will help identify key value establish itself as both a future-oriented business and apropositions for BoP families and communities that can be committed contributor to global sustainable development. 32
  • 33. PRO-PORTION € Company Friesland Foods & reggs Graduation date October 24, 2008 Affordable milk for kids Lieke Pijpers Friesland Foods, a dairy multinational, conducted a deep- listening project in 2006 among consumers at the BoP, called ‘Reach’. This research was conducted in several developing countries, where they measured an enormous lack of nutrition amongst the BoP population. Alternative protein sources Milk is currently not affordable for the Vietnamese at the Base of the economic Pyramid, as the dairy prices Storyboard of the strategy that makes milk protein affordable for children at in Vietnam are with an average of $0,82/kg the most the Base of the Pyramid in Vietnam. expensive in the world. Friesland Foods subsidiary, Dutch Lady Vietnam (DLV), is one of the biggest players in the liquid milk market in Vietnam at the moment and aims to maintain and preferably improve its market share. To expand its consumer base worldwide makes reaching the BoP a necessity. DLV tries to reduce the prices by technological improvements, like the use of alternative protein sources KINDERGARTEN (e.g. algae and soy). These attempts are unfortunately not likely to succeed in the near future, and it was concluded that the main challenge in reaching the customers at MILK M the BoP was in the provision of nutrition enhanced dairy products. Children between two and six years of age were selected as the most important target group, since milk protein is particularly important for the physical and mental development in early childhood. INFORMATIVE MATERIALS Synergy A design office, called reggs, believes that the affordability of milk protein can also be achieved differently. Besides nutrition, children have other needs, such as education, safety and healthcare. They wondered to which extent it33
  • 34. www.reggs.nlwas possible to combine these necessities (portions) and be embodied by a cartoon character, which teaches theinitiated the ‘pro-portion’ strategy. This approach proposes children about important lessons in life in an attractivethat by combining the strengths of different organizations way. Altogether this concept increases the accessibility andsuch as local entrepreneurs, NGOs and multinationals, an quality of preschool education and the children’s futureinnovative business model could be achieved that creates a chances of success (health and academic performance).win-win situation. On the one hand the needs of the BoP are The government benefits from the higher enrolmentbetter fulfilled, while on the other hand operations become of kindergartens and the increased mental and physicalmore cost-effective. The developed pro-portion strategy will development of children. This contributes to the nationaleventually increase the affordability of milk for the poor as goals on education and development. Organizations likewell as the profitability for the stakeholders. A field study UNICEF and Unilever could benefit from the opportunityin Vietnam revealed that the most effective place to reach to communicate with young children. This allows themyoung children is the kindergarten. to educate children on their rights or on the importance of personal hygiene. Creating awareness among childrenMulti-stakeholder business model supports the strategic objectives of those commercial andThe proposed concept aims to provide the BoP children in social organizations. Local communities clearly benefit, askindergarten with milk and informative materials. Three it helps their children to develop themselves. It stimulatestimes a week, the children are given a cup of milk, for parents to send their children to kindergarten, which in turnwhich their parents pay a contribution that is based on their enables them to work. On top of this, it creates teaching jobsaverage level of purchasing power. Together with the milk, for the community. Teachers will earn some extra income ineducational material is provided to kindergartens, which exchange for distributing the milk in the classroom.improves the quality of education and increases awareness Last but not least, Friesland Foods can now serve pooramong the children on different topics. Every month will children they could not reach before. Although at cost price,have a different, important theme. The children that it supports their strategic goal of serving 1 billion customersstructurally attended kindergarten during the course of one in 2015 globally. On a local level it increases their markettheme receive a reward, which increases their motivation to share in Vietnam and makes them market leader. In the longparticipate. Additionally, the information will be bundled in run, Friesland Foods can benefit from the created customereducative comics, on which the kindergartens get a monthly loyalty among poor families. As soon as a poor family gainssubscription and could start a library with. These comics purchasing power, they will be more inclined to purchasecould be borrowed by the children and brought home to Friesland Foods together with their family. The whole campaign will 34
  • 35. BushProof Safe Water € y Company BushProof Graduation date Sept. 23, 2008 Subscription Sierk Hennes BushProof is a social enterprise that supplies drinking water and renewable energy products in Madagascar. The company is convinced that a commercial/business approach to poverty reduction is more sustainable than one based on aid. BushProof’s wish is to offer their products to the people in the countries rural areas, however their current clients are mostly non-profit organizations (NGOs) and changing local rural people into customers requires a complete different strategy. PSS for the BoP The aim of this project is to develop a new product strategy for BushProof’s drinking water products that enables the Malagasy poor to purchase products from BushProof without the financial help of NGOs or foreign aid. During the analysis of BushProof and its context it becomes clear that their main product - the Canzee pump - is suitable for this purpose. As a starting point of the strategy development the two theoretical concepts of the “Base of the Pyramid” (BoP) and “Product Service Systems” (PSS) are used. The first discusses the possibility and opportunities of doing business with the world poor, which are seldom been considered as profitable customers. The theory stresses out that companies are able to create important market growth in low- income countries and earn the same revenues by earning small profits from many poor customers as when they sell products with high profits to relatively few high- income customers. The Canzee Pump in use. This pump has already proved to be a very The concept of PSS is based on the insight people doappropriate product for the circumstances in Madagascar and is an affordable not necessarily need to own products in order to fulfill their and reliable solution for water provision.35
  • 36. www.bushproof.biosandfilter.orgneeds. Substituting product components into services create and quality checks creating the opportunity to build userpossibilities to better anticipate on customer requirements, relationships and collect user feedback useful for furtherreduce resources and stimulate customer relationships. product development. In order to serve the Madagascar poor with their People have to form user-groups with their neighboursCanzee hand pump, BushProof has to overcome different that are willing to share one subscription. User groups pay aproblems companies in low–income countries face. People monthly contribution. As people share one subscription andare little aware of the positive effects of having access to do not have to buy the pump, the system will be affordablereliable drinking water, the current system of community for most people in does not result in lasting solutions and local The financial analysis shows that if 25 families use onepeople have too little knowledge to execute difficult repairs. subscription, a monthly contribution of €0,63 per familyFinally, people have little possibilities to save for major is needed to maintain the pumps. Because revenues areexpenditures needed to purchase and maintain expensive reinvested in creating new pumps and subscriptions, theproducts while the risk exists that pumps preliminary break system is able to triple the amount of pumps within eightdown due the hostile environment of Madagascar. years. A start-up investment of €90.000 will result in about 500 pumps serving approximately 75.000 people and stillShared subscription, no maintenance responsibility realize an average yearly return of more than 10% (in 10A subscription that guarantees access to safe drinking years).water is proposed as the most suitablesolution for these problems. Offering accessto safe drinking water changes the focus ofselling pumps into supplying people with thatwhat people try to achieve by buying thesepumps; having easy access to an unlimitedamount of safe drinking water. Since pumpswill not be sold, the solution causes a changein ownership. BushProof is responsible forproperly working pumps and the quality of thewater it supplies, resulting in limited financialrisk for the users. BushProof will regularlyvisit the villages for periodical servicing 36
  • 37. Photo: Mirjam Lindgreen37
  • 38. GirlJava, Indonesia 38
  • 39. Solar shop in rural € Company Kamworks Graduation date August 2008 Cambodia Kirsten Rijke Kamworks operates as a social enterprise in Cambodia and their mission is to provide affordable energy systems in Cambodia in order to contribute to a sustainable development of this country. The innovative no-nonsense company is in the process of developing a new brand, Kamunasal, which aims for the rural consumer market. Kamunasal provides solar and human powered products, distributed through mobile and fixed selling points which are run by micro-entrepeneurs. Several physical expressions of the brand had been defined prior to this project, along with a concept for a mobile selling point (see page 56). Sustainable brands The internal analysis showed the identity of Kamunasal, based on the mother company Kamworks and the initial Above is the configuration of the concept as a solar shop, and below as a Kamunasal product Angkor light (see page 116). The theatre. Switching between the configurations is possible within minutes. Kamunasal brand is innovative, with Western roots and a social mission to bring sustainable energy and employment to rural Cambodians. Brands, as builders of trust and providing consistency, play an important role in sustainable development. Before moving into the market, it is crucial to develop the Kamunasal brand to a complete concept, which will form the basis of all future brand expressions. Importance of factors Through an extensive external analysis based on interviews, observations and a test shop, important insight in the rural Cambodian market were revealed. Most importantly an adapted version of Rogers’ theory for acceptance of innovations was developed, specifically for the Khmer culture. The importance of various factors for customers39
  • 40. www.kamworks.comand micro-entrepeneurs were determined separately, but the rural areas of Cambodia.”the models turned out to be rather similar. The decision Visible stockmodel is a rational one, where many factors play a role. The Through an ideation and conceptualization phase, a fittingthree most important factors were found to be price, quality concept is developed and further elaborated, resulting in aand the fulfilment of needs. Kamunasal solar shop; an adapted and furnished shipping The results of the internal and external analysis container. Inside the shop a displaying cabinet contains adetermined the course of the project. The results of the show and try-out model for each item. As rural customersproject can be categorized in two distinctive parts: and micro-entrepreneurs in Cambodia prefer to have stock • A definition of the Kamunasal proposition “light placed visibly (which also helps keep a clear overview for and energy for a happy family” in the form of a the micro-entrepreneur) each product type is placed in a strategy. separate compartment, along with additional stock, see • A complete concept for fixed selling points based images on the left. on the Kamunasal proposition. A working solar home system is demonstrated andFor a happy family explained through an educational display. The solar systemThe strategy points out that the distinction between the also provides the power for a number of battery chargingKamunasal and Kamworks businesses should be more clear, services offered in the shop.also within the company. The strategy further describes A shop and a theatrehow Kamunasal can use the methods of MicroFranchising, The Kamunasal solar shop can be transformed from aby first setting up a business and finding the right formula. shop into a small theatre. The theatre offers educationalThe next step is replicating this successful business with video entertainment and testimonials from otherother micro-entrepreneurs by supporting them with the satisfied Kamunasal customers. The flexible and invitingKamunasal formula. Finally the complete strategy for shop provides a culturally appropriate, friendly familiarKamunasal results in a market proposition that describes environment for both consumer and micro-entrepreneur.the brands attitude in terms of a five-P model; product, Adding a brand expression in the form of the Kamunasalprice, place, promotion, people. A design vision was solar shop, with the right balance between informationalthen formulated, in order to design the solar shop as an and sales aspects, supports the brand Kamunasal and itsexpression of the Kamunasal proposition: “Design a concept high quality appearance. €for a fixed selling and service point for home lighting andenergy supply products and services of Kamunasal within 40
  • 41. Solar Home System for € Company Kamworks Graduation date August 2008 rural Cambodia Tom van Diessen Cambodia has one of the lowest electrification rates in Asia. Therefore many households make good use of rechargeable car batteries for lighting and television. This is however a far from ideal situation as the heavy batteries have to be charged several times a week, in a small shop where a throbbing generator is present. Due to this charging abuse and its poor use, the batteries are entitled to a short life, bringing unnecessary high costs and a low energy efficiency. With oil prices rising and economy improving, people are in need of better power solutions. This forms the motive for this graduation project; to design an innovative user- friendly Solar Home System (SHS) for rural Cambodia. Previous experience The idea of a SHS came from an elaborate analysis of the local contexts. Many Cambodian families were visited to map their energy needs, desires and living situations. Before this project, a number of pilot SHSs were developed. Prototypes were made on the basis of a preliminary design, to evaluate the technical functioning of the system and practically test the system in operation. The experiences of installation and production of a SHS could therefore already be taken into consideration early in the design process. Three systems were evaluated in the field by test families. The product use, The family Chum Voung consist of 3 people and belongs to social class of performance and appreciation was monitored technically by the rural poor. Miss Toch Komh runs a small store under the house and is home all day, her son goes to school and her husband is hardly ever home data logging and practically by a series of surveys. Based being a construction worker. The house is build traditionally, small but well on this extensive design research the pilot SHS was further maintained and is located on the corner of a road next to a battery charging elaborated to a final product design, ready for production.station. Making it an ideal location for Kamworks to test the SHS, since its in avisible location next to the one thing it should substitute. The SHS will entirely Functional and aesthetic value replace their current use of a car battery and kerosene and is initialy installed under a renting construction for 3 months. The result of this project was the design of three types of41
  • 42. www.kamworks.comSolar Home Systems as one product family and one completeproduct. The SHS has become a true modern powerhousefor rural Cambodia. A distinctive desirable product of superbquality that matches with the Khmers culture, styling, way ofliving, energy consumption and house situation. The systemis easy to install, durable, strong and can be produced locallyat Kamworks. The solar panel can be mounted securely tothe house with the use of a new composite support. Thetechnical components are enclosed in the Dragon box, auser friendly connection station with a highly aestheticvalue in terms of creating product desire, a commercialvalue in terms of being distinctive and a functional valueby protecting the system components. A charge regulatorfurthermore guarantees a safe use, an extended battery lifeand provides the users with the desired energy feedback.All this makes the Kamworks Solar Home Systems a secureenergy source, for an affordable prize. Kamworks had the desire to bring the SHS on themarket soon, the outcome of this project enabled them todo so. Currently four systems have already been sold andinstalled according to the final designs. Many customers arealready eagerly waiting for what could be seen as the newgeneration of Solar Home Systems in Cambodia. 42
  • 43. Redesign of a Smoke € Company ICCO and MOPAWI Graduation date July 28, 2008 free Batana Extractor Linda Schnieders Extracting Batana oil is the main way of making a living for the Miskito women in La Mosquitia, a difficult to reach tropical wetland in the northeast of Honduras. The production process of the special oil released from the kernels of the Palma Americana has remained the same for years, but is subject to changes at the moment. Health problems related to the production of Batana constitute a major constraint to the development of the people. The extraction process generates very hazardous smoke which causes respiratory diseases among the women involved in this activity. Additionally, the amounts of firewood needed in the traditional process causes extreme deforestation. These negative aspects of the Batana production render this activity unsustainable. The Non Government Organization (NGO) MOPAWI MOPAWI initiated the Ecofogon project in 2005 and since then has taken is assisting the Miskito in selling Batana. Moreover, this several steps in implementing the Ecofogon in La Mosquitia. organization aims to improve the current production process such that related health problems will be addressed and environmental sustainability improved. In the recent past various attempts have been made to address both the health problems and environmental damages associated to the Batana production. To date however, no definite solution has been found. In this project these attempts have been assessed and analyzed and the outcome of this reserach was used as a basis for a redesign process of the stove used for extraction of the oil, the so called Ecofogon. Multi-stakeholder redesign This redesign process has been done with participation of The cooker hood is placed close to the pan during frying of the kernels.43
  • 44. www.mopawi.orgvarious local stakeholders, accounting for cultural values plan is included on how to build capacities among the futureand traditions, local infrastructure and local resources. This constructors of the improved Ecofogon. The implementationhas resulted in a new concept with a number of essential plan also includes the construction of a prototype and waysimprovements compared to the existing stove. One of the to involve the end users and other stakeholders in furthermain adaptations has been the provision of a vertically shaping of the final product.placed chimney connected to a cooker hood in combination In view of the potential health and environmentalwith correctly applying the so called rocket principle. Other benefits MOPAWI, a local NGO, is recommended to followimprovements include the use of a pan and a sieve to up on the new concept by executing the implementationseparate the oil from the kernels, without the user being plan. Financing sources need to be found for this purposein contact with the stove or the hot oil. Furthermore, the and financing partners are recommended to embark ondimensions of the entrance and the combustion chamber this project. It is expected that by doing so this projectare optimised to ensure a more efficient combustion. The contributes to the sustainable social economic developmentnew concept also provides arrangements for significant and resilience of the minority tribe of the Miskito andsavings of fire wood, which means enhanced environmental particularly their most vulnerable community members.sustainability. As a result of these improvements, the Use of the pan and sieve. Before removing the pan the skirt needswomen are not directly exposed to the hazardous smoke to be adjusted, N.B. In the right picture the irritating smokeanymore, resulting in less health threats. Moreover, because coming from the oil has not been visualized.of a more efficient use offire wood, environmentaldegradation will be partlyaddressed. Besides a newdesign concept, a planfor implementation of theEcofogon was developedduring this project.ImplementationInstructions for end usersas well as constructorsare listed. Also a training 44
