Week 7 anaerobic and aerobic energy systems

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Week 7 anaerobic and aerobic energy systems

  1. 1. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC ENERGYSYSTEMSChapter 7Anatomy and Physiology for Coaches
  2. 2.  Muscles Fibers need energy to sustain contraction 2 main sources of stored energy  ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)  PCr (Phosphocreatine) When stored energy runs low, the body must produce more ATP  Carbohydrate (glycogen) stored in muscle and liver  Anaerobic glycolosis  By-product is lactic acid  Carbohydrate in blood  Aerobic system
  3. 3. ANAEROBIC SYSTEM Non – oxidative (with out oxygen) Brief but intense Byproduct is Lactic Acid Important at the onset of exercise Important for events of short duration Low efficiency 1 glucose = 3ATP
  4. 4. LACTIC ACID By product of Anaerobic metabolism Change the acid-base balance in the muscle cell Reducing energy production by the aerobic system Causing burning sensation in muscles, nausea physical and mental fatigue Training reduces production of Lactic acid and improved the body’s ability to remove it from the system.
  5. 5. ANAEROBIC POWER Maximal all out effort for several seconds ATP-PCr energy system  Nervous system sends a message to muscle cell  ATP is split to ADP to release energy  PCr restores ADP to ATP, thus repeating the cycle. Anaerobic glycolysis  Break-down of glycogen with out oxygen.  3 ATP / 1 glucose  Produces lactic aid
  6. 6. AEROBIC Uses oxygen to produce energy Abundant energy stores  Carbohydrates 4 Kcal / gram  Fat is abundant and rich energy source 9 Kcal / gram More efficient than anaerobic  1 glucose = 36 ATP Occurs in Mitochondria of the cell. Glucose + O2 = CO2 + H2O + energy* Protein is essential to build, maintain and repairissue, but is not a preferred energy source.
  7. 7. AEROBIC CAPACITY The ability of the aerobic system to take in, transport and utilize oxygen. a product of the respiratory, cardiovascular and muscular systems. Measured in L/min Higher measures indicate excellence in non-weight bearing sports.
  8. 8. AEROBIC POWER Aerobic capacity in relation to body weight Measured in ml/kg/min One’s ability to use oxygen per unit of body weight Predictor of performance in weight bearing activities
  9. 9. ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD Lactate threshold Transition zone that involves increase dependence on the anaerobic system. Upper limit of body’s ability to clear lactic acid. Lactate threshold 1  Easy training zone  Uses primary slow oxidative muscle fibers Lactate threshold 2  fatigue occurs rapidly  Performance threshold Both thresholds can be increased with training.
  10. 10. SPORT SPECIFIC TRAINING It is important to understand the demands of your sport Train to specifically meet the demands of your sport. Understanding specific energy demands helps to focus training for success.
  11. 11. ENERGY TRAINING Anaerobic  For sports needing max effort or force production  Sprinters and heavy lifters  Uses stored ATP, CPr and Non-oxidative breakdown  Events lasting up to 2 mins.  Subtle changes seen with training Aerobic  Training effects are clear  Increase in mitochondria, increase enzyme activity, greater oxygen uptake, increase in fibers to produce ATP.  Improvements in Cardiovascular and Respiratory systems.  Improved ability to burn fat.
  12. 12. OTHER TRAINING EFFECTS Blood volume / stroke volume  Amount of blood pumped per beat  Aerobic training can increase blood volume  Increase blood returned to the heart and pumped to the working muscle  Slower resting and exercise heart rates Cardiac Output  Volume of blood pumped per minute  Cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume Respiration  Becomes more efficient with training  Greater tidal volume less frequency is needed to meet the demands.  Ventilation = tidal volume x frequency

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