flood - a destructive calamity


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flood - a destructive calamity

  1. 1. A natural disaster is a major adverse agent resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover.
  2. 2. A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is normally dry. The European union(EU) floods directive defines a flood as a covering by water of land not normally covered by water. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river or lake, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood.
  3. 3. As we know that a flood happens when too much rain , brought by storms and strong winds, falls and cannot be absorbed by the soil. Rivers burst their banks and the water spills onto the land. Strong winds blowing across the sea make huge waves that surge onto the land and flood coastal
  4. 4.  River flood Rivers floods happen when rivers and streams cannot carry away all the extra water that falls as rain or comes from melting snow. The water rises in the rivers and streams and overflows onto normally dry land.
  5. 5.  Coastal flooding Coastal flooding can be caused by strong winds blowing waves onto the land. Hurricanes and major storms produce most coastal floods. Very high tides and tsunamis also flood the coasts. In many countries, large groups of people live along the coasts and for these people coastal flooding can be very serious. Thousands of people have been drowned in coastal flooding in many parts of the world.
  6. 6.  Flash Floods A flash flood is a quick flood caused by a sudden cloudburst or thunder storm. Huge amounts of water fall in a short time and in cities and towns the drains overflow and roads become flooded. Flash floods also happen in mountainous areas, where steep slopes cause the water to travel at high speeds. The rushing water erodes the soil, washing it away down the slopes. Flash floods often occur rapidly and with little warning.
  7. 7. Humans may also cause flood Fl oods somet i mes occur when art i f i ci al st ruct ures such as dams f ai l . I f t he dam i s poorl y desi gned or bui l t i n a pl ace where eart hquakes and l andsl i des occur, t he dam wi l l break and t he wat er f l oods t he l and. One dam f ai l ure i n t he Uni t ed St at es of Ameri ca occurred i n 1972 when a dam used t o st ore wast e f rom a coal mi ne as wel l as wat er, col l apsed af t er t hree days of rai n. The f l ood drowned 118
  8. 8. Deadliest floods Death toll Event Location Date 100,000 Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North Vietnam 1971 100,000 1911 Yangtze river flood China 1911 100,000+ St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Netherlands 1530 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935 2,500,000–3,700,000 1931 China floods China 1931 230,000 Indian Ocean tsunami Indonesia 2004 231,000 Banqiao Dam failure, result of Typhoon Nina. Approximately 86,000 people died from flooding and another 145,000 died during subsequent disease. China 1975 500,000–700,000 1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1938 900,000–2,000,000 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1887
  9. 9.  Physical Effects Massive damage can occur following a devastating flood. Homes, automobiles, buildings, historical monuments, graves, sewer systems, bridges and countless other infrastructures can be destroyed by nature's water pressure. Roadways often suffer, particularly ones already cracked and aging. While many buildings and homes might dry out to the point of being habitable again, the moisture remaining within walls, flooring and roofing may cause serious mold problems that will eventually wear the home away and create health dangers.
  10. 10. Local city, county and state governments often spend large sums of money in the search, rescue, recovery and rebuilding efforts. Affected businesses are usually shut down for a long period of time. Employees and business owners alike suffer from a loss of income. Significant economic effects usually follow extremely damaging flood areas.
  11. 11. Major floods pose great risk for everyone in the flooding vicinity. Particularly high flooding often claims the lives of drowning victims. If people and animals residing in the flooded area can't get to food, medications or treatments to survive, more lives can be lost. The physical damage done to buildings and cars often
  12. 12.  Even after two weeks of rescue operations uncertainty prevails over the number of casualties and people still stuck in what is described as the worst natural disaster that has ever struck the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand. The Chief Minister of the mountainous state, Vijay says that the exact number of deaths in the calamity will never be known as estimates of the actual casualties vary from hundreds to several thousands. One senior official claims that the death toll could exceed 10,000. According to state officials, 3,000 people are still missing from the region.
  13. 13.  Most of the victims identified so far have been outsiders who were on the char dham yatra pilgrimage to Uttarkhand’s shrines of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri and Yamnotri, which takes place between May and November. This is one of the reasons that the tragedy in the tiny state has impacted the whole nation. During peak season every year hordes of pilgrims come from across India and abroad to visit hilly pilgrimage centers accessible only by small roads, which believers travel with the help of mules. For Hindus, the journey to the four shrines carries a similar level of importance as Haj does for Muslims. The inaccessibility of the terrain and breakdown in communication made it difficult to assess the enormity of the damage in the first few days after incessant rain started on June 16. Subsequent cloudbursts wiped out town after town and ravaged hundreds of villages.
  14. 14.  Describing the magnitude of the problem, the CNN-IBN correspondent Karma Palijor, who has been reporting from the area for almost two weeks, told The Diplomat that “India has never seen this kind of tragedy. It’s worse than the tsunami (of 2004). The tsunami killed many, but it came and was gone. Here, the bigger challenge has come after the devastation with the rescue operation; to bring people stranded in the middle of nowhere to a safer
  15. 15.  Reports coming from the state narrate the bone chilling stories of eye witness accounts, detailing three days of unprecedented devastation that claimed an untold number of lives. At the center of the hardest hit area was the temple town of Kedarnath, 11,000 feet above sea level. News reports suggest that at least 10,000 to 12,000 people visit the hilly town every day during the peak pilgrimage season. The latest figures released by the Uttarakhand government indicated that 2,375 villages were affected by floods and landslides, of which 739 are still cut off, but are receiving relief supplies. Based on first-hand information, Palijor said that hundreds of villages lying on both sides of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers have been all but washed off the map, with little hope of rehabilitation. It will take between weeks and months until rescue operations are completed, and years before the state can be rebuilt.
  16. 16.  uttarakhand has been at the receiving end of nature’s fury in recent years. In 2008-2009, the state experienced severe drought. And in 2010, people grappled with floods, flash floods, landslides and cloudbursts. But the severity of the tragedy hitting the state this time has raised some very valid questions: How much of the devastation is the result of climate change? And to what it extent was it induced by unplanned development by the state? Indrajit Bose of the centre for science and environment, a New Delhi-based environmental think tank, told The Diplomat, “The devastation is the combined result of man’s folly and nature’s fury. Because of the way development has been going on in the state, this disaster was just waiting to happen. You cannot change the course of the two important rivers – Bhagirathi and Alaknanda – and expect nature to accept this tampering.” Pointing to the state’s draft plan on climate change, Bose underlines the draft’s finding that “Uttarakhand is most vulnerable to climate-mediated risks.” In short, the indiscriminate increase in tourism wreaked havoc on the environmentally vulnerable state.
  17. 17.  In short, the indiscriminate increase in tourism wreaked havoc on the environmentally vulnerable state. According to the 2011 census, Uttarkhand's population was 10.8 million. The state hosted 20.68 million pilgrims and tourists in 2010-2011. Since then, the four pilgrimage centers saw a fourfold increase in the number of pilgrims as year-round access to the shrines – previously restricted to four months – was allowed. News magazine Tehelka writes that, according to the state official in charge of monitoring vehicles, around 100,000 vehicles – 50-60 percent of them
  18. 18.  Taking a cue from the recent tragedy, the state government announced that construction will no longer be allowed on the state’s river banks. Further, CM Bahuguna announced the establishment of a state Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Authority, which will draft plans to rebuild and develop the flood-hit areas of the state. But before rehabilitation starts the greater challenge for the state and the Indian government is finding the missing persons who number in the thousands. The tragic floods of Uttarakhand are a warning to all hilly states in India to stop playing with nature in the name of economic development.
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