  • 45. LUMEN light solution € Company Kamworks Graduation date June, 2008 Integral Design Project Executed by Ana Maria Alvarez, Loucas Papantoniou, Stephanie Wirth and Doortje van de Wouw. Kamworks is a young company specialized in the supply and manufacturing of affordable solar energy solutions for rural communities and people who do not have access to reliable electricity in Cambodia. Currently the company’s core business is the installation and distribution of Solar Home Systems. One of Kamworks previous projects, the ‘Angkor Light’, is a quality lamp in the price range of $60-75 (see page 116). In order to reach the rural population, Kamworks concluded insight was needed into possibilities for a more affordable lighting solution in the range of $10-20. An exploded view of the design; the Moonlight. No running costs From the product portfolio of Kamworks it became clear that there was a lack of an affordable ambient lighting products. The main outcome of the technical analysis was to use white LEDs due to their energy efficiency and price range compatibility of the product that could easily be tailored around the basic needs of the target group. For the energy supply of the system, two options were possible: a battery charging system with low initial costs but higher running costs or a totally independent system with higher initial costs but no running costs. Rural households House visits and interviews in the rural areas of Cambodia gave better insight into the context, living standards and wishes of the target group: The new lamp should completely substitute the kerosene lamp, which use is widely spread in the rural households. The poor quality of the light, the Most of the families of the final user test were enthusiastic flammability and health hazards as well as the highly volatile and even willing to buy the prototypes on the spot.45
  • 46. 2008 www.kamworks.comfuel prices were the main drivers. a window open for charging. Currently, this anti-theft The field research lead to several main conclusions: First, technique is used for TV antennas, so this technique is notpeople need a portable lamp. Different rooms are to be lit, new to the people.and most consumers cannot afford more than one lamp. The product mainly consists of two vacuum-formed outerFurthermore, a dimmed light during the night was needed, shells and two also vacuum-formed blisters that hold theto orientate in the dark and to feel safe while saving energy electronics together and buffer them at the same time forat the same time. The dimmed light only has to last for possible shocks.a few hours per night, and about three hours of full light The final user tests pointed out that the product is indeedare needed during the evening. In addition, the inventive an appropriate solution for the stated problem. People couldcharacter of the Cambodians and the completely improvised easily understand and use the product: hanging it aroundstyle of their houses called for a flexible product that people their neck and placing it at the walls and ceiling of theircould use as they wished, without too many restrictions. houses. Most of the families of the final user test werePoverty makes people use everything they have as long and enthusiastic and even willing to buy the prototypes on theas efficiently as possible and the usage of the new lamp will spot. These reactions were similar to Kamworks’ reactions;not differ in that point. Kamworks indicated they would like to start producing the MoonLights as soon as possible.Ampoul PreahchanThe final design is called MoonLight (“Ampoul Preahchan” inKhmer). It has a triangular shape and includes a cord that Installing a 0.5 Wp solar panel on a pole, to prevent attached at the three corner points. It can be hung froma wall or ceiling, carried by hand or hung around the neck.It has 6 wide-angle LEDs with a total luminous flux of 42 lmin the normal mode which is equivalent to the light outputof about four kerosene lamps. The dimmed mode providesa light output of 7 lm. It comes with a 0.5 Wp solar panel which can be fixedto a bamboo pole with a standard clamp. This option waschosen as several people had stated during the interviewsthat they were so afraid of the solar panel getting stolenthey would prefer to keep the panel inside all day, leaving 46
  • 47. A battery charging € Company NICE Graduation date April 4, 2008 system for youngsters Judith Goor Energy has a strong link with poverty reduction; unfortunately about one third of the world’s population does not have access to electricity and deals with expensive, alternative energy sources. As a reaction on the high need for affordable energy, NICE is set up as a network of multidisciplinary shops offering low prices and high quality. The solar powered shops offer internet, education and a mini-cinema, and are set up in The Gambia, where about 70% of the population does not have access to the electricity grid. A rendering of the design; the left side is for AA batteries and the right side Batteries for AAA batteries. Standardized batteries form a low investment for instant energy. Batteries are available worldwide, are cost-efficient and fit into many products, which makes them an interesting energy source. However, the disposable batteries that are currently used in The Gambia are of very poor quality and leak hazardous, toxic chemicals. This causes ground water pollution and health problems. Offering a battery charging service with rechargeable AA- and AAA- sized batteries, would provide a low cost, sustainable solution. Youngsters and NICE Through literature studies and explorative research towards the potential users and their context, the framework for the design of a battery charging system was set up. The biggest group of potential users are youngsters (10 – 25 years old). With a growing population of nearly 2.8% per year, this group forms a rapidly growing market segment. Furthermore, the current customer base of NICE is mainly formed by youngsters, which makes them an approachable47
  • 48. www.nice-gambia.comgroup. Youngsters are very trend sensitive and care - Dispenser for full AAA- batteriesmuch about their image. NICE batteries can add to their - Quality check to assure quality of the batteriesappearance as being a high quality and popular product. - Energy tester to test if the battery is fully chargedMembership The systems are placed on the wall behind the NICEIn The Gambia, registration is unwanted by costumers. To reception desk. In this way the system is visible and triggersavoid the need of registration a different setup is needed; the customers by the bright colors, shiny appearance andnew customers will pay a start-up fee to join the system, blinking led lights. The employee can operate it from behindand whenever NICE batteries get empty, they can be his desk and keep a good overview.switched for full ones in exchange for a small charging fee. A functional prototype of the system was built and wasA NICE battery is the evidence of being a member of the ready to be tested in the NICE shop to continue with furthersystem. Customers receive different batteries every time development of the product.they exchange. In order to assure them a good quality, the The prototype in use. The lights visualize the charging.batteries will go through a quality check that filters out badbatteries. The system assures users a cost advantage within 1.5months, because the charging fee is 30% lower than thecheapest batteries available in The Gambia. It is projectedthat profit is generated for NICE within a year.Battery TestersWith respect to the NICE context it became clear thatthe most important requirement is an obvious, structuredsystem that is easy controllable by the management team.The design proposal consists of the following differentcomponents: - Charger with 16 AA(A)-battery cells - Intake for empty AA- batteries - Intake for empty AAA- batteries - Dispenser for full AA- batteries € 48
  • 49. Photo: Kees van Gastel49
  • 50. Man FishingCitarum River,Java, Indonesia 50
  • 51. Culturally appropriate € Company Everbody Company Graduation date Feb 8, 2008 coffins for Botswana Jan Willem Findlater Funerals play a central role in Batswana culture. High death rates, increasing expectations and funeral costs impoverish citizens as they struggle to provide a dignified burial for their loved ones. The Everybody Company had identified this social need and had set about providing access to affordable coffins throughout Southern Africa and developed a pre-cut click-to-construct coffin. The Everybody Coffins struggled to gain a foothold in the market due to material costs, availability and consumer acceptance of their product line. The aim of the project was to investigate the practical and emotive implications of the Everybody Coffin. An in depth analysis of lengthy and extravagant burial The product and company name is ‘branded’ into the lid of the coffin with a hot iron. In South Africa this would include the ‘Working for Water’ logo. rituals highlighted why the Everybody Coffin is not widely People will know that they are buying a product that is supported by the accepted; functional, aesthetic and emotive aspects of the government. The lining can be custom made or modified in the villages. Everybody Coffin design make it inappropriate for product placement within this consumer market. The Coffin Industry The market can be split up into two categories; state funerals and consumer funerals. If a coffin manufacturer opts for government tenders they must compete on price with other manufacturers. The advantage for the manufacturer is that the consumer has no choice between coffins, and for the consumer the advantage is in costs: these services are provided for free. In the commercial coffin industry price is not the most important factor in coffin design. Status, protection and style (aesthetics) are key product values. The funeral parlour network is currently responsible for These children, Elvis & Kabo, expressed an interest in constructing the coffins as a job. The elders in distributing and selling coffins as part of funeral service the village approved the full sized prototypes and packages. Although selling direct to the market appears as agreed to cooperate in the interests of the village.51
  • 52. www.everybodycoffins.coman attractive alternative, doing so is a logistical challenge. available waste wood. This necessitated a re-design of theThe infrastructure does not exist (or permit) coffin sales construction. The final design may be considered as lesswithout distribution through the funeral parlour network. efficient, heavier, more labour intensive and requires aIt is therefore a challenge for product designers and longer production time. On the other hand it is desirable inmanufacturers to effectively provide access to affordable the consumer market, adds value to the materials, reducescoffins. toxification of the ground water and is creates more jobs Investigation of coffin purchasing behaviour in Botswana in the rural areas. Product acceptance by funeral parloursshowed, alongside the aforementioned product values of also improved. They identified more with new aspects of thestatus, protection and aesthetics, that culture orientated design, primarily the ability to hold more stock, attractivecoffin design provided new product values which were pricing and reductions in transportation costs.independent of costs. This finding is an opportunity to During the process of this project new product valuesreduce spiraling coffin costs whilst improving the emotional were identified. Using these product values for coffin designexperience when choosing a coffin. Flat, prefabricated may help to positively change purchasing behaviour incoffins are most suited for rural communities across Botswana. This study indicates that a culturally appropriateBotswana. This is currently the key product value of the coffin can be highly desirable and need not to be expensive.Everybody Coffin. Re-designs of the Everybody Coffin were Designers can play an essential role in helping societiesevaluated within rural communities. Unexpectedly, these to change towards more financially and environmentallycommunities appreciated the re-designs differently. The sustainable practices. It is their duty to help societies anddesign could be used to create jobs in the rural areas, which governments achieve their long term a big need for rural communities. The design criteria Unexpectedly, this study unveiled a great opportunity tochanged during the design process to reflect the local stimulate entrepreneurship in the rural areas. Cooperationcontext. Continuous feedback during the re-design phases with Chiefs, tribes, Burial Societies and Church groups playnoted improvements in aesthetic appeal, product function an essential role when implementing Everybody Coffins. Forand cultural orientation. the coffin to realise its potential as a culturally appropriate coffin it requires the involvement of local craftsmen toThe new Everybody Coffin personalise each coffin. This must be done commercially.Based on the feedback throughout the design process it Government and NGO ‘hand outs’ can have a detrimenalcan be concluded that the design has improved in terms effect on proactive entrepreneurship in the rural areas.of product acceptance. Regarding material selection, Bosa Coffin assembly can be seen as an ideal first step to(the final design proposal of this project) utilises regionally economic empowerment. 52
  • 53. Water4Kenya € Company Dutch Water Limited Graduation date February, 2008 Integral Design Project Executed by Elly Doek, Merijn Janssen , Regine van Limmeren, Charl Smit and Stefan Versluis. The mission of Dutch Water Limited is to provide clean and affordable drinking water for everybody in developing countries. This goal is very clear, but highly ambitious and not feasible to reach at once. Therefore, a group of students from Delft University of Technology had been asked to research the current situation and develop a Product Service System (PSS) to distribute the clean water that DWL is capable of producing. Keeping in mind on the one hand the desire to become a financially sustainable company and on the other hand the desire to help the people in need, the initial advice was to target people in the near surroundings of the water factory in Mtwapa. These people are not the very poorest, but still drink unclean drinking water and are therefore in need of DWL water. Transportation costs are A prototype of the Strolley: unlike the current competition, the Strolley complies with ergonomic demands. minimal and little profit can be made on the water. This way DWL could start establishing the company by creating a solid financial background and gaining experience for water “processing” (manufacturing and distribution) in a non- western context. Governmental Water Currently, almost all drinking water for the people in Mtwapa, Kenya, comes from one governmental tap point, located in the outskirt of Mtwapa. The people in Mtwapa buy this unclean governmental water from the so-called mikokoteni (handcarts), which deliver the water at home. The system works pretty well and supplies most people with drinking water on a regular and frequent basis when there is water available. However, in times of scarcity this way of water supply is less reliable and prices increase rapidly, up53
  • 54. www.dwlwater.comto 200% of the original price. Scarcity occurs several times amount of regular clients. In addition, the subscriptiona year. allows for the possibility to pay off the deposit for the jerry can in terms.The proposed Product Service System Three different stakeholders were determined for the PSS,Some boundary conditions were kept in mind. First of and solutions were offered for each of these stakeholders.all, DWL is a start-up company, with little investment For customers; by offering clean, affordable and reliablepower. Furthermore sustainability was very important: the drinking water, customers are served with advantagesPSS should be economically, ecologically, politically and for health, living standards and financial benefits. Forsocially sustainable. The proposed PSS enables DWL to employees; Several new employees are to be hired in orderprovide the people of Mtwapa with clean, affordable and to make the PSS function properly. Being employed atreliable drinking water by selling the water at the gate and DWL comes with advantages concerning health (unlike thedistributing it to the houses of the customer by means of current mikokoteni, the Strolley complies with ergonomichuman powered vehicles. The PSS provides the customer demands), and are offered a fixed salary. For DWL; Thewith several additional advantages like fixed prices, fixed PSS enables DWL to reach its vision by providing water toquality and constant supply. In addition, the water is sold people with a need for clean water, creating employmentin a special, sealed package which decreases the chance and meanwhile establishing a solid financial base.of the water getting contaminated. The PSS consists ofthe following productelements: the water, 4 5the vehicles, and the DWL cycle Consumer cyclepackaging. The service No treatment Sealing packageelements in the PSS are 1 8 Full Sales channels packageselling at the gate and The jerry can is closed by a cap with integrated tap and sealed 6 DWL source 3 to prevent the package to bedelivery at home. tampered with. Coast Special is A subscription service is 7 Use Filling package both sold at the gate as well as 2 distributed to the houses of Selling and the customer. returning packageoffered for water delivery, Drinkingwhich ensures customers Empty package Processing waterof water delivery, also 9 DWL processes the water fromin times of scarcity, and € A er use the package is returned to the source into high quality the factory to be cleaned for reuse. Coast Special is safe drinking water. The empty jerry can is exchanged with to drink directly from Cleaning package a new one when new water is beingensures DWL of a certain the jerry can; it does bought. No new deposit needs to be not need to be paid if the seal is unbroken. treated before use. 54
  • 55. Comparing Contexts; € Company Solardew & ICCO Graduation date Feb 1, 2008 Solar Dew Technology Alexander van der Kleij One of the most important global problems is that of poverty. Apart from the obvious humanitarian justification, finding improved ways to alleviate poverty will become an intricate part of creating a sustainable future. Although many will argue, and rightfully so, that the present industrialized nations are mainly responsible for many of the current environmental problems, it is in the developing world with its rapidly growing population and rise in living standards where the problems of the future will be found. It is therefore important to find sustainable solutions in the present for problems of the future. The Base of the Pyramid (BoP) theory does not explicitly exclude any countries, yet the focus of most BoP projects has been on relatively large countries which are developing rapidly, such as India, China, Brazil, Mexico, etc. On theIn coastal areas the sea provides people with an unlimited source of brackish other hand many smaller countries which are not developing water, which in combination with the Solar Dew technology can provide a steady source of clean drinking water. as rapidly also contain a large portion of the population making up the BoP. They too have an interest in improving their quality of life and may form a worthwhile opportunity for companies to invest in. The main problem however is market size; often these markets are not large enough on their own to warrant investment. Different contexts Considering many of the problems facing the BoP are similar across a wide variety of developing countries, it may be possible to design a single solution for these different markets. In that case, these smaller markets could be combined to create a larger market which may be of interest The working principles of the Solar Dew Technology . to companies looking to develop BoP products.55
  • 56. www.solardew.comThe question is therefore to determine whether it is drinking water problem. The purpose of this research waspossible to cluster these different markets. The first step to to develop insight for the further development of a productanswering this question is to determine if it is possible to around a technological solution created by Solar Dewdesign for multiple markets, each with a different context. International.Therefore this project provided an insight into: The final design of the product is based around the insight - What is context that people at the BoP are unable to make large investments - Requirements for research in a BoP environment and in general are not concerned with the health benefits of - How to structurally translate research results into a clean drinking water. The product has been designed based product/business vision on this understanding of the context, such that it can provide a solution for both the Malagasy and the Pakistani context. - How to compare, evaluate and design for different The product has taken on the form of a water station, run contexts by a local entrepreneur from which he sells water to theThis was done by researching both Pakistan and Madagascar, people of the village. This allows the local entrepreneur toand developing a concept that is suitable for both. earn a living, whilst the consumers can focus on their ownThe technology economic activities without the daily concerns of fetchingSolar Dew technology consists of two chambers separated drink water. Although the design is still conceptual it gives aby a membrane. The contaminated feed water in the upper clear indication of what the future may hold for both waterchamber is absorbed by the membrane. As the feed water purification solutions in general, and specifically for theis heated by the sun it can only evaporate downwards into Solar Dew Technology.the lower chamber, which increases the humidity inside thechamber, where it eventually condenses on the condensationplate. Thus, leaving the contaminants on the upper side ofthe membrane and distilled water on the other.Water StationThe purpose of this project was not only to describe thisprocess in theory but also apply it to practice, in the formof a case study. As a result, with the help of ICCO andtheir partners, research has been conducted along theSouth-West coast of Madagascar and in the Thar Desertof Pakistan, with regard to the context surrounding the The water station, designed for local entrepeneurs. € 56
