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UCD overview Presentation Transcript

  • 1. User Centered Design (UCD)
    -Ravishyam
    ravishyam.s@gmail.com
  • 2. Agenda
    • Overview
    • 3. User Research
    • 4. Modeling User Requirements
    • 5. Validating and Evaluations
    • 6. Patterns, Guidelines, Style guides
    • 7. Case studies
    • 8. Offline activity
    • 9. Summary
  • User Centered Design a.k.a Human Centered Design
    What to expect
    Who can benefit from UCD
    Two spectrums of requirements
    Where does UCD fit?
    UCD process flow
  • 10. What to expect?
    Overview of UCD and relevant processes
    Align and orient BA, Market and other research activities
    Measurable and predictable User Experience
    Brand value and increase in subjective satisfaction
    Eliminate individual bias
  • 11. Who can benefit?
    Business- Perceived and Subjective satisfaction can aid increase in sales volume and brand appreciation. Can help in converting trust into loyalties
    Program Managers/Product Managers- helps in planning and scoping user research and UCD activities upfront
    BA- extend requirement analysis beyond business requirements. Introduce User angle into functional specifications
    Developers- Helps in focusing on core skill, development.
    UI Designers- Data to drive interface and interaction design
    End Users- efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction
  • 12. UCD Overview
  • 13. Two spectrums of requirements
    Conceptual Model
    Mental Model
    Product Design
  • 14. Business requirements- Conceptual model
    • Domain needs
    • 15. Conformance
    • 16. System aspects
    • 17. Business rules
    • 18. Acceptance criteria
  • User Requirements- Mental model
    • Context of use
    • 19. Behavioral aspects
    • 20. Environmental variables and their impact
    • 21. Life styles
    • 22. Cultural impacts
    • 23. IT literacy
    • 24. Perceived goals
    • 25. Enhancers
    • 26. Subjective Satisfaction
  • User Centered Design process flow
  • 27. Understanding Users
  • 28. UCD principles
    • Early focus on users and tasks
    Structured and systematic information gathering (consistent across the board)
    Designers trained by experts before conducting data collection sessions
    • Empirical Measurement and testing of product usage
    Focus on ease of learning and ease of use
    Testing of prototypes with actual users
    • Iterative Design
    Product designed, modified and tested repeatedly.
    Allow for the complete overhaul and rethinking of design by early testing of conceptual models and design ideas.
  • 29. Importance of UCD
    Understand Users who can be potential customers, consumers and influencers
    Mitigate user satisfaction issues early without taxing development effort through iterative prototyping and validations
    Fixing Use issues are expensive at the end of the development cycle and probably you will never have time to fix (number of developers x number of issues + effort on code changes + QA cycles)
    Well informed data can enable BAs and UI to think more strategically beyond requirements
    Well integrated UCD process can become a differentiator in itself
  • 30. Gathering UX requirements
  • 31. Define Benchmarks
    Compare what target User base expects
    Understand what competitors are doing to meet this
    Validate against what your business and available resource eco system can provide in the current context
    Understand any domain specific mandates or conformance criteria as applicable
    Arrive at a baseline metric for each type scenario, tie these into benchmark
    Example:
    Benchmark consideration:
    User Segment 1 expects to speed up xyz task flow- Need to complete this in 2 seconds to minimize seat time
    User Segment 2 expects easy access to xyz features- need to have a fast path
    Competitor ABC provides two click and 3 second task completion rates- Need to better this.
    Considering available timelines, resource expertise, we can target for improvisation on a, b, c tasks and scenarios
    Benchmark definition:
    Each task should be completed within two clicks
    Provide ability to custom define fast paths
    Provide alternate routes of navigation for expert users (key board shortcuts, book marks, short url etc.,)
    Other key enhancers…
  • 32. Modeling requirements
    Create Personas from user research, surveys, market research and cluster data
    Understand and define User goals and efficiency enhancers in the given context
    Understand their physical work environment dynamics
    Divide Personas into Primary, Secondary, Negative categories
    Build usage scenarios for each of the Personas
    Understand what these representative personas already understand or know about other similar products or tools they use.
    Create a hypothesis around the observed data
    Write a story around the data to give it a “human” feel
    Build primary navigation models and define information architecture, build quick and dirty prototypes
    Validate each of these against persona and associated scenarios
    Couple of questions to ask-Mr. XYZ, working under dimly lit environment, having to handle multiple customer calls be able to find the required feature? if so how much time it takes. Is the time taken to handle one customer query aided by navigation model or does it hamper the efficiency? Does the seat time negatively impacted and justified? Is the time taken validates against benchmarks or metrics?
  • 33. Sample persona- can you afford to ignore TINA?
    *A more robust persona adopted from uxmag @ http://uxmag.com/uploads/oconnorpersonas/samplepersona.png
  • 34. Competitor analysis
    Derive from market research
    Evaluate as many similar products or services as applicable
    If applicable, conduct a cognitive walkthrough on selected products. Derive base metrics for benchmarking (AHT, Error rates, Task completion percentages etc.,)
    Evaluate what works well and doesn’t
    Do not consider this as a base for your approach but use this information as guide
    Onion skin similar workflows across similar products, identify number of steps and sub steps in each task flow. Identify most efficient.
  • 35. Validating UI and Usability
    Golden rule: get the design correct first, then validate
    Build wireframes and prototypes
    Conduct initial Heuristic evaluation based on global heuristics
    Validate against VIMM model (Cognitive model)- Visual, Intellectual, Memory, Motor
    Check NCPI (Surface model)- Navigation, Content, Presentation, Interaction
    Build Hi Fidelity prototypes
    Conduct end user testing or representative user testing (if constraints, pull people form other projects to navigate through the prototypes, lean over their shoulders and observe, don’t guide or help them!)
    Iterate
    Retest
    Develop
    Conduct Alpha or Beta usability testing, try and recruit actual user samples
    Choose between remote or onsite testing depending upon dynamics
  • 36. UI Patterns- Why?
    UI patterns are proven way of achieving an interaction or information grouping and or User Interface layout ex: Tabs, Inline editing, Breadcrumbs, Wizards, grid systems for layouts
    People around the world are used to many recurring patterns, why reinvent?
    Word of caution: Do not pick patterns without validating against your domain specific needs or constraints. A pattern that works in healthcare may not work in financial domain. Performance metrics are different for each domain
  • 37. Guidelines, Style guides, Repository
    UX Guidelines:
    Define UX guidelines considering business and user needsex: CSR should be able to close a call within two clicks. Customer search should always be visible While in call, CSR should see relevant customer banner or header information ref: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd834141.aspx
    UI Style guides: Define UI style guide for developers to follow through out development life cycle. Mitigates the risk of individual interpretation on presentation layer
    Align with company or customer branding
    Helps visual design layer to align with UX guidelinesex:
    button
    CSR Dashboard > Customer dashboard > resolution
    30 px
    Trailing links should be active and underlined, active link should not be hyperlinked
    60 px (min)
    First level warning!
    Final warning!
  • 38. Case study- PHS
  • 39. Before redesign
  • 40. After initial assumptions and interpretations
  • 41. After a structured UCD process and Usability testing
  • 42. Syllabus and Duration