User Centered Design (UCD) -Ravishyam firstname.lastname@example.org
Modeling User Requirements
Validating and Evaluations
Patterns, Guidelines, Style guides
User Centered Design a.k.a Human Centered Design What to expect Who can benefit from UCD Two spectrums of requirements Where does UCD fit? UCD process flow
What to expect? Overview of UCD and relevant processes Align and orient BA, Market and other research activities Measurable and predictable User Experience Brand value and increase in subjective satisfaction Eliminate individual bias
Who can benefit? Business- Perceived and Subjective satisfaction can aid increase in sales volume and brand appreciation. Can help in converting trust into loyalties Program Managers/Product Managers- helps in planning and scoping user research and UCD activities upfront BA- extend requirement analysis beyond business requirements. Introduce User angle into functional specifications Developers- Helps in focusing on core skill, development. UI Designers- Data to drive interface and interaction design End Users- efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction
Two spectrums of requirements Conceptual Model Mental Model Product Design
Business requirements- Conceptual model
User Requirements- Mental model
Context of use
Environmental variables and their impact
User Centered Design process flow
Early focus on users and tasks
Structured and systematic information gathering (consistent across the board) Designers trained by experts before conducting data collection sessions
Empirical Measurement and testing of product usage
Focus on ease of learning and ease of use Testing of prototypes with actual users
Product designed, modified and tested repeatedly. Allow for the complete overhaul and rethinking of design by early testing of conceptual models and design ideas.
Importance of UCD Understand Users who can be potential customers, consumers and influencers Mitigate user satisfaction issues early without taxing development effort through iterative prototyping and validations Fixing Use issues are expensive at the end of the development cycle and probably you will never have time to fix (number of developers x number of issues + effort on code changes + QA cycles) Well informed data can enable BAs and UI to think more strategically beyond requirements Well integrated UCD process can become a differentiator in itself
Gathering UX requirements
Define Benchmarks Compare what target User base expects Understand what competitors are doing to meet this Validate against what your business and available resource eco system can provide in the current context Understand any domain specific mandates or conformance criteria as applicable Arrive at a baseline metric for each type scenario, tie these into benchmark Example: Benchmark consideration: User Segment 1 expects to speed up xyz task flow- Need to complete this in 2 seconds to minimize seat time User Segment 2 expects easy access to xyz features- need to have a fast path Competitor ABC provides two click and 3 second task completion rates- Need to better this. Considering available timelines, resource expertise, we can target for improvisation on a, b, c tasks and scenarios Benchmark definition: Each task should be completed within two clicks Provide ability to custom define fast paths Provide alternate routes of navigation for expert users (key board shortcuts, book marks, short url etc.,) Other key enhancers…
Modeling requirements Create Personas from user research, surveys, market research and cluster data Understand and define User goals and efficiency enhancers in the given context Understand their physical work environment dynamics Divide Personas into Primary, Secondary, Negative categories Build usage scenarios for each of the Personas Understand what these representative personas already understand or know about other similar products or tools they use. Create a hypothesis around the observed data Write a story around the data to give it a “human” feel Build primary navigation models and define information architecture, build quick and dirty prototypes Validate each of these against persona and associated scenarios Couple of questions to ask-Mr. XYZ, working under dimly lit environment, having to handle multiple customer calls be able to find the required feature? if so how much time it takes. Is the time taken to handle one customer query aided by navigation model or does it hamper the efficiency? Does the seat time negatively impacted and justified? Is the time taken validates against benchmarks or metrics?
Sample persona- can you afford to ignore TINA? *A more robust persona adopted from uxmag @ http://uxmag.com/uploads/oconnorpersonas/samplepersona.png
Competitor analysis Derive from market research Evaluate as many similar products or services as applicable If applicable, conduct a cognitive walkthrough on selected products. Derive base metrics for benchmarking (AHT, Error rates, Task completion percentages etc.,) Evaluate what works well and doesn’t Do not consider this as a base for your approach but use this information as guide Onion skin similar workflows across similar products, identify number of steps and sub steps in each task flow. Identify