  • 57. Mobile Solar Kiosk for € Company Kamworks Graduation date December 14, 2007 Micro-Entrepeneurs Miriam Reitenbach Despite recent progress, the Cambodian economy still has to reconstitute from the effects of the civil war. The population often lacks education and productive skills, which leads to a high unemployment rate, especially in the countryside. About 40% of the population lives below poverty line and has to live of less than 1$ per day. As 90% of the Cambodian population does not have access to a secure electricity infrastructure, economic and social progress are slowed down as well. These circumstances set the framework of Kamworks’ business idea: securing sophisticated energy and light supply and creating new jobs for young Cambodians. As the country receives approximately five full sun hours each day, solar energy is one of the promising technologies. The objective of this graduation project was the design and development of a mobile solar kiosk for Cambodian micro- entrepreneurs, enabling the setup of a self-sustaining business by distributing solar products to the rural area of Cambodia, in continuation of the intensive collaboration between Kamworks and Delft University of Technology, see In order to get an understanding on how the anticipated customer reacted page 116 . on the mobile store, the Cambodian translator was asked to drive around the rural areas to obtain feedback. In the first place he acted as micro- Extreme road conditions entrepreneur who sells products, consequently he interviewed the potential Through intense user and context research in Cambodia, customers. technical and usability criteria were defined, as well as social and cultural influences. These formed the framework of this project. The first constraint was the underdeveloped road network and the extremely bad road conditions. Also, with heavy rain seasons from May until October the road conditions get even worse which poses a challenge to the57
  • 58. www.kamworks.comtechnical requirements. application of glass fibre reinforced plastic an attractive and Interviews with potential customers of the solar products eye-catching form of the carrier could be achieved.revealed that Cambodians were not yet familiar with solar In the context of a holistic approach this project did notenergy in general and that the way of communicating and only focus on the design and construction of the kiosk, butexplaining products forms a major criterion for the success also presented recommendations on how to communicateof the sales results. to the local customers in an effective and adequate way, The outcomes of this research were translated into a final such as a LED display and posters explaining the benefitsconcept that was refined by means of iteratively building and and cost savings of solar products. Additionally, a newtesting the prototype to guarantee not only the technical bilingual brand name and logo was created that made itfeasibility of the mobile store, but also acceptance among possible to communicate with Khmer customers as well asthe future users - the micro-entrepreneurs. Western stakeholders and contributes to a quality image of the mobile solar kiosk.Biking without pedalingThe final design was a three-wheeled electric bicycle that Local Production and maintenancecan be recharged by solar energy. By making use of this When designing the mobile kiosk, only locally availablerenewable energy technology and being remarkably lighter materials and production techniques were considered inthan existing mobile stores, this vehicle is less polluting than order to generate local income, as local manufacturing wastraditional motorised stores and can contribute to promote one of the greatest requirements for the design. Thesesustainable energy in an effective way. User tests showed manufacturing experts of the kiosk would also be able tothat an electric bike caught the attention of the customer take care of the maintenance and reparations, keeping allimmediately as most rural people never saw someone the work and the money local.driving on a bike without pedalling before. In order to cope with the bad road conditions a newsuspension system was developed that can damp thewheels individually which makes it much easier to drive andsteer the vehicle, even on bumpy and unpaved roads. In the front part of this mobile solar kiosk a yellow carrieris mounted that serves not only to transport the solar €products, but also as a store front when the lid is opened.Due to the, for the local context, innovative material The bilingual logo on the side of the glass fibre reinforced carrier. 58
  • 59. Better Brace Project € Company The Three Aid Foundation: Graduation date October 24, 2007 Koos Munneke Grarbet Tehadeso Mahber (GTM), an Ethiopian non governmental organisation (NGO), offers healthcare to the inhabitants of the rural area around Butajira, Ethiopia. Due to a lack of funds in the last decade, the capacity and quality of the delivered services of the department of physiotherapy and orthotics is lagging in development. Together with The Three Aid Foundation (TTAF), a Dutch NGO, this project was conducted. The goal of the project was to develop a comfortable and durable knee-ankle-foot orthosis for young polio victims in Ethiopia using appropriate production technology. Current KAFOs A lot of children with polio have been complaining about the comfort of their knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs, or also long leg braces); these braces are often found to be heavy, clumsy to use and awkward to put on and take off. Moreover, pressure excesses, detrimental to skin tissue, frequently occur. A lot of orthoses fail prematurely, and since there is no communication between the patient and the clinic, this is a great problem. Furthermore, as the children grow the orthoses have to be adjusted to ensure a good fit. Right now this happens by cutting and welding; a way which weakens the construction. Customization and adjustability In order to create solutions to these problems, an analysis was done of the current issues, and requirements were Overview of the features of a knee-ankle-foot orthosis formulated. It was clear that the future orthosis technology built with the proposed technology. must offer custom support and correction; each orthosis is to be tailored to the specific needs and dimensions of each59
  • 60. www.ttaf.orgpatient. Also, the future orthoses should offer more comfort technology was employed; the prototypes were producedthan the current orthoses. Improving the construction in the workshop of GTM using affordable materials fromshould increase the durability of the orthoses and to ensure the local market. In user tests it became clear that the levela good fit over time, the orthosis should be adjustable. The of comfort has increased. Future observations will have totechnology must be appropriate for the context of GTM; prove if the durability and adjustability has increased also,utilising locally available and affordable materials and locally but as it seems now, the product is a success.maintainable machines.ApproTechThe proposed solution consists of several changes inthe design of the product as well is the production ofthe product. The flat tubular profile used for the uprightconstruction is strong yet lightweight. The combinationof the steel flat bar brazed (i.e. copper welded) in theflat tube provides a durable option for adjustability. Theperforated thin sheet steel of the thigh and calf bands andthe plastic correction shells distribute the pressure over alarger area of the limb and follow the contours of the limbbetter - thus decreasing pressure and improving comfort.The construction of the ankle hinges and the connectionto the shoe is strengthened; increasing the longevity of theorthosis. The proposed technology makes use of locallyavailable and materials and locally maintainable machinesand tools. The technology is affordable as well, concerningthe start up costs as well as the running costs. Several prototypes were built during the project,materials and tools have been purchased, and the orthotictechnicians were trained. In produceability tests it becameclear that the proposed technology offers all options forcustom support and correction. Furthermore appropriate Fitting of the new brace; user tests for comfort and durability. 60
  • 61. Photo: Mirjam Lindgreen61
  • 62. Man and horseat workJava, Indonesia 62
  • 63. Affordable Solar Lighting € Company BushΔProof Graduation date October 19, 2007 for rural Madagascar Bernard Hulshof In Madagascar, only three percent of the population in rural areas is connected to the electricity network. In order to fulfill their lighting needs, people have to rely on kerosene based lighting and candles. Not only in Madagascar but also in the rest of the world, kerosene based lighting is still an important way of indoor lighting; one fourth of the world population has to rely on it every day. Unhealthy and dangerous Kerosene based lighting has many disadvantages. Firstly, it is a very unhealthy and even dangerous way of lighting. The smoke of the lamps causes health problems and is a major cause of death among children below the age of five years A prototype of the BALL, developed as an alternative to kerosene lighting. old. Besides this, the lamps often cause fires in rural homes. Secondly, this way of lighting is unreliable and inefficient; lamps are easily blown out, do not provide sufficient light and cannot provide light in a downward direction. Finally, kerosene based lighting is relatively expensive and bad for the environment. In Madagascar, people spend about one fifth of their income on kerosene for lighting. The use of kerosene lamps results in an average annual CO2 production of 130 kg per household. Alternative to kerosene Since LED lighting and solar cells are becoming less expensive and more efficient, they can become the basis of a possible alternative for kerosene based lighting. Exploratory research in Madagascar and further market research have demonstrated that a solar powered lighting product with a maximum retail price of 10 Euro could be a realistic alternative for the current lighting solutions.63
  • 64. The possibility to dim the light is an important opportunityto save energy during the night. Many people use lightto keep evil spirits away from their babies. They spendover one third of their lighting budget during the night,since kerosene lamps and candles cannot be dimmed.The investment in a solar powered lighting product thatcan be dimmed during the night could be earned back inapproximately three months.Design criteriaThe most important criteria stated by BushΔProof were: An exploded view of the BALL and the panel. - The product should be affordable BALL from top to bottom: non transparent housing part, power connector, electronics, rubber ring, transparent housing part. - The product should be desirable Panel from top to bottom: transparent housing part, solar panel - The product should be “BushΔProof” and non transparent housing part.“BushΔProof” stands for Simple (people who have noknowledge about solar energy should easily understand theproduct), Tough (the product can resist the environment inwhich it is used), Durable (the product has a long lifetime)and the product aims at high value at low cost.Affordable lightHulshof designed a new solar powered lighting product forBushΔProof: the BALL (BushΔProof Affordable Life Light).The BALL is a combination of a small solar panel and alamp. The separate solar panel can be mounted on a roofto charge three AA 600 mAh batteries. These batteriespower four wide angle WLED’s of 3 lumen each, providing12 lumen in total; enough to illuminate a room of 4 by 4meter. A micro controller is used to dim the light at night to Rendering of the ball in detail.1,2 lumen without losing efficiency and saving the lifetimeof the batteries. 64
  • 65. Holy Cow or Cash Cow € Company DSM Graduation date October 12, 2007 Rutger Bonsel This project was executed for DSM Innovation Center, a corporate body within Royal DSM N.V. responsible for accelerating and stimulating innovation throughout the whole company. This division had identified an opportunity at the Base of the Pyramid and intends to use DSM’s capabilities for addressing needs within the Indian diary and cattle sector. The objective of this project was to identify a strategic direction for a business opportunity in the Indian cattle and dairy industry, taking into consideration consumer needs, stakeholders’ interests and trends in the contextual environment, resulting in a financially viable business case, A farmer milking her cow. Note that eighty percent of the farmers in India including business model and related product concept. have less than 3 animals. Successful Strategies The preliminary research question in this project was; what are successful strategic methods for an entry in the Base of the Pyramid? This question was addressed with a literature research, resulting in a list of strategic elements serving as an input for the project. Two elements had a fundamental impact on the process: Firstly, the involvement of unconventional stakeholders and secondly, the need for integral development of product and the accompanying business model. Method To reach the objective, three phases were executed; a strategic analysis, the definition of the strategic direction and the development of the product and business case. An internal analysis into the strategic position of the focal DSM business unit Animal Nutrition & Health (producer of65
  • 66. www.dsm.comanimal feed) in India revealed that the ruminant sector since it can monitor the actual use of the feed premixescurrently is neglected, due to its unorganized and scattered and can show the farmer instantly the effect of feeding oncharacter. DSM faces tough competition from local feed fertility. Use of the system results in a benefit for farmersmanufactures and has no direct leads to the farmers. Its of €0,05 per animal per day, in terms of decreased healthvitamins are from a higher quality than competitive products, costs and increased milk yield. To reach the BoP customersbut are also more expensive. DSM’s major strengths are its it is essential to cooperate with local partners, who havetechnical knowledge and one of DSM’s diagnostic tools; the direct contact and are trusted by the farmers.iCheck, currently the only available tool measuring instantly Building trustanimal health at farm-level. A pilot project is essential for showing the farmers the The external analysis showed the diversity within Indian advantages of the system, for building trust and for provingdairy farming; India is the worlds’ largest dairy producer, the actual benefits of the feed premix, since trust appearedbut 80 % of the farmers have less than 3 animals. A focus to be a very important element for the BoP discussion revealed that these farmers do not have Concluded, there is an actual business opportunity forthe knowledge of the function of vitamins in premix feed. DSM at the Base of the Pyramid. The Indian small-scaleFurthermore, their actual need is education and training on dairy farm sector is a largely untapped market for the cattleall kind of aspects concerning dairy farming; animal health, feed industry. A pro-active approach is required to reachfeeding and dairying practices. Finally, some farmers lack the farmers and to support the professionalization of thethe appropriate infrastructure for dairy procurement and currently unorganized dairy sector.have financial difficulties, due to their bounding to localmiddlemen.Animal Feed to Animal HealthPivotal element in the strategic direction was the transitionfrom selling animal feed to delivering animal health. AProduct Service System model satisfies this demand byoffering a full package of education, training, micro-creditand insurance, on top of the animal feed. Through this DSMcan address a broad range of needs of the farmers, which €also justifies a higher selling price with respect to otherfeed products in the market. The iCheck plays herein a role, Participants of the focus group, held to gather user insights. 66
  • 67. Cooking in rural China € Company Graduation date Philips Consumer Lifestyle August 8, 2007 Isabella Hoi-Kee Wong In China, every 90 seconds a life is lost due to indoor air pollution. Philips DAP aims to bring sustainable solutions On page 102 another graduation project is presented on the Philips to the BoP regarding the reduction of respiratory problems woodstove, by Leonie Ideler. After her graduation project the woodstove due to indoor air pollution. Consumer tests have been has been developed further, and Philips expects to launch the woodstove conducted in India with prototypes of a smokeless and in India in the first half of 2009. Recently a commercial pilot was completed efficient woodstove developed by Philips Research. The in India, from which a great deal was learned, and this was a study to find consumer tests have generated useful insight in the context, out how the woodstove was applicable to rural china. Philips realizes that in the benefits for the consumer, and in the required a new market is about to be entered and that their approach to marketing product improvements. In parallel they are investigating and distribution needs to be modified; Philips is currently optimizing their opportunities to introduce the solutions in the Chinese Base business case and their go-to market strategy. of the Pyramid. Similar usability issues The product proposal of the Philips Bio stove is an integration of all the The first field research in six provinces resulted in theimprovement areas, increasing the likelyhood of the product to be adopted by rural Chinese households. However, the implementation plan of this product definition of the Chinese rural BoP and the target market. proposal is the other half of the successful adoption of the Philips Bio stove. It also provides knowledge into the renewable energy development and the market of high efficient low emission biomass stoves in China. In the second field research, twelve Philips woodstoves had been tested in two different provinces beneath the Yangtze river. The findings show similar usability problems but different needs and wishes between the provinces. Two personas, which are one of the outcomes of this extensive research are used as the starting point of the concept development. Adoptable proposition for the Chinese rural BoP The Philips Bio stove is a highly efficient low emission biomass stove electronically controlled with a smart user interface. It is a replacement for the open fire, built in firewood stove (with chimney) and coal briquette stove. It enables the user to cook meals without smoke in their kitchen or coming out67
  • 68. of the chimney, without electricity consumption and withlower consumption of wood or other biomass fuels. Theuser interface enables carefree cooking, because it informsyou when to add fuel. The product is surrounded by otherservices to decrease the risk for the Chinese rural BoP topurchase the Philips Bio stove, such as government funding,alternative payments options, guarantee arrangements andafter sales service & support. Research in India in rural China has shown differencesand similarities in usability problems, wishes and needs.The stoves can provide a solution for many people in other Twelve woodstoves were used by a variety of rural inhabitants ofcountries in South East Asia, as long as the differences China living in two different provinces in China. The results were used for the new concept.and similarities are properly addressed in productfunctionalities. The ashes from the Philips First the flame regulator is set to the The desired The red pilot light is blinking Both pilot lights are on Bio stove is removed by lowest level and then little pieces heating and a short beep sound occurs continously; ready for lifting up the ash handle at of paper and little twigs are used to value is set to inform you to add/refill fuel. stir frying the back of the stove. ignite the fire. Subsequently the ON by turning The user decide to turn the fl button is pressed, both pilot lights the flame ame regulator to the highest start to blink. Fuel is added as desired regulator. heating value, which is suitable to increase the fire. for stir frying. 68
  • 69. Company ate Graduation date Fire4India Servals Automation May, 2007 Integral Design Project Executed by Veronie Croes, Bjørn-Evert van Eck Ras- mussen, Swie Oei and Susan Oudshoorn. Nowadays fuels such as wood are getting scarcer due to depletion of natural resources such as deforestation. Therefore the trend is to develop more sustainable solutions, also in the cooking field. The goal of Servals is to manufacture products that contribute to better living circumstances for the poor people in India. Their vision is “Bringing appropriate technology to the ‘base of the pyramid’ to enhance their quality of life”. Their mission is to develop a scaleable and sustainable business model using native and rural technologies and manufacture socially relevant and environment friendly systems. Servals wants to create a sustainable business organization that contributes to poverty alleviation in the areas of energy conservation and water management.” Eliminate kerosene The way people cook in the current situation contributes A future user testing the prototype. The picture on the top showsthe pumping. On the bottom the working stove is shown with a pan. to health problems and the green house effect. Servals has been working on the development of a stove which only needs plant oil to burn, yet kerosene was needed to support the burning. Fire4India was hired to improve this burner and eliminate the need of kerosene, as well as to design a stove especially for the BoP target group. Servals wants to be successful in the burner market as well as the stove market and wants to achieve a higher penetration. An innovative burner based on plant oil can create a strong position in the market for Servals as there are only a small number of direct competitors in a large and expanding market. Urban vs Rural Differences between urban and rural people in cooking69
  • 70. www.servalsgroup.blogspot.compatterns and the use of cooking stoves were discovered in handles of the sliding mechanism are in the lower (mostthe user study, as well as differences in living circumstances, left) position. In this situation the handle of the flame platethe shops they visit etc. This indicates that these two groups is freely accessible, without the obstruction of the slidinghave to be serviced and reached in different ways. Although handles.the stove satisfies the needs of both rural and urban poor, Green prototypeon the short term only the urban poor will be targeted, as The design of the stove has obvious similarities with therural people cook on wood they collect themselves, which is existing kerosene wickstove. This makes the Wicket instantlya lot cheaper than plant oil. Wood is not a competitive fuel recognizable as a stove. It is important that the stove formsfor urban people. Also, urban poor can be reached through a unity. Therefore the tank is placed below the burnerthe distribution channels Servals is most familiar with. and follows the same cylindrical shape as the frame. To The rural poor are still an important target group for the make clear that the stove operates on a different fuel thanplant oil stove, and should be targeted in a later stadium. By existing stoves, the stove has a distinguishing green color.first targeting urban poor, a critical user quantity is created The handles are made in an eye-catching different color, sothat is necessary to: it is instantly recognizable which parts can be touched. The - Increase the amount of plant oil manufacturers stove is mostly made out of recycled mild steel; a strong - Prove the worth of stove to the rest of India’s poor and cheap material, largely available on the local market. - Prove the worth of the plant oil as a fuelThe WicketFire4India developed an innovative cooking stove whichburns on 100% crude plant oil and is able to burn on alldifferent kinds of plant oil. The stove, specially designedfor the Indian BoP market, creates more independence bygiving the possibility of extracting plant oil by the BoP peoplethemselves. The stove is designed in such a way that evenwrong usage can not lead to dangerous situations. Thepumping and poking movements are known to the users.The handles to slide the caps up and down are positionedin such a way that it is easy to make the rotating movementwith both hands. The flame plate is operated when the The team and the working prototype. 70
  • 71. Knowledge Gaps in € Company Delft University of Tech. Graduation date Nov 27, 2006 Product Development Yu-Kuan Chang Multinational Corporations (MNCs) increasingly develop new business models, products, and services to satisfy the needs in new markets. From urban to rural areas, emerging markets have extremely diverse groups of consumers with different needs. In this project, the strategies of seven multinational companies were analyzed in a case study research. The companies included were Philips, VIA, Haier, Motorola, Intel, Microsoft, and BenQ. The objective of the project was to learn how MNCs identify their roles and opportunities in emerging markets, and how they develop new products and strategies for these markets. Within the project, there was a particular focus on how MNCs develop new products for people who earn Yu-Kuan Chang took seven MNCs as case studies to gather their experience less than three dollars per day. This segment represents the and knowledge to learn for future product development for the BoP. majority of the population in emerging markets. Interviews with Managers The data was gathered through interviews with MNC managers who are influential to the company’s emerging market strategies and innovation processes. Twelve VIA: Bridging the Digital Divide interviews with participants from seven MNCs were VIA seeks to develop a sustainable bridge over the digital divide of the conducted to collect knowledge and practical experiences. 80% of the world population that do not have access to the internet. Wihin each case, aspects of motivation, strategy, innovation Therewith, the company makes vast information, education and process, difference, difficulty, challenge, etc were analyzed commercial resources available and thus empowers many people in the and reported on. Some examples of the results for three BoP. Their approach to emerging markets is based on four objectives: case studies are described in the boxes spread over these · New markets: beyond ownership to access; pages. · New environments: beyond city comfort to rural remoteness; The results reveal that similar motivations to enter the · New usage models: from “one-to-one” to “one-to-many”; BoP market can lead to various product strategies and · New products: from PCs to PHD appliances. development processes. The motivation on corporate social71
  • 72. responsibility is required to support the projects which aim Intel: Breaking the Vicious Cycleat the Base of Pyramid (BoP). These types of projects cannot Intel identified a vicious circle in emerging markets. The cycleonly be evaluated by short-term return on investment, but of less access to technology leading to less productivity andneed to be sustained by long-term visions on social return knowledge; this in turn leads to less personal and businesson investment as well. wealth. Intel believes that by investing in technology, thisChallenges in Innovation for the BoP cycle can be broken, and the emerging markets can beThe major challenges within innovation process include opened up to sustainable growth.the opportunity identification, front-end research, product The vicious cycle of lacking technology is broken by Intel’sintroduction and delivery. Most challenges arise because approach to invest in technology to increase wealth in the BoP.of the unfamiliarity with the local context and the distinctinfrastructure in emerging markets. Although MNCs havestrong global resources and networks, a sustainable localenterprise network is necessary for MNCs to interact withlocal the communities. Non-Governmental Organizationsplay a vital role in the process in which they intend toapproach consumers at the BoP. This project aimed to gather the best practises of all theMNCs. However, a general strategy for emerging marketscould not be identified. This knowledge can be shared forlearning and future activities in the BoP. Microsoft Research: Pay-As-You-Go Concepts The ‘flexGo’ is a flexible alternative to traditional PC financing. It is a new concept to make PC’s affordable for medium to low income communities by providing financing options for buying a PC. By doing ethnographic research to understand the local context, Microsoft research is able to develop ICT technology for the BoP. They believe this single method can work in most emerging markets. Therefore they encourage their researchers to work at BoP communities. The high level of uncertainty increases the importance of several prototyping and user testing cycles before marketing the cheap PC. 72
  • 73. Photo: Prabhu Kandachar73
  • 74. Market forHoli ColoursIndia 74
  • 75. Design & Culture Design & culture in the BoP Domain Annemiek van Boeijen Travelling is very common these days, at least for those who can afford to. People are travelling all around the world, looking for opportunities to make a fortune, escaping from existing life, and looking for adventure. Travellers learn from what is different and common, always comparing that what they come across on their travels to what they know. The students featured in this book have all travelled to the country their project was focused on. The many constraints (finance, resources, skills, legislation…) students face in BoP projects are challenging; students really feel they are provoked to be more creative, enterprising and Onion model of Geert Hofstede focused. An aspect that motivates me to support these students is that through BoP projects students will learn 1. Hofstede G. (2005), Cultures and organizations, more about themselves. They get the chance to develop an software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill open mind and they can position their own truths into other perspectives. I believe that experience abroad teaches the students to be more effective, respectful of other cultures, and to better understand their own culture and values. As a student said ‘it is a life long experience’. One of the main differences encountered by students in BoP projects is the difference in culture. The cultural anthropologist Geert Hofstede1 defined culture as the system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviours and artefacts that the members of a society use to cope with their world and with one another (2005). The people that we consider as the BoP live in cultures that differ greatly from the cultures we live in. Our students have to put in effort to understand the differences as well as what they …..local habits, shared by a group…. photo: Toon Fey have in common with the people they design for. Culture plays a role in the relationships between people 75
  • 76. “Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and Design & Culture narrow-mindedness.” – Mark Twainand in the relationships between people and products. At the Faculty and new products in particular depends partly on theof Industrial Design Engineering students are taught a holistic culture where the people live in. Culture is manifested indesign approach: they are taught to research and understand the different layers. Hofstede distinguishes four layers:whole context before developing design solutions. Cultural theories Symbols Words, gestures, images, and objectscan help formulate relevant research questions. For instance, when manifested in a specific group such ashierarchy in a society is stronger than the designer is used to, the consumer products, services, art, dialectfollowing questions might be relevant; Who will be the owner of Heroes People - alive or dead, real or fiction - thatthe product? What kind of status will the product provoke? What have a specific meaning for a group ofwill the that mean for the manifestation (functions, form, colours, people, such as Nelson Mandela for theshape etc.) of the product? world, queen Beatrix for the Netherlands, So how can we find the answers to these questions? Methods for the chief of a villageuser and usage research need to take cultural aspects into account. Rituals Collective activities, not (just) to fulfil aDesigners should be aware that users might not feel comfortable technical function, but because of a socialto give their personal opinion, especially when living in a culture interest for the group such as a weddingwhere community opinion is considered of more value than the ceremony, praying before dinneropinion of an individual. In these cases, a group brainstorm session Values A collective tendency to prefer a certainas commonly practised in Europe will not work as expected. course of events above another one, Design management is another aspect where culture plays a big expressed by qualifications such as good-role. An example is found in the differences in power distances bad, dirty-clean, ugly-beautiful.between nations. In countries with relatively high power distance, Although products are part of the outer layer, theWestern European students might feel limited in their freedom, symbols, they are directly related to the inner layers.misunderstood and unsupported. They will have to explore these Therefore designers should understand all feelings and find new ways of communication and learn to I would like to end my deliberations by emphasizingadjust. That is possible only when the designer is open to and that culture is only one of the many aspects of a BoPunderstands both the differences and the common features in design project. Culture stresses the differences betweencommunication. groups of people, but there are also universal and For the manifestation of the new product, designers need to inherited principles that lead to global shared solutions,understand how the intended users will give meaning to the and there are personal differences everywhere thatproduct, and how the new product will influence their social require individual solutions, wherever your location insystem. How groups of people give meaning to products in general the economic pyramid. 76
  • 77. Photo: Stephen Boom77
  • 78. BoatsCambodia 78
  • 79. Reeling Machine for Silk € Company Sharepeople (EYE) , Pradan Graduation date November 10, 2006 Yarn Producers Annemarie Mink PRADAN, an Indian NGO, attempts to reduce the vulnerability of socio-economically disadvantaged communities. They organize poor women into savings and credit groups, and develop locally suitable sectoral activities to expand economic opportunities in the hands of poor families. One of their activities introduced in the villages of Jharkhand and Bihar is the Tasar Silk reeling project. Being a unique silk that grows in the wild, Tasar silk currently lacks an own identity, as opposed to traditional cultivated ‘Mulberry silk’. Also, traditional technology, inefficient production processes and exploitation by traders and money lenders have crippled the activity of Tasar silk production. Reeling is done by using a ‘reeling-cum-twisting’ machine which produces coarse yarn and a re-reeling machine, which takes care of re-reeling the yarn onto a standardized re-reel 3D models of the reeling machine (left) and the re-reeling machine (right) drum. Mink aimed to develop a re-design of the existing ‘reeling-cum-twisting’ machines. Lack of quality control, safety and proper ergonomics are the barriers. Re-design of the Reeling Machine The main problem of the existing machine is lack of quality control. Thickness, twist and colour vary widely, which makes it difficult to establish a good quality standard for the produced yarn. Therefore, entrepreneurs struggle to get a good price for their yarn. Also, the machine has a lot of unprotected moving parts, which cause concerns for the safety of the workers. The machine is driven by human powered pedalling, is noisy and has a fixed height, which all cause ergonomics problems. The costs of the machine are high in relation to its yarn production. Second prototype of the reeling machine during user testing Together with PRADAN, Mink developed a number79
  • 80. www.sharepeople.nlof criteria for the re-design. First criterion is to maintain re-design and the future profit for the silk reelers. Shea constant reeling speed, lessen physical problems and estimated that reelers can produce 1,9 times more yarnenable a table-sized tool. Also, the machine should include than with the existing machines. Which means that reelersa quality control mechanism and independently driven will increase their profit from 56 Rupees to 104 rupees aspindles should enable lines to continue in case one of the day. Both from user and yarn production process evaluation,four yarn lines breaks. The introduction of a motor and Mink concluded that the machines are safer, more energyquality control brings extra costs, which must be nullified by efficient, more time efficient, more user-friendly, havean increased quality and/or output of yarn. Mink divided the higher yield and the yarn produced from the machine is offunctions of the reeling machine into sub-problems using a better quality.a morphological map. The main functions of the machine Updatewere: combining filaments, insertion of twist, taking up After graduation, Mink was hired by the Dutch developmentyarn, separate twisted and non-twisted yarn, spreading organization ICCO to finish the project and produce ayarns on take-up package, establishing transmission, second, smaller and cheaper prototype. A student from theseparate driving take-up package and integrate re-reeling. faculty of Mechanical Engineering was selected to help with Mink developed product concepts based on three different improving both the machines. Mr. Rahmouni did a great jobtechniques: non-integrated re-reeling, indirect integrated in helping to optimize both the machines and together theyre-reeling and direct integrated re-reeling. The concept went to India to build the second prototypes. The outcomeof indirect integrated re-reeling was chosen based on the was two smaller, cheaper, even more energy-efficient andexpected simple usage and production and because this good working machines, understandable for the reeler andconcept offers the possibility of producing a new type of yarn the manufacturer. Rahmouni will graduate soon on thethat opens up new markets. The yarn is guided and easy to improvements of the re-design of the reeling machines.control and reach in this concept. Prime advantage of the The second generation prototypes are being adjusted toconcept is the estimated high yarn production rate. Mink perfection and then a test-series of thirty machines will runmaterialized the concept, which resulted in fully detailed in a newly established reeling centre. If this is all workingdesign and a prototype was built in a local workshop. well, the machines will be taken in full production andSafe, Efficient and User-Friendly replace the currently used machines. Subsequently, theAn important aspect of developing products for the BoP machines will directly contribute to the improvement of the women’s working comfort and to their income. Improvement €market, is the necessity for affordability and return oninvestment. Mink calculated the estimated cost of the of income contributes directly to their livelihoods. 80
  • 81. Support Tool for the € Company Impact Graduation date Sept 21, 2006 Chinese Village Doctor Marion de Groot Every Chinese village has a village doctor. These are low educated villagers that have received a basic medical course, but function as a general practitioner. While they This current doctor set know their patients well, they have very little contact does not include more with more educated doctors, and no access to up-to-date sophisticated tools. Next to medical information resources. that, village doctors do not have appropriate medical This project aimed at developing a support tool to provide knowledge, nor contact with the village doctors access to medical information, guide experts. them with medical decisions and link them to the national medical network. Barefoot Doctors The Chinese healthcare system is built up of tiers: 3rd tier (1000 beds, 2300 doctors), 2nd tier (650 beds, 600 doctors) and 1st tier hospitals (50 beds, 100 doctors) and the rural The LifeBox network involves information sharing Community Healthcare Points (CHP). The CHPs are manned and distribution througout the network. by an average of two village doctors, or ‘barefoot doctors’. In 2004, 95% of the Chinese villages had a village clinic, counting up to an average of one doctor per thousand rural inhabitants. However, they often have received only basic medical training and have little contact with the urban hospitals and up-to-date medical information. The main problems De Groot focussed on are a lack of (quality) tools, appropriate medical knowledge, counter-effective behavior of rural population and the small budgets rural hospitals receive. The goal of De Groot’s project is to improve the quality of this village doctor by developing a support tool. The company Impact in Breda developed a self-monitoring system for diabetics in the Netherlands: the set-top box. The company saw potential in developing this system for81
  • 82. the village doctors in China. The Lifebox, as the support diagnoses. The reasons to use the box are the availabilitytool is called, provided the starting point for the product of a TV in almost every community healthcare point anddevelopment process. The design problem consisted out of the familiarity of the doctors with using a remote control.understanding the context of healthcare in Chinese villages Lifeboxes are connected to (local) servers and hospitals viaand developing a dedicated interaction and implementation the phone network. This enables the sharing and updatingstrategy. of information throughout the network of medical facilities. The software of the LifeBox has three sections: a patientProduct Guidelines guide, supporting the doctor with diagnosing patients, anDuring the development, De Groot focused on trust between education section providing course material from the higherdoctor, patient and product. She developed guidelines for level hospitals or the district and an email box. The e-mailthe product based on context research and interviews from box can contain messages from all the parties involved ingeneral practitioners. the network, keeping the doctor up-to-date. Based on context research she formulated guidelinessuch as ‘the introduction of a new tool can be comparedto other tools the doctor uses. Since these are trusted, thetool will be trusted as well’ and ‘the doctor should be able tooperate independently of the product’. General practitioners were interviewed to gain insightin how the village doctors could be supported with usefulinformation. These interviews resulted in a number ofguidelines for the product such as ‘information should beorganized around symptoms of diseases, to enable under-educated doctors to find the right information quickly’ and‘the product should end up with differential diagnosis andindicate the probability of each possible diagnosis’.The LifeBoxThe product supports access to medical information,communication with educated doctors and inclusion in thenational healthcare network. The LifeBox can store patients’ With the LifeBox village doctors have access to medical information,health history and help the doctor navigate through the contact with educated doctors and inclusion in the national healthcare network. 82
  • 83. Design of a Malaria € Company Philips Research Graduation date August 31, 2006 Diagnostics Device Cathelijne Huis in ‘t Veld Worldwide, up to 500 million clinical cases of malaria occur every year, causing up to 2 million deaths. Amongst these deaths are mainly young children. Currently, the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria is microscopic research (the best method available). This is a reliable method, but trained microscopists are needed. Other methods that are easier to perform are less reliable, cannot identify all species, are more expensive or the tropical climates easily influence their reliability. Researchers at Philips Research, Care & Health applications develop techniques that can make the diagnosis as reliable as microscopic research, independent of the skills of the operator and climatic conditions and are either portable or non-invasive. To develop a successful product, more knowledge must be gained to better understand the context of malaria diagnosis. Consequently, Cathelijne Huis in ‘t Veld aimed to develop a concept for a malaria diagnosis Rendering of the computer model made of the malaria diagnosis device. device for the Indian context, in cooperation with Manipal University. Next to the context research and design of a concept, she also evaluated the BoP protocol of Stuart Hart with respect to usage by students and Philips employees. Alternative Medicins for Malaria After the kick-off in the Netherlands, Huis in ‘t Veld continued her literature and context research in India. The healthcare service in India can be divided in three levels (see graduation project of Jon Rodriguez). In India there are many more types of healthcare than allopathic healthcare. Ayurvedic medicine as well as homeopathic medicine plays an important role in the83
  • 84. market in India. For malaria this means that Quick Malaria Diagnosisallopathic medicine comes across most initial cases. When During her stay in India, Huis in ‘t Veld developed designthe disease is in the second or third stage and the patient solutions. The malaria diagnosis device should worksuffers from repetitive fever attacks, some people approach according to the technique of the automated microscope.ayurvedic or homeopathic medicine. Allopathic medicine Integration in malaria control programs is needed to reachgenerally makes most use of electronic equipment for both as many people as possible. This meant that the main usersdiagnostic as well as treatment purposes. Doctors rely a are Auxiliary Nurse Midwifes (ANM) and mass screeninggreat deal on electronic devices. In the case of ayurvedic almost the same methods are being used for The main function of the device was to “enable adiagnosis as allopathic medicine. It is mainly the treatment minimally instructed user in India to quickly state thethat differs. Instead of generating large and concentrated diagnosis of malaria, independent of any other facilities”.doses of the effective drug, the complete natural form is After the analysis Huis in ‘t Veld proceeded with conceptbeing given to the patient. In this way the drugs are less development and optimization in the Netherlands. Thetoxic but the healing process takes longer. concept had to conform to criteria of technology (the There are approximately 156 different species of automated microscope), construction, safety, dataPlasmodium. Four are known to affect humans. Malaria communication, comfort, aesthetics and costs. During theis treated in 5 phases. Since both allophatic and traditional development stage, potential users were involved to ensuremedicine have a common way of diagnosing malaria, the relevance and usability of the final product. This resulted inproject focussed on this part of the malaria care process. a portable device that can be transported and used by the ANMs and in mass screening activities. Five phases of malaria medical care. 84
  • 85. Personal Water Purifier € Company Vestergaard Fransen Graduation date August 4, 2006 Roelie Bottema For 1.1 billion people, access to safe drinking water is limited. Poor people suffer most, because they cannot afford to buy drinking water. This results in more illnesses and more pressure on women to transport the water. The Danish company Vestergaard Frandsen (VF) has developed LifeStraw, a product that purifies surface water for personal use with filters. People can carry the mobile LifeStraw anywhere, which is complemented by another water purifying product at home. For Ghana, LifeStraw could be lifesaving since 38% of the people do not have access to safe drinking water and the majority of the people live in Lifestraw Child is a smaller and slightly adapted version of the currentLifeStraw. The child can drink by sucking, squeezing or tumbling the bottle, or rural areas. a combination of these. Roelie Bottema investigated several aspects of the implementation of LifeStraw, focused on children under the age of five. Also, she developed instruction manuals and posters. In this way health workers can instruct people better and more complete about the use and other issues concerning the LifeStraw. Drinking Her user research demonstrated that people are not used to pay for their water or treat their drinking water. Water is rare and often polluted and women have to walk far to get the water, especially in the dry season. Even though people are aware of that, they do not have a choice rather than The problem with using this water. drinking dirty water Regarding LifeStraw, users did notice they need it: is visualized. Also, ‘everyone should have one’ and ‘I do not have diarrhoea the actions for using any more’. Also, the appearance appealed to them and they and maintaining the products are explained associated status to the product user. When asked about step by step.85
  • 86. www.vestergaard-frandsen.comwhat LifeStraw actually did, people mentioned ‘It retracts named LifeStraw Child, a flexible bottle and a specialdiseases from the water’ and ‘it stops dirt’. Participants often mouthpiece. The bottle has a one-way valve that lets airtalked of LifeStraw being a good product, but not everyone in but not out. On the transparent bottle, a volume scalecould afford it ($2.50). Also, they were afraid that the was added to give feedback to the mothers and a writableproduct would be stolen. area included to personalize it or write the expiry date as From this part of the research, Bottema recommended to reminder. Using a smaller LifeStraw makes the producttake care of disposal and replacement aspects. The existing easier to handle for children. In LifeStraw Child a valve isLifeStraw could be improved by enabling personalization added which prevents the water to flow out of LifeStrawand giving feedback on the level of sucking power and Child after sucking it up to a certain height. When pressureeffect of cleaning. is put on the valve, it does let air through, an aspect that makes the product easier to clean by blowing.Vulnerable ChildrenIn her research, Bottema observed that children younger Instructions to Health Workersthan three years could not handle LifeStraw by themselves. In addition to developing LifeStraw Child, Bottema createdThey do not understand how to suck the water. The child instruction material for usage of both LifeStraw anddoes not understand why it does not get water in its mouth LifeStraw Child. She first concluded from the user researchimmediately after sucking. Also, maneuvering the cup and which elements should be included. Focus should be onLifeStraw at the same time is complicated for them. Because the relation of clean drinking water and health, what thesmall children are most vulnerable for waterborne diseases LifeStraw product line does, and how to use and maintainand LifeStraw is unsuitable, Bottema concluded that a child the products. Expiration and personal use are also aspectsversion of the LifeStraw should be developed suitable for that should be stressed. She developed a manual for healththe children. workers and Ideas were generated in brainstorm sessions, with a large posterVestergaard Frandsen employees in Ghana and also with for usage whilestudents at the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, instructing peopleDelft. Bottema elaborated on the ideas and madecompromises on price, feasibility and other requirements. An instructionTwo concepts were developed based on working principles manual for both health workersand production of the existing LifeStraw. as users of the The final proposal consists of a slightly modified LifeStraw, LifeStraw was designed. 86
  • 87. Knowledge Framework: € Company Delft University of Tech. Graduation date July 29, 2006 Design4Billions Mijntje de Caluwé The strategy and business development for emerging markets is growing; starting with the theory of Prahalad, while the development of knowledge on product development for the Base of the Pyramid is still lagging behind. Enterprises and universities have difficulties in developing products for the emerging markets: a lack of structured or systematically ordered information inhibits efficient and effective product development, also referred to as Design4Billions in this project. Design4Billions aims at a market of approximately 4 billion people who earn less than four dollars a day. The goal of the project of Mijntje de Caluwé was to develop a knowledge framework for product development for emerging markets. It should provide a knowledge source for projects at the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering. Knowledge from experts was gathered on three topics: knowledge, product development process and contextual Screenshot of the online knowledge framework on the ‘stakeholders’ page. aspects. A fourth was added after the interviews: risk factor. Product development for the BoP is carried out by a number of companies. Yet little public knowledge exists on how to deal with design related problems for emerging markets. Through a series of explorative interviews with eight experts, De Caluwé gathered knowledge and insights. These were integrated in an online knowledge portal ( Designer Related Knowledge Specific design related knowledge was subdivided in four aspects: attitude, experience, information and skills. The two main perspectives of designers were either an engaged,87
  • 88. www.design4billions.compersonal attitude towards the BoP, or an accidental financial, Governmental and Designer.entering of this market segment. Individual experiences 3 Designers4Billions and their main focus points areare important to designers, and are related to the product mentioned and described in the categories: knowledge,brand, the role of the participant and the project context. context, process and risk.For information gathering, multinational companies rely 4 Collaboration is stressed as the means to achieveon consumer research, while small and medium sized successful product development in a BoP use Non-Governmental Organizations and the Additional features are provided in the form of ‘tips &World Heath Organization to gain insight into their target tricks’, a BoP library, an inspiration page including links togroups. For designers in the BoP, their social skills are most interesting websites, and a list of definitions.valuable, an open mind, flexibility and communication arekey factors. The product development process relates to five aspects:strategy formulation, design requirements, product The Delft Innovation Model adjusted for emerging markets.development, market introduction and product in use. Theprocess bottlenecks are the design requirements and theproducts in use.FrameworkThe perspective of the designer was central whilestructuring the knowledge for future use by designers. Theonline knowledge database contains all the information thatis gathered during the research project. The frameworkorganizes knowledge on product development for the BoPin four main ‘chapters’:1 Global village, which contains general information about the place Design4Billions takes in a global world context.2 The stakeholders of product development for the BoP are mentioned and described: Business, Humanitarian, Local enterprises, Knowledge, Technological, User, Micro 88
  • 89. Photo: Ferry89
  • 90. Girl GettingWater in FavelaRio de Janeiro, Brazil 90
  • 91. Product Service System € Company Bosch & Siemens Graduation date July 7, 2006 for Plant Oil Stove Elselien Epema Car Wash Scenario New Business Do It Yourself Scenario Several In developing countries, indoor air pollution and deforestation scenarios forIn this scenario the PSS is a In this scenario the PSS pro- of land are the two main environmental and health problemssystem that takes care of ev- vides the tools and needs implementationerything. The POS user only through a new system, but of the plant occurring due to the use of biomass fuel for household without helping the users ac-has to address the need tively oil stove were energy. Bosch and Siemens Home Appliances Group (BSH) made. The and the University of Hohenheim have developed a plant oilService Do It Yourself most promising cooking stove. Plant oil is abundant in rural areas of many Vintage Scenario Familiar Scenario scenario wasIn this scenario the PSS turns In this scenario the PSS turns the “vintage developing countries, so this market is very promising fora current business into a com- a current business into a com- scenario”, shown implementing the stove. A pilot project with a non-profitbination with the POS supply bination with the POS supply in the lower leftand service and service focus was executed in the Philippines. quadrant. Elselien Epema developed a business plan to implement Existing Businesses the plant oil stove in the Philippine market. She wrote a business plan and created a financial tool to demonstrate the financial feasibility of the stove implementation plan. Product Service System POTCThe Product Service System includes distribution, marketing and after sales of the plant oil stove and supplements. All partners should beorganized as shown in the figure.91
  • 92. www.bsh-group.comSafety, Time and Convenience oil stoves could be seen as a product service system. BothSeveral households in the Philippines have been using products, including the stove and fuels, and service, suchprototypes of the plant oil stove. After a year, research as training and maintenance, should be delivered. To showconcluded that the advantages of the stove for the users are potential systems, Epema made several scenarios, eachsafety, time, convenience and the package-size fuel. Also the consisting of goals and ideas for implementation.uniqueness and use of new technology makes it interesting The most promising scenario was the ‘vintage scenario’,for Philippines to use the stove. A plan to market the stove where a current business is modified into a combination ofsuccessfully should focus on these points, according to stove supplier and service provider. By using an existingEpema. However, affordability is always the first priority. business, the implementation would be easier and more In her research, she focused on understanding the effective towards end group needs and possibilities. The target group The chain included three parties: the plant oil technologyis not aware of all predefined benefits such as improved centre, distribution and service centres and a and environmentally friendly. She also surveyed The centres are responsible for marketing the stoves andpotential business partners or competitors and the current service and are set up by local entrepreneurs. Each sellinglocal market. Switching from wood and charcoal to plant point of the cooperative has a plant oil tank with a tapoil would raise initial costs for both restaurants and system. Consumers bring their containers and fill thesehouseholds; however, switching from LPG to plant oil would with oil. No packaging is needed and the consumer can buybe more profitable, because of reducing energy costs and exactly the amount he prefers.initial investment. Finance Epema also extracted important business model factors Product prices needs to be adjusted to the user’s financialfrom literature. For business partners it is important to possibilities by subsidizing by BSH. Also, users can pay inorganize clear local communication, take care of the instalments. The financial model predicts that entrepreneursrelationships and look for partners close to the local people. can earn twice the minimum monthly income for a fulltimeAll products should be affordable to the target group, employee.promotion, location and opening hours adjusted to local The financial model is translated into a financial tool, toconditions. High quality after-sale service would improve visualize the influence of decisions and the sensitivity ofthe use of the stove as well. variables. Also, the subsidy and selling prices are defined.Product and Service Epema recommended a lowering of material costs, localThe system for the distribution and service centre of plant production of the stove burner and an increased lifespan of replaceable parts. 92
  • 93. Tricycle for Disabled € Company Movendi FDN and MAK-D Graduation date July, 2006 Entrepreneurs Integral Design Project - GhanaMoves Executed by Rutger Bonsel, Sietse Cieraad, Stéph- anie Reintjens and Imke Schepers The Movendi Foundation, a Dutch Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), aimed at helping physically disabled in emerging markets, has projects in Kakinada, India. The NGO also has founded several workshops in mobility equipment, which are owned by local people. A team of the second year Master course Integral Design Project searched The two concepts, hip-spot and high-spot, were developed in for new product-market opportunities for one of the local cooperation with the local metal workshop Mak-D in Ghana. metal workshops in Ghana, called MAK-D. MAK-D Metal Works is a small metal workshop in Madina- Accra and has one owner and seven employees. They focus on the production of fences, furniture, vendor carriers and tricycles for disabled. Due to a lack of financial support, the company is not able to produce tricycles anymore. The aim of this project was to support MAK-D in growing its business in a sustainable manner. They approached the problem by developing a new product that integrates the interests of the company, the customers, the users of the product and society. Employing Disabled People The team did market research in the medical sector, as well as in several other sectors. They investigated the situation of disabled children in Ghana, they visited rehabilitation centres in Kumasi and Accra and interviewed local people of Ghana. From this explorative research they drew conclusions that directed their process: Prototypes of the concept were developed to enable • The situation of young disabled children in Ghana is user testing in the context of intended use.93
  • 94. quite good, due to efforts of Liliane Funds and Nsawam donate the vendor carriers as an act of charity. In this Orthopedic Centre. scenario, the disables people would become owner• The Ghanaian society is annoyed by disabled who are of the vendor carrier and can become independent begging on the street. entrepreneurs.• Only a small portion of the disabled is actually begging, High-Spot Tricycle the major part of the disabled population is willing to Two concepts were developed in cooperation with MAK-D: work but cannot find employment. The ‘Hip-spot’ and the ‘High-spot’. Both concepts were madeThe team also identified that there is severe competition into prototypes using the means available in the the metalwork sector, especially in fences and furniture. The prototypes were tested by end-users, after which theThe sector is characterized by copy and imitation. And there team choose the ‘high-spot concept’.are no other producers of vendor carriers and tricycles in The trade-tricycle ‘High-Spot’ enables disabled people inMadina. From this the team concluded that: Ghana to involve in street-trade, the sector that provides• MAK-D is the only producer of mechanical products with employment to the major part of the population of wheels in its competitive environment. Ghana. Before they were not able to do so, however more• The trade sector is a lively sector; a major part of the organizations are stimulating participation of disabled. The Ghana economy is based on trading, where vendor implementation of the product also had to attract attention carriers are common. for all MAK-D’s activities and gave a boost to the overallFrom the external research a strategic product-market business of MAK-D.opportunity was formulated for MAK-D: Design of equipment The team developed a step-wise marketing plan forthat enables the disabled to participate in trade business. successfully launching the High-Spot. The implementationSelling or Donating? plan is divided into five parts: the marketing strategy,From a search for potential customers two possible scenarios product strategy, price strategy and financial issues, channeland target groups emerged. The first scenario was to find management and communication strategy.companies that sell provisions and are willing to sell their Furthermore, the team attracted the company Fanmilkproducts trough disabled people using the MAK-D vendor to be seriously interested in supporting the disabled to getcarrier. In this case, the disabled will act as vendors that sell employment. Consequently, a pilot test was intiated withthe companies goods, and are thus indirectly employed by three vendor carriers to sell their products. This pilot was €the company. done in cooperation with the Ghana Society of Physically The second scenario was to search for other companies, Disabled and Hope for Life and was enthusiastically receivedNGOs or service clubs, rotaries etc. These parties would by the local stakeholders 94
  • 95. Human Powered € Company Inbar Graduation date June 21, 2006 Bamboo Splitting Tool Willem Glasbergen Bamboo grows in many parts of the world. Many of these Compared to other natural areas have in common that a large part of the inhabitants Strength/Mass per Volume materials, bamboo has live in poverty. This project was part of the objectives of a very high strength to stiffness ratio. INBAR, International Organization for Bamboo and Rattan, Stifness/Mass per Volume which aims to develop rural livelihoods, environments and businesses worldwide through bamboo and rattan. One of the possible applications of bamboo is in the production of matchsticks. INBAR developed a patented chemical process for producing the burning heads, yet the sticks are still produced manually and inefficiently. Willem Glasbergen aimed to develop a more efficient way to produce the sticks from bamboo in the local context and with local means. Bamboo Splitting Concrete Steel Wood Bamboo Glasbergen analysed the results of a previous project at the faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, and performed a number of tests to gain more insight into bamboo splitting. Bamboo is a tall grass that belongs to the tribe called ‘Bambusae’. Compared to other natural materials, bamboo has a very high strength to stiffness ratio. This makes it useful for a multitude of applications, from construction of large buildings to incense sticks and especially suited for matchsticks. Currently, the splitting of bamboo into matchsticks is done by hand using a knife, called the ‘dao’ (see figure on the left). This process is labour intensive and inefficient compared to the efficiency of the patented The Bamboo Splitter is very efficient for local production of process of attaching the burning heads to the sticks. matchsticks. First a slice tool is The goal of the tool was to produce good quality used to produce long slices of matchsticks, produce them more efficiently, adjusted to the bamboo. After that, this manual tool is used to produce sticks local context and produced locally. from the long slices.95
  • 96. www.inbar.intThe focus was on the relation between the tool and theuser, the production and transportation of the tool and Using the Bamboo Splitting Tool for Matchsticksthe economics of producing such a tool on a larger scale. 1 Bamboo is inserted into a feeder. The feeder has a springTherefore, a second analysis phase was done in India that pushes the bamboo into the machine, and in front of(Andhra Pradesh) to understand the local context of rural the rotating blade.India. The initial concept was redesigned and resulted in 2 A crank rotates the tool. This direct human poweredthree concepts. One of the concepts was chosen and a rotation can also be replaced by bicycle power.prototype was built by a local workshop. The prototype was 3 The slices are inserted into the machine, in a queue, whichalso tested in India after which the results of the project is pushed towards the blade using gravitation as a force.were documented in the Netherlands. 4 Sticks are produced with the same process as described in step 3.Agarbathi ProductionThe concept chosen is based on the principle of a blademounted on a large steel fly-wheel. The wheel rotates in acase and has two openings for feeding the bamboo material.Both bamboo halves and slices can enter the machine atthe same time. The slices and matchsticks will be collected The prototype of the human powered bamboo matchstick splitterinside the wheel. The production of sticks is done in several demonstrated the potential for local production. On the left the feeder mechanisms are visible; on the right the rotation crank issteps, shown in the box on the right. shown. The Bamboo Splitter is very efficient for local production The process of building the machine in India resulted in of matchsticks. First a slice tool is used to produce long slices ofvery useful information with regard to the local production bamboo. Next, people can use this manual tool to produce sticksfacilities. One of the most important conclusions of the from the slices.project is to use a machine for producing slices and asmaller manual tool to produce sticks. This will enable theproduction of low cost matchsticks and meanwhile willgenerate additional employment opportunities. For example,the agarbathi (incense sticks) production in India is similarto the production of matchsticks and can be improved as €well. 96
  • 97. Improving the Climate of € Company Helps International Graduation date June 16, 2006 Cooking Areas Marike Bijtelaar The traditional use of firewood as energy source for cooking The ONIL is popular among poor Guatemalans. However, the open fire Stove has an results in burns, eye problems and respiratory problems. insulated ceramic Helps International, a US Non-Profit Organization, developed combustion several wood combustion cooking stoves, resulting in a final chamber that concept with a chimney: the ONIL stove. makes the fire During the last five years of implementation of the stove, burn hot enough Helps evaluated the improved stoves. According to users to consume the oil the main benefit is saving firewood: 50-67% less than when vapour, and thus using open fires. However, 28% of the users still use open uses all potential fires for heating their homes and on special occasions. wood energy. Marike Bijtelaar traced the reasons for this and developed In order to make the idea of the tabletop work, features for the ONIL stove to improve the usage. the use of the current amount of radiation of the ONIL stove had to be optimized. Using Open Fire From user research, Bijtelaar formulated main reasons of using the open fire: it provides heat and drives off humidity. The social aspects of family gatherings and cooking large meals are also important. In some regions, people use the fire as a source of light. Other comments on the stove were the relatively small working and cooking space and continuous fire maintenance required. In the second part of the user research, she investigated the awareness of the people concerning the health problems. She concluded that the interviewed women are aware of the problems and disadvantages of open fires, but do not know an alternative solution. Bijtelaar concluded that solutions to improve the climate should be fixed, not influencing the cooking activities, not produce any smoke, offer the possibility to Heating by radiation: The smoke gases are lead through a metal sheet radiator with a large surface area. When no space heating is needed, the gather around and decrease the use of firewood as energy normal chimney outlet is used.97
  • 98. www.helpsintl.orgsource. made a prototype of the heater with a flat back surface and tested this on a small scale.Less Energy Demand The second solution, a tabletop, can easily be placed aroundBijtelaar approached the problem with the ‘Trias Energetica’ the stove and creates a social meeting, working, sitting andapproach, starting with diminishing the energy demand. eating place close to the stove. When people gather closeThe second step is providing in the energy demand as much to the stove, the relatively small amount of radiative heatas possible with sustainable energy sources. The third step produced by the stove is optimally used. She designed twois using fossil fuels for the remaining energy demand. concepts, with the distinction based on the construction She summarized important aspects in a scoring card and on the stove: stacking or clamping. Both concepts wereanalysed the energy demand for heating the cooking area. prototyped and tested with women of the target group.The scoring card lead to practical solutions, but Bijtelaar The tests proved that the tabletop indeed invites peopleconcluded that a demand for space heating remained, even to sit closer to the stove.with applying the solutions. The chimney heater can After generating ideas, she categorized them and produce space heatingselected two directions: optimally using the radiative heat at the cooking area andof the stove by gathering around it and using the heat of Guatemalan womenthe smoke in the chimney. Main arguments: they do not were able to controlrequire extra fuel, cooking performance is maintained and the valve system thatthe stove body elements do not need adjustment. Both produced heat. Also,ideas were elaborated further, with detailing alternatives for from the test results,every sub solution. Bijtelaar recommendedChimney Heater and Tabletop further developmentThe chimney heater can be placed on the stove instead of of both features, andthe standard chimney. The heater uses the waste heat of suggested material,the chimney gases for space heating and can be switched construction and shapeon and off by a valve system. The chimney pipe enters and improvements.leaves the heater at the bottom and the top of the heater,so the exhaust gases contact the complete surface of the With a prototype thechimney heater. Users could operate the heater by a valve functioning of the chimneyplaced inside the heater that controls the gas flow. Bijtelaar heater to heat the cooking area was tested. 98
  • 99. Safe Drinking Water € Company Graduation date Philips Domestic Appliances April 28, 2006 Maria Nguyen Worldwide, 6000 children die every day due to water-related diseases. The average distance women in Asia and Africa have to walk for water is 6 kilometres. These two aspects are examples of typical problems that occur within the Base of the Pyramid (BoP). People at the BoP have to cope with these problems daily, while safe, sufficient, affordable, accessible and acceptable drinking water is a basic human right. The goal of this project was to make a sustainable design proposal for a safe drinking-water system that is adoptable by the BoP in India, fitting within the mission and scope of the new sustainable business initiatives of PhilipsThe redesign of the Water4Life concept included improvements on the closing Domestic Appliances. of the lid, the ease of cleaning and the installation and maintenance of the The Water4life filter concept has been developed by filter. Details of the proposed solutions are shown at the right. DSM. This multinational company develops amongst others industrial chemicals and performance materials. They developed the filter membrane for the Water4life concept. This was incorporated into a product and tested in user research to obtain user insights. The product proposition for this project was based on the outcomes of this user research. Furthermore, for a successful adoption of the product by the target group, a well worked out implementation strategy was developed. Water Filtering Potential users in India evaluated the Water4life concept. The research was carried out in cooperation with three Non-Governmental Organizations during twelve weeks in Pune and Madurai (villages and slums) in India with twenty participants. The research consisted of four parts: The add-on concept for existing water vessels was observation of current situation, usability tests, follow- developed to fit on any water vessel available.99
  • 100. observation, and group evaluation discussions. The difficulties with closing the lid and do not understand theobjectives were aimed at: usability insights regarding the order of the actions they have to perform. Tests with theWater4life prototype, gathering data about the performance plastic prototype indicated that users do not understandof the Water4life concept under local conditions and how to use the valve and spill much water.collecting user feedback. After the introduction of the improved concept, Nguyen Nguyen used the user research results to generate held group discussions with local users. They resulted incriteria for the product development phase. The concept comments about the taste, smell and clearness of the water.development resulted in two product proposals. The first They also indicated a preference for stainless steel. She alsois an improved version of the existing Water4life water found that the pumping action needed too much effort frompurifier. The second product proposal is based on the the users and the maximum volume of the concept was tooobservation of the multitude of water vessels existing in small. An affordable price was determined on around 500the Indian households, and is developed as an add-on to INR (€10).these vessels.Entrepreneurial WomenThe main goal of the implementation strategy was tocreate awareness regarding water and health issues.Other important factors are the distribution route and theavailability of after sales services. Some of the guidelinesincluded ‘use of low-cost promotion tools’ and ‘training inproduct use’. The key to entering the Indian BoP communityis the entrepreneurial woman responsible for promotion,sales and after-sales service. Women are chosen for this jobbecause they are known and trusted by the community. The research in the current situation shows a strongpreference for metal kitchenware, time-consuming waterpractices and very little awareness regarding health &water. The usability test showed that users forget to use A schematic representation of the strategy shows the various stakeholders and their relations.filter caps and do not press sides of the caps. The usertest with the metal prototype showed that people have 100
  • 101. Photo: Linda Schnieders101
  • 102. Girls in FavelasRio de Janeiro, Brazil 102
  • 103. Adoptable Woodstove € Company Philips Consumer Lifestyle Graduation date April 4, 2006 Leonie Ideler By using the Philips wood stove indoor air pollution could substantially At the Base of the Pyramid (BoP) in India, cooking is one decrease, therefore related health problems could decrease as well. of the most time-consuming activities during the day. People at the BoP usually cook with solid fuels on simple, inefficient stoves that fill their houses with smoke. Philips has developed a woodstove which decreases the amount of health-damaging pollutants in solid fuel emissions. Ideler developed this idea towards a product proposal and an implementation strategy to increase the adoption chance of this product by the rural BoP in India. Also, she defined guidelines for conducting user research and designing products for the BoP. Analysing the Philips stove, it was found that fast cooking and less fuel consumption are achieved by the product’s high efficiency. A fan blowing heated air through the fire and the PROMOTION ROUTE AWARENESS ROUTE low mass are the main reasons for this high combustion- Philips All aspects for and heat transfer efficiency. From previous projects and implementing training encountered barriers she formulated requirements for the awareness the Philips consumer teaching Powerstove product and implementation plan. insights are covered in the four routes Stove Saves Money and Time NGO State government of awareness, To gain more insight into the current way of cooking and promotion, the interaction with the Philips prototype, she conducted promotion funding production and finance. Every user research in India. Twenty-four households tested theconsumer satisfaction route has its prototype for at least eight cooking sessions (four days). and problems Anganwadi centres specific tools Although the response was very positive, it was concluded to reach its that some aspects of the product could still be improved. goal. Goal of the awareness She also used consumer insights in the promotion strategy: > convince men > convince women routes is to the smokeless stove does not darken the walls and ceiling communicate and eyes will not tear or get irritated. Also, less fuel Community the negative consumption results in saving money. long term health effects of smoke. The problems encountered in the user research were divided103
  • 104. categories concerning safety, preparation of Indian attention to the Philips woodstove and its benefits. Both thebread and comfort of use. In solving these subproblems, production and financial routes include local partnerships tothe focus was more on the urgent issues, leaving the more simplify purchasing a Philips woodstove.complex and less urgent for later on in the development Tools to reach the goals are for example instalments,process. Great attention was paid to user comfort, for product demonstrations and leaflets, wall paintings andexample by improving the user interface of the stove. posters. One of the most important tools in each route is working with partnerships. By explaining the four Ps,Implementation of the Powerstove namely product, price, place (distribution) and promotion,There are no successfully adopted products on the market to Ideler illustrated possible routes to plan the implementationfill the gap between the traditional cook stove and the ‘clean’ in rural India.and efficient LPG stove, which is too expensive for the targetgroup. Also, fuel availability is very unreliable, especially in Updaterural areas. The implementation strategy should be well- After Ideler’s graduation project the woodstove has beendesigned to create a successful and sustainable business developed further. Philips expects to launch the woodstovearound the new Philips Powerstove. The theory of Prahalad in India in the first half of 2009. Recently a commercial pilotwas a dopted, by paying extra attention to distribution to was completed in India, from which a great deal was learned.reach the target group. Unfortunately there were some delays in the project due to Potential stakeholders located in India were identified to a technical lifetime issue. This has recently been solvedhelp get information, products and services to the majority and local production is currently being prepared for. Philipsof the target group. The most effective way for reaching the realizes that a new market is about to be entered and thattarget group is by using Anganwadi centres, who provide their approach to marketing and distribution needs to beservice at the doorsteps of the community by trained health modifyied; Philips is currently optimizing their businesspersonnel and can be seen as the Indian government’s case and their go-to market strategy. As the initial focusdoorway into a village for its welfare programmes. is on successfully launching the product in India, plans for Covering all aspects of implementation, four routes were introduction in other countries have not been defined yet.defined; awareness, promotion, production and financialroutes include the various stakeholders involved and their The visual feedback and interface was also improved.actions needed to get the Powerstove to the consumer. Theawareness route should focus on the negative effects ofsmoke caused by a traditional stove. Promotion should pay 104
  • 105. Water Supply in € Company Delft University of Tech. Graduation date April, 2006 Slums:P.I.P.A. System Fernando Del Caro Secomandi Local users and other Water supply in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is in stakeholders are critical condition, especially for the poor. Even though mapped, including both proponents and approximately 90% of the population living in the city’s 752 opponents. Del Caro slums (a.k.a. favelas) manage to be connected to the mainSecomandi noticed that water distribution infrastructure, the situation is far from most of the favelas sustainable. An alarming 10% of those living in the slum are controlled by drug dealers or other lack access to an improved source of water. armed militias, which The water supplier uses a purification process including influences the parties tons of chemicals and produces waste that is thrown backwilling to be part of the system. in the river afterwards. The pumps that distribute the water through the city use enormous amounts of energy. Constant leakage and illegal connections consume about 50% of Uphill water the clean water. The water supply company Cedae, looses source profit because they are not able to install water meters and Hybrid system consumers are not always able to pay. P.I.P.A. System Provides Safe Water The P.I.P.A. System is an alternative for providing safe water. It converts rainwater into drinking water without using extra Floor level installation energy or chemicals. The system is fully independent from Setup of the P.I.P.A. system has many options, so each user can choose other sources or expensive infrastructure and untrained the most appropiate and effcient way of gathering rainwater. users can operate it. The design is user-oriented and fits into the daily life of Rapid granular filter Porous ceramic filter people seamlessly. Local culture, in particular the common kite playing of children, inspired the form. The collection surface can be rolled up, so people can still use the rooftop for normal activities. Also, the frame structure provides the opportunities for the addition of other products, such as security fences and clothes dryers. The operation is based on free and clean water from the System operation includes multi-stage filtration, storage and distribution.105
  • 106. sky. Total costs are kept to a minimum by simple construction, a country to economic growth, improve current physicalinexpensive technology and material use, small installation and immaterial infrastructure, and innovation at the Basecosts and it rarely needs maintenance. It can be partially of the Pyramid can be profitable and transferable to otheror even entirely produced within the community, utilizing countries.local labour and technologies, as well as readily available It was concluded that PSS research should to a greatermaterials. extent focus on the opportunities that are present in the The stakeholders of the system were mapped, both developing countries’ context, rather than trying to directlyproponents and opponents. It was noticed that most transfer literature knowledge.of the favelas are controlled by drug dealers or otherarmed militias. Violence is a major issue to consider whendeveloping products or services for use in favelas. He assessed alternative business models onenvironmental, socio-cultural and economic criteria. Aftera SWOT analysis he concluded a mixed-model of twoproposals would be best. A local cooperative is formedwith investments of Favela-Bairro, a major governmentprogram running with money from the Inter-American The collection surface can be rolled up to use the rooftop inDevelopment Bank, including the community association another functionality. Additions to the structural frame are possibleand a Non-Governmental Organization. After installing all to enhance this, such as fences and clothes dryers.P.I.P.A. systems, the cooperative will provide maintenanceand additional accessories and services.Literature ConclusionsAfter analyzing the literature available on PSS and thedesign, a number of relevant issues dealing with therelationship between PSS and developing countries’ contextwere presented. These issues were categorized underdrivers, benefits or opportunities. The opportunities thatwere found were: scanning the PSS context, anticipationof unsustainable technology application in the search of 106
  • 107. Contextualizing Products € Company Philips Design Graduation date February 2, 2006 Jon Rodriguez Sustainable business helps provide better healthcare solutions for the world’s poorest people. Creating products requires understanding of the context and the people. Philips had done research into this subject and has gathered a large amount of data through both professional and student projects. However, this data did not fit the specific designer’s informational needs during the product development process. Jon Rodriguez aimed to develop a design toolbox that provides insight into the healthcare context in rural India. First the boundaries of the project were explored. The tool should be used at the beginning of product The developed tools combine both descriptive and experimental development to identify opportunities. Also, it should build information which have been identitied as fundamental for on existing knowledge within Philips. Target audiences are getting insight into contexts that designers are not familiar with. design students and professionals as well as managers and technical developers. To visualize the different users, Rodriguez created personas, resulting in usage scenarios of the toolbox.Three different personas have been developed for the test of the toolbox, one From a first exploratory workshop, it was concluded that patient and two healthcare providers. The scenarios explain the interaction between the personas and put some of the problems in their context. professional designers as well as students need experiential information to design for an unfamiliar context. Secondly, getting insight in a context is a process, in which one receives experiential information and interacts with other people. The workshop gave hints to some interesting ideas to develop. The content and characteristics of the tools are visualized in a pyramid (see figure on the left). All personas use the descriptive parts, such as the introductory overview. Experiential information should trigger idea generation. The professional designer would use information in a workshop.107
  • 108., who eveluated this model, even wanted to participants received the booklet with more information andexperience the complexities of the Indian rural healthcare the login for the website.situation by going to India. At the first day of the workshop, each participant took one persona, read the scenario corresponding to the personaTools and was asked to role-play this persona. After developingThe final toolbox consists of several tools. The summary tool scenarios themselves, the second day they created solutionswas an introductory presentation to Indian rural healthcare. and mock-ups to play this scenario. The students showedFacts and figures are shown about India, and photographs their solutions to the health problem in an informance orof medical environments and service users provide insight informative performance to a multidisciplinary audience:in a global overview. A booklet was made to structure more experts from Philips design, Philips research and Philipsprofound information on the context. More background Medical Systems.of this information was presented at a secured website, The main contributions were that the experienceincluding papers on the topics. workshop gave insight into Indian rural healthcare; it could To experience the context, several tools were developed. be used to prepare designers to work in the context andThree video personas were developed; a patient, a nurse helped focusing on the relevant topics. In short the role-and a doctor. Then these the problems were put in their play made the (lack) of knowledge participants had aboutcontext by creating scenarios for several diseases, seen the context explicit. The bodystorming created an embodiedfrom the different points of view of the personas. and common understanding of the ideas and concepts Finally, perhaps the most important tool was developed, that were generated. The presentation of the ideas to thebased on learning gained about how to use role-play in audience of experts allowed for communicating the ideasdesign. A combination of the tools mentioned before was and concepts in their context.used and was combined with role-play in order to increase It was concluded that putting designers in the shoes ofthe engagement with the context and a role-play guidebook the people they are designing for does increase the insightwas written. Red health issue cards and green solution cards in people’s needs and engagement and understanding ofhelp designers to generate ideas and encourage creativity. the context.Workshop with StudentsRodriguez tested the toolbox in a two-day workshop, witha group of tool users: students. The test followed the sameorder as the toolbox sequence, starting with an introductionwith the summary tool a week in advance. Afterwards the 108
  • 109. Online Microfinance: € Company Microsoft & KIVA & DUT Graduation date Sept 14, 2006 into(context) Cale Thompson Microfinance has proven to be able to stimulate economical and social development in developing countries around the world. The young African organization KIVA started an initiative in early 2005 to enable individual people all over world to lend money to entrepreneurs in the developing world. For example African entrepreneurs post their business plans on the KIVA site to attract capital for micro loans from people all over the (developed) world. Through the use of ICT KIVA is delivering new opportunities to access capital for micro loans by partnering with existing Micro Finance Institutions (MFI). KIVA has thus created a channel through which those MFI’s can market their borrower’s stories via In all stages, local people helped and cooperated in understanding the the Internet to access inexpensive capital from individualproblem and the design of solutions. This people-driven approach results in a context sensitive understanding of the problem. The solution is again tested lenders. in the actual context of the intended use. Borrower’s Information Online Microsoft Research began the digital inclusion programme to try to develop solutions to overcome the barriers that face the developing world in gaining access to the resources that are necessary for sectors like education, agriculture, finance, governance and health. The Microsoft Digital Inclusion Initiative (DII) programme supports projects that try to overcome the digital divide between developed and developing world and that investigate the role of ICT in this context. The problem KIVA addresses fits the goal of DII. The KIVA concept had problems getting the borrowers’ stories online. Remarkably, interest and capital flowing from online lenders was not the limiting factor; instead the bottleneck was the ability of the partners to post the Testing the MiMoSo in the field. After taking a photograph with a mobile borrower’s information on the web. The users, or borrowers, phone it is uploaded to the KIVA website.109
  • 110. www.KIVA.orgmust have access to the Internet and become familiar values and behaviours within the system. During this two-with web navigation and content management. However month period Thompson identified bottlenecks regardingmany environmental factors can limit their ability to do so both the system and available technologies. Concepts andeasily. The goal of this multidisciplinary project led by Cale prototypes were generated to solve the bottleneck problemsThompson was to do research on appropriate technology in the third phase. The prototypes were tested in the fieldinteraction forms for MFI working in Uganda, Kenya and and evaluated qualitatively by users and quantitativelyTanzania. against the existing micro-lending system.into(context) Miracle Mobile SolutionThe main goal of the project into(context) was to do The project ended up with the development of the Miracleresearch and improve the interface between the technology Mobile Solution (MiMoSo). This is a piece of software thatand the MFI’s. The project consisted of five main stages allows Multi Media Service (MMS) messages to be sent fromincluding research preparation, context research, concept a mobile phone to an individual KIVA email address. Via thegeneration, prototype testing and dissemination. email address, the text and image are parsed and uploaded Driven by a people-centred design approach, the project to the KIVA website where they can be seen by lenders.started with asking questions in Africa rather than arriving Ultimately, the MiMoSo was tested in its intended contextwith an answer. This approach reflected the fact that the in Africa and has been implemented by KIVA. The projecttechnology should eventually fit the people and not the demonstrated the strength of a people-centred approachother way around. through the successful context-fit solution that was The research started with benchmarking existing developed. It also showed that the cell phone is a legitimatepractices for facilitating microfinance through technology. A technology platform to facilitate web-based activities.stakeholder mapping of the context of microfinance systemprovided a clear picture of individual stakeholder goals, Entrepreneurs can upload their business plans to the KIVA website via their mobile phones. Lenders can access the KIVA website and provide microloans to the entrepeneurs. € 110
  • 111. Creating Market Insight € Company Philips Medical Systems Graduation date Dec 23, 2005 for Designers Jonathan Stranders Philips Medical Systems (PMS), a large manufacturer of medical diagnostic and treatment equipment, is currently involved in creating business opportunities to serve the rural healthcare market of India. The healthcare market of rural India has many contrasting aspects compared to the western healthcare market. This concerns the type of patients, diseases, healthcare infrastructure and healthcare approaches. Jonathan Stranders focused on the widespread market of tobacco users in rural India, because of the high prevalence of one of the most common cancers in India, Especially the Indian youth increasingly uses tobacco. Tobacco industry oral cancer, is enhanced by tobacco use. nowadays aggressively markets (filtered) cigarettes instead of smokeless tobacco products (chewing tobacco and spit tobacco). To develop solutions that successfully meet the healthcare needs of the rural population, product designers must first get a good insight in the market to really understand the rural patient in relation to the involved stakeholders. However, thorough market research is time-consuming and expensive. Moreover, gathered information and experience are often lost because of its nature. Information like this is hard to communicate and transfer to other designers and succeeding projects. Stranders has developed a supporting software tool to create insight during the market analysis phase in product development. Web-Based Database The Market Insight Tool (MarkIT) meets the designer’s information needs on three aspects. Using a persona- scenario approach designers can empathize with the target group. To benchmark this information, the scenarios are enriched with experts who give their opinion on various A tool can help to bridge the gap from an undetermined and vague Western mindset of the rural healthcare context in India towards a more specified, issues. Also, the tool includes a glossary to give background unambiguous and defined awareness.111
  • 112. on unclear topics and words. zoom into the market situation on micro-level: individualThe tool is web-based in order to be accessed by Philips persons. That helps both strategic and practical designersdesigners all over the world. The database structure enables to get more insight in the needs, but strategic designersother employees, such as market researchers, to insert new demand more statistics next to personas. Designersinformation effectively. In this way, the tool functions as an evaluated the tool during other stages of the developmentinteractive communication platform. process as a useful support and source of inspiration. Because of the visual orientation of designers, StrandersInsight in Market Context concluded that the prototyped tool had too much textThe tool was prototyped and tested with a group of instead of pictures and movies. Hence the content of the finalproduct designers. Stranders asked what they thought of version should have a better balance between textual andthe web-based database structure and the contents. The visual information. Also, the tool should be validated usingtests showed that MarkIT succeeds in communicating the real experts. The MarkIT tool does succeed in structuringhealthcare market to product designers in a structured way the information on the market and enhances the individualand that it saves time during the first phases of a product insight of designers in the specific situation.development project. Using personas helped designers to MarkIT meets the designer’s information needs by making use of the persona-scenario approach in order to empathize with a rural person. 112
  • 113. Photo: Jaap Daalhuizen113
  • 114. Man at HomeChongming Island,China 114
  • 115. Device for Early Oral € Company Philips Medical Systems Graduation date Nov 11, 2005 Cancer Detection Suzanne Hendrikse Oral cancer is a major health problem in the rural areas of India, 50 to 70% of the cancer cases are oral cancer. Early detection in the pre-malignant state of oral cancer can prevent surgical intervention. Philips aimed, via a partnership with Manipal University of higher education in India, to develop a portable device for early detection of oral cancer. The product is meant for use in the rural areas by local medical staff and in local facilities. Furthermore, the detection should be done using the Light Inducing Fluorescence (LIF) technique. The project fits the Philips social responsibility programme. Oral Cancer Detection In rural India, limited medical facilities and staff are available. Chewing Oral cancer has a long process of developing from a pre- tobacco is a popular practise, but it is also a major cause of oral cancer. cancerous, non-malignant state into lethal oral cancer. In addition to low oral hygiene in addition, oral cancer occurs often. Early detection and a corresponding change in life-style of the patients can eliminate the risk factors that cause the cancer. This should prevent the necessity to remove the lesions surgically in a later stage. Factors that complicate the detection and treatment of cancer are stigma on cancer and low awareness of the disease. The social factor of developing a cancer detection device is an important aspect of the design problem. Chewing tobacco is a mayor cause of oral cancer and a popular product in India. The oral hygiene of people in rural India is also low, and limited medical facilities and staff are available. These social aspects have been major factors that determined the design of the detection device. The demonstration model of the oral cancer detection Light Induced Fluorescence device showed advantages such as three colour When oral tissue is exposed to high-energy light, it emits diagnosis, simple interface and precise handling.115
  • 116. diffuse, low energy light. The resulting spectrum can be medical staff from urban areas to rural areas on the shortanalysed and gives insight into the health of the tissue. term. On the long term, community health workers shouldThis method is called Light Induced Fluerescence (LIF) be trained to detect cancer at an early stage and handle thetechnique. By using LIF, oral cancer can be detected even detection device.before it becomes visible to the eye. The advantages ofLIF detection are its speed, the fact that one can avoidunnecessary biopsies and a painless procedure. The development of the device started with understandingthe problem of early cancer detection in the context of ruralIndia. A multidisciplinary approach was used to understandthe problem from eight different perspectives. This resultedin a list of design guidelines that was context sensitive.Insights from for example physicists, patients, dentists,etc lead to the rich basis on which the product was furtherdeveloped. Sub problems were solved individually andintegrated into a demonstration model. This was optimizedand developed into a final product design.Early Cancer Detection DeviceThe design phase started with designing and making ademonstration model to show relevant strong points: threecolour diagnosis, simple interface and precise handling.The limitations that surfaced from feedback were lowsafety of the probe, low portability, unfriendly appearanceand unsatisfactory housing compartments. The finaldesign featured improved functionality on the portability,measurement, interface and manufacturability. The implementation of the product asks for an activeapproach of early cancer detection, which the current staffdoes not yet have. Hendrikse recommends transferring 116
  • 117. Solar Lighting € Company Ecofys / Kamworks Graduation date October 28, 2005 Stephen Boom About 90% of the Cambodian households have no access The lighting resembled the form of the Angkor Wat, to a secure and reliable electricity infrastructure for lighting. which is a traditional temple They mostly (55%) use car batteries as electricity storage Cambodians are proud of. to power television and lighting. Providing these people with safe and reliable electric lighting is a small, but important step to overcome their impoverished situation. Kamworks, a start-up solar company considered Cambodia’s problems and solar resources as an opportunity for local production of solar lighting products. The lights should fit to the purchase power of rural households. The company started a project in cooperation with Ecofys, in which Boom researched the market and designed the solar lighting product. Translating Needs Prior to the product development phase of the project, field research was conducted in Cambodia; visiting and researchgin people in rural areas. Both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the lighting needs of the target group were reserached. A translator translated the questions and answers for the research, but sometimes informed the respondents too much, or when they talked for half an hour, he simply translated it with a short ‘yes’. Boom showed people pictures of available lighting solutions and confronted them with a solar lantern. This survey resulted in understanding the requirements that a new solar powered product should fulfill. They mentioned the product should be affordable and of high quality. The plastic look of the lantern was associated with modern, high quality and status (instead of for example bamboo). Generally, people thought that solar energy was Angkor Light can be placed on a table or hung from the ceiling.117
  • 118. www.kamworks.comexpensive and would not provide enough energy during Angkor Lightthe rainy season. Apparently, creation of awareness of the The final design was a vacuum-formed quality lanternadvantages of solar energy would be an important sales called Angkor Light. The design appealed to Cambodiasissue. national symbol, the temples of Angkor, which Cambodians Boom also investigated the local distribution and are very proud of. Vacuum forming is an appropriateproduction possibilities for solar lanterns. A questionnaire technology for a start-up company like Kamworks. Itabout solar lanterns among retailers concluded that more combined the advantages of low investments and simplethan half of them were interested in selling solar lanterns, processes. The technology was applicable for relatively lowwith a maximum price of $50 and a profit of 10%. The production volumes (up to 10,000 per year). The mouldsproduct should be easy to understand, because the retailers could be produced locally and were cheap in comparisondid not want to be responsible for the consequences for with injection moulding. The Angkor Light used replaceablemalfunctioning. Quality and availability of spare parts was quality electrical components. The product would fit to anan important issue for them. international standard (“PV-GAP”) to encourage quality solar products for the global market.Vacuum Forming and Reflector Combined Boom finally built a second prototype, which would beField research resulted in three product-market combinations used for a more profound market evaluation of the product(PMC) of affordable lighting for rural people. The first was in Cambodia.extending the lifetime of car batteries, the next combinationwas a solar powered headlight. The third PMC, a mobile Awardedsolar lantern, has been selected for further elaboration. The World Bank 2006 Development Marketplace awarded In a technical analysis Boom selected the light source, Kamworks with $174,000 for developing an innovativebattery type and solar cells. Next, he generated several distribution model. The model aims at training youngproduct sketches. Boom detailed a combination of two Cambodians to become micro-entrepreneurs in asolution clusters, vacuum forming and using a reflector. project called “Rural electrification through solar micro-Several concepts were generated using the reflector in entrepreneurship indifferent ways. He chose a lamp with a separate reflector Cambodia”. It is alsothat could be placed on top of the lamp and built a starting up assembly ofprototype. Fifteen potential end-users living in the rural its own solar products,areas of Cambodia evaluated the products functionality, to start with the ‘Angkorrobustness and appearance as positive. Light’. 118
  • 119. Adoptability of the € Company Philips Domestic Appliances Graduation date October 21, 2005 U-Specs Roseliek van de Velden Philips has been operating worldwide for many years, yet they have mainly targeted at the top segment of the markets. Philips is now entering the largest segment of the market in India, the Base of the Pyramid (BoP), and needs suited approaches and business models to reach the people that live from an income beneath the poverty line. The theory of Prahalad provides a business model to deal with the circumstances in the BoP, yet very little is known about actual product development for the BoP. In this graduation project guidelines were developed for product development for the BoP in India, based on a case study on U-Specs. U-Specs is a concept for affordable spectacles that can be adjusted to compensate for refractive error by the user.Participatory research resulted in useful local knowledge to develop solutions. Cultural Context Product development for the BoP involves designers (and a company) that develop products for a different cultural context. In this project participatory techniques were used to do consumer research and understand the needs of the people in the BoP, to understand how users would adopt the U-Specs and to check the scenario that described the implementation of the product in the Indian BoP context. Users were involved to give insight into, for example, how the problems concerning sight impairment were interpreted. This showed that instead of being viewed as a health problem, sight impairment is seen by the consumers as a well-being problem. The analysis was started with the definition of search fields, after First a difference between the needs of the consumers which the u-specs were analyzed. An idea generation and scenario development phase followed. Finally guidelines were defined for and the ones of the government and Non-Governmental future product development for the Indian BoP.119
  • 120. www.u-specs.orgOrganizations (NGOs) was detected. The NGOs andgovernment see a problem in uncorrected refractive General guidelineserrors that are causing sight impairment. They see that it · Partnering with NGOs and governmental bodies necessary;is hampering education, causing rehabilitation costs, and · In the BoP an open mind is a prerequisite for success;causes a loss of productivity. The consumers however usually · Transparency; communicate intentions of stakeholders;do not recognize sight impairment and its consequences as · Organization should facilitate shared decision making;a problem. They rather ignore that there is a problem at · Volunteers could enable experimental BoP projects;all. · Consumers have different priorities than NGOs and The barriers that existed in the India BoP were linked to Governmentthe competences of Philips to find opportunities for product Processdevelopment. · Find the barriers of a problem before trying to solve it; · Map Barriers to Core Competences;Guidelines · Use local experts’ knowledge for interpretation of data.The case study resulted in a list of guidelines for productdevelopment for the BoP in India. The guidelines were Remote product development guidelinescategorized in four groups, namely general guidelines, · Gain input from different locations to make the productguidelines to optimize the process, remote product suitable for a broad target group;development guidelines and adoptability guidelines. These · Increase respondent feedback: propose multiple options;guidelines are described at the right. · Increase feedback on conflicts with proposed scenarios by forming groups of similar stakeholders in user research; Barriers were · Provide sufficient input to prevent biases; linked to core competences · Detailed content needed for input design workshop. of Philips DAP Adoptability guidelines to ensure a successful · Accessibility, empowerment and reliability are the most product important aspects for adoptability by the BoP market;NGO development · The adoptability is best considered in both product design process. and scenario; · Use the guidelines on implementing aspects of adoptability: accessibility, compatibility, reparability, empowerment, affordability, desirability, reliability, usability and comfort. 120
  • 121. Natural Fibres in Doors € Company NPSP Composieten BV Graduation date November 18, 2005 and Windows Joan Boekhoven NPSP Composites BV produces composites based on natural and conventional fibres. The company intends to promote usage of natural materials like flax- and jute-reinforced composites. They have developed an innovative production method that could be used in combination with natural fibres. The labour intensive manufacturing process made production in low wage countries sound profitable. The company chose for India for expanding their production Boekhoven based her final process for three reasons. First, India is rich in natural design on the thick concept, that replaced conventional fibres. Second, India has low wages for labour. Third, NPSP materials like wood and wanted to provide for some of the profound needs of thereinforced carbon-carbon (RCC). very poor, such as housing. In this project the possibilities of manufacturing fibre-composite products in India were explored. Rising Costs in Building Sector After an internal analysis of NPSP, an overview of theCoir fibre Wood Polyurethane foam strengths and weaknesses of the company was created. Local potential business partners could increase their own Mould production capacity and benefit from the knowledge transfer Details Coir fibre mat of NPSP. In this way, NPSP could give the composite sector the opportunity to specialize. The most promising partners Polyurethane for a joint venture with NPSP were the companies Festel foam Doors and Water Tanks, and Technocraft. Woven fibre coir mats are From an external analysis, Boekhoven concluded that Wooden placed in a metal mould, frame specific knowledge on composites is not commonly available. covered by polyurethane foam and another mat. Also, the building sector is dealing with rising costs of The mould is closed and Coir fibre mat conventional materials such as wood, cement, concrete and the polyester resin sucked steel, because of its increasing scarcity. inside. Mould After an hour the product Using the formulated strengths and weaknesses with can be discharged.121
  • 122. www.npsp.nlthe found opportunities and threats, three product- in a choice for the thick concept, which was elaboratedmarket combinations were formulated. The first included further.developing a product to lower the rural housing costs. Also, Low Costs and Weightin the field of hygiene, a product to improve more people’s The final design proposal could meet all criteria. Its purchasebathing and sanitary conditions could be developed. costs would be 28% lower than its wooden alternative. ItAnother product would provide easier access to water. For was found that highly decorated and arched designs wouldall three combinations, the design problems were identified appeal to Indians. Moreover, the environmental soundand product ideas were generated. After selection, by using material is maintenance free; it is corrosion resistant, nonine weighted criteria, it was decided to elaborate within painting or pesticides are needed and it will not swell likethe house & construction field. wood does.Thick Window and Door Frames It would be manufactured using the vacuum assisted-The goal was to consider procedures of building houses in resin transfer moulding process in which NPSP is specializedurban as well as in rural areas. The costs of a basic house (see figure on the left page). A prototype (scale of 4 on 1)were calculated and the elements that might be replaced by was manufactured to show details and possible decoration.natural fibre reinforced composite products were identified. To conclude the project, a marketing strategy for the finalThese were window frames and shutters, doorframes and product was developed. This included xtensive discussionsshutters, sometimes even entire roofs. Based on a number on the four aspects of the marketing mix: product, price,of reasons, it was decided to develop windows and doors, place and promotion.but mainly since these parts contribute most to the totalcosts of a house (23% of the total costs). However, theprices of existing alternatives could hardly be met, so to The fringes were created with clay and somehave a product with an edge over the competition, an arch creativity. Alongside theor decoration was added. door shutter its clay There were two design concepts, the major difference details can be seen. It was chosen to decoratelaid in the thickness of the frames.. Within the thick this door with Lordconcept conventional materials like wood and RCC could Ganesh who is supposedbe replaced; the thin concept replaced materials like steel to bring luck andand coir. Evaluating the advantages and disadvantages on prosperity.production, costs and appearance of both concepts resulted 122
  • 123. Small scale cassava € Company Intermech Engineering Ltd 2004 Graduation date starch processing Dirk Smallenbroek All over the world the demand for starch is rapidly growing. Traditional starch sources (potato) in the western world have reached their limits in growing capacity. At this moment in Tanzania all starch is being imported, although the agricultural industry supplies sufficient amounts of starch containing crops and is capable of increasing production. Cassava, a tropical tuber, is one of these starch containing crops. Now the main part of the cassava production is used for human consumption. The cassava is processed. Grated, dried and milled to flour, which is the base for various meals. Intermech is a Tanzanian company designing and manufacturing cassava graters, at this moment used for local small scale processing of cassava for human consumption. This grater is also suited for the first step of the winning of starch from cassava. For the next steps of this process a machine line was to be designed, fitting on to the grater qua philosophy and capacity, manufactured by Intermech and capable of supplying high quality cassava starch for the Tanzanian industry. Promoting Cassava For Tanzania it is now important to take the step towards producing big scale amounts of cassava, in order to provide starch to the world market. This can be achieved by promoting the planting of cassava amongst the small farmers all over Tanzania. The goal is that with the development of this machine and giving the people an opportunity to increase the value of their harvested cassava, we can contribute to the scale up of the amount of cassava grown in Tanzania. In Tanzania the cassava starch winning is still done the traditional way. The possibility for local farmers to process their harvested123
  • 124. www.intermech.bizcrops into agricultural products which are better to store and For Tanzania it is now important to take the step ofto transport will result in a decrease in post harvest losses. growing cassava on a larger scale so it can become anAdditionally, the processing of cassava offers the farmers an important supplier of starch to the world market. With thisopportunity to add value to their harvested crops, creating project a small step is set towards a more sustainable andthe possibility of investing in their own farming company. better economic developed future for Tanzanian cassavaThis way the first step to further mechanize the cultivation farmers.and irrigation of the land and thus increasing the efficiency.This will be resulting in the important growth of the nationalagriculture output. Furthermore, this way of processingoffers a change of cooperation between local farmers andlocal industry, reducing the distance in supply chain andstimulating the local agriculture.Local demands and needsWithin this project it has been demonstrated that a smallgroup of people can give the start to tackle a large nationalproblem (how to promote cassava, so the agriculturalproduction and security of the national food demand isincreased) when the problem is approached from thebottom up. It has also shown that small productioncompanies in less developed countries do not necessaryneed to copy the designs of existing machines of (inter)national competition. With the implementation of the basicsof the design process these companies can come up withunique innovative products that are designed to fulfil thespecific (local) needs. Since these products and machinesare designed and manufactured in Tanzania, they meet thelocal circumstances (for example no running water) anddemanded scale much better. Besides this, the repair and The University team & the Intermech team with the prototype.maintenance of the machines can be executed locally. € 124
  • 125. Photo: Jaap Daalhuizen125
  • 126. Toilet in a RuralVillageChongming Island,China 126
  • 127. Epilogue The first learning experiences of Design for the BoP J.C. Diehl After browsing through all these Base of the Pyramid (BoP) graduation and IDP projects, one can state that a huge challenge for the design world lies ahead. Large as well as medium sized enterprises are becoming more and more interested in exploring the BoP to alleviate poverty and other sustainability problems as well as to exploit new consumer markets. The Base of the Pyramid is becoming both a strategic focus for long-term growth and critical for promoting social equity in line of the global companies’ sustainable policies. However, these markets remain poorly understood and success stories are far and few in- between. For a company or designer to be successful in these emerging and developing markets, it takes a lot more than Table 1: Summary of the identified differences in the Product Innovation just making minor modifications to existing products. They Process (Chang 2006). will have to develop new business and product innovation practices, capable of establishing a mutual value creation process between themselves and local stakeholders, as well Process Differences in the Product Innovation Process as to have a deep understanding of these new contexts, Motivation on CSR, new business model creation, and the issues and the opportunities related to the targeted Strategy local and NGO partnerships, Greenfield opportu- Formulation areas (Simanis and Hart 2006). nities, influences from government policy Design Brief Ethnographic research, NGO partnerships, Eco-Efficiency and Socio-Cultural Preferences local university collaboration, study local life, Formulation The challenge lies in the creation of accessible and live with the poor, listening deeply affordable solutions to fit the local economical and socio- Product NGO partnerships, local university cultural preferences, without expanding the current use Development collaboration (on pilot testing) of environmental resources (Rocchi 2006). The target NGO Partnerships (training, distribution, here is not only the poverty of the people in the BoP, but Product collect feedback), new channels, new busi- also the context in which they live, which tends to lack Launch ness models, local ecosystem setup traditional utilities, such as electricity, water, and gas (i.e. in rural Africa less than 2% of the population is connected 127
  • 128. Epilogueto the electricity grid). In addition ICT and transportation important is the willingness to listen deeply to the localinfrastructures are also often very weak. The outcomes people and local stakeholders, and understand what theyof the Intocontext project demonstrate that sometimes need, not what product innovators think they need.alternative solutions (mobile phone instead of internet via For example the demand for renewable electricity basedPC) are available but not used (see page 108). Most BoP light is a ‘derived demand’: no one wants electricial lightcommunities are fragile ecologically, so new products and in itself but rather for the services it can provide (ESMAPservices need to be very eco-efficient (Sethia 2005). In that 2000). The biggest unmet need is not for better illuminationperspective the Kamworks projects (see page 38, 40, 56 but for safety from fire, savings, and greater independence.and 116, on replacing kerosene lights solar powered lights) There should be added value in the products, which can beand the Philips Woodstove project (see page 102, on a recognized by consumers at the BoP. Second, markets indramatic increase of efficiency and avoidance of negative developing countries are not well developed, so it is necessaryhealth impacts) are convincing examples what Designing to develop basic channels and business models and valuefor the BoP can mean. chains in order to bring the products to the customers. The observed differences in the product innovation process areCritical Phases in Designing Products summarized in Table 1.From our experiences, we have learned that most Consequently, a basic starting point for successful productcompanies active in the BoP state the front end research innovation for the BoP is to understand people’s needs(Design Brief Formulation) and Product Delivery (Product and to interact with the material, economical and socio-Launch) as the two most critical phases in developing cultural world. Therefore, both researchers and designersproducts for the BoP market (See table on the right) (Chang should engage with the cultures directly. A unique set of2006). First, it’s critical to adapt products so that the fit the design and business tools and practices adapted from socialcontext and resources of the target group. Most challenges anthropology, ethnography and Participatory Rural Appraisalderive from the unfamiliarity with the local context and the (PRA) is being developed, applied and evaluated (Hartdistinct infrastructure in emerging markets. Although some 2004; Diehl and Kuipers 2008; Simanis and Hart 2008) forcompanies do have strong global resources and networks, designers and entrepreneurs.a sustainable local enterprise network is necessary for themto interact with the local community. Non-Governmental Design ToolsOrganizations (NGOs) play in this context a vital role in At the moment, various design tools (such as personas,the innovation process of several companies, especially cultural probes, scenarios and user profiles in context-of-when they intend to approach consumers at the BoP. Most use) are available to capture insights related users’ needs, 128
  • 129. aspirations and behaviour in their original contexts (Leonard and Rayport 1997; Sanders 2000; Rodríguez, Diehl et al. 2006). These new context and participatory techniques can introduce the end-user into the design process by co-design and get deeper information than the common focus groups or observational research methods (Sanders 2000; Gaver, Boucher et al. 2005). However most of them only have been applied in the ‘Developed Markets’. Currently we, at Delft University of Technology, are testing and evaluating these kind of context tools in emerging and developing markets in practice (Rodriguez, Diehl et al. 2006; Rodrigues, Thompson et al. 2007). In that perspective we can say that there is still a lot to learn with regard to which design tools and approaches fit the best in the context of designing new product (service) solutions for the BoP....... We are looking forward to go through this learning process together with you! Chang, Y.-K. (2006). Innovation for the Next Billions: Case Study of 7 Multinationals that Develop Products for Emerging Markets. Industrial Design Engineering. Delft, Delft University of Technology. MSc. Diehl, J. C. and H. Kuipers (2008). Design for the Base of the Pyramid: Student Field Projects ub Cambodia. DesignED, Hong Kong. ESMAP (2000). Energy Services for the World’s Poor.129
  • 130. Washington, WorldBank. Gaver, W., A. Boucher, et al. (2005). “Cultural probes andthe values of uncertainty.” Interaction 11(5): 53-56. Hart, S. (2004). Base of the Pyramid Protocol, CornellUniversity. Leonard, D. and J. Rayport (1997). “Sparking innovationthrough empathic design.” Harvard Business Review 75(6):102-113. Rocchi, S. (2006). Unlocking new markets. P. Design.Eindhoven, Philips Design. Rodrigues, J., C. Thompson, et al. (2007). Multistakeholderapproach for people centered solutions: Welcome to EastAfrica. Include 2007: Designing with People. Royal Collegeof Art, London. Rodriguez, J., J. C. Diehl, et al. (2006). Design toolboxfor contextualizing users in emerging markets. IEA2006,Maastricht, Elsevier. Rodríguez, J., J. C. Diehl, et al. (2006). “Gaining insightinto unfamiliar contexts: A design toolbox as input for usingrole-play techniques.” Interacting with computers 18 (5):956-976. Sanders, E. B. (2000). Generative tools for codesigning:Collaborative Design. London, Springer Verlag. Sethia, N. (2005). “At the Bottom of the Pyramid:Responsible Design for Responsible Business.” DesignManagement Review 16(Summer 2005). Simanis, E. and S. Hart (2006). “Expanding Possibilities atthe Base of the Pyramid.” Innovations 1(1): 43-51. Simanis, E. and S. Hart (2008). BoP Protocol: TowardsNext Generation BoP Strategy. 130
  • 131. We would like to say thanks, for these interesting projects,Acknowledgements inspired & inspiring students and enthusiastic colleagues. Without the help and effort of all these people, this book would not have been as it is now. Thanks to Ana Maria Alvarez, Loucas Papantoniou, Stephanie Wirth and Doortje van de Wouw, Elly Doek, Merijn Janssen, Regine van Limmeren, Charl Smit, Stefan Versluis, Veronie Croes, Bjørn-Evert van Eck Rasmussen, Swie Oei, Susan Oudshoorn, Rutger Bonsel, Sietse Cieraad, Stéphanie, Reintjens and Imke Schepers, Aparna Bhasker, Inge van de Wouw, Ambika Samabasivan, Lieke Pijpers, Sierk Hennes, Kirsten Rijke, Tom van Diessen, Linda Schnieders, Judith Goor, Jan Willem Findlater, Alexander van der Kleij, Miriam Reitenbach, Koos Munneke, Bernard Hulshof, Rutger Bonsel, Hoi-Kee Wong, Yu-Kuan Chang, Annemarie Mink, Marion de Groot, Cathelijne Huis in ‘t Veld, Roelie Bottema, Mijntje de Caluwé, Elselien Epema, Willem Glasbergen, Marike Bijtelaar, Maria Nguyen, Leonie Ideler, Fernando Del Caro Secomandi, Jon Rodriguez, Cale Thompson, Jonathan Stranders, Suzanne Hendrikse, Stephen Boom, Roseliek van der Velden, Joan Boekhovenand H.S. Smallenbroek. We also would like to thank the following academic staff, who supported students in their projects: Petra Badke- Schaub, Annemiek van Boeijen, Casper Boks, Han Brezet, Jan Buijs, Henri Christiaans, Katrijn Coninx, Marcel Crul, Richard Goossens, Erik Jan Hultink, Remco van der Lugt, Heimrich Kanis, D. Keskin, Henk Kuipers, Johan Molenbroek, Kaj Morel, Sylvia Mooij, Ingo Oldenkamp, Joost Prins, Jan Schoormans, S. Silvester, Dirk Snelders and K.S.S. Talke. Thanks everyone! And we hope you will all keep working towards achieving those millenium development goals, we will certainly keep doing our best! 131
  • 132. About the Editors Prabhu Kandachar Jan Carel Diehl Currently Professor of Industrial Design After finishing his study in Industrial Engineering (IDE) and Chairman of the Design Engineering he worked Department of Design Engineering, he several years as a consultant in received a B.E. degree in Mechanical ecodesign. In his present position he Engineering at the Mysore University is assistant professor for the Design and his M.E. and Ph.D. in Mechanical for Sustainability (DfS) program at the Faculty of IndustrialEngineering at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. Design Engineering at the Delft University of Technology inAfter a stint of 5 years at the Materials Science and Technology The Netherlands. Within the DfS program he is managingdepartment at Delft, he worked at Fokker for 15 years, in the international projects on sustainable product innovationvarious technical & management positions. His teaching and especially in emerging markets. The main focus of hisresearch interests at IDE are focused on materializing design research is the know-how transfer and implementationideas, addressing manufacturing technology related to product of sustainable product innovation into an internationaldesign and materials; technology and materials selection in context. He is has been working with companies anddesign; and more. He is currently directing research work universities in about 40 countries world-wide. Next to hison development of products & services for healthcare in position at the TU Delft he is consultant for UNIDO anddeveloping countries and is involved in research on ethical UNEP and invited lecturer at universities in amongst othersaspects of product development for the BoP. He has given Portugal, Colombia, Turkey, Japan and Austria. He is co-several keynote lectures on this topic and has about 100 author of the UNEP Design for Sustainability manual forpublications on his work. Developing Economies (D4S DE). Ilona de Jongh Born on Curaçao, a tiny island in the Caribbean, she received her Masters degree in Integrated Product Design - specialized in design for health care - at the faculty of IDE in 2008. She believes that design and design-thinking can cause social change, can improve life and can help towards a sustainable living for everybody on this planet, and is working with several organizations and companies all over the world to prove this. She currently runs the solution development firm Sprout Design, is chapter head of Project H Design New York, and works with Delft University of Technology on several projects in Design for Emerging Markets. 132
  • 133. Designing for Emerging MarketsThe Base of the Pyramid strategy is to serve the underserved.Both scientists and entrepreneurs are exploring this strategy,economically and socially motivated. The key to success isfocusing on the needs of people in their own environment.The strength and uniqueness of Industrial Design Engineeringlies in its human centred approach to design.This book describes projects concerning products and services Faculty of Industrial Design Engineeringfor the Base of the Pyramid. This is the third publication in IDE Master Projects - 3the series of graduation and other Masters’ program projects Landbergstraat 15at the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, specifically 2628 CE Delft, The Netherlandsaimed at product, service and system design for the Base ofthe Pyramid. +31 (0) 15 278 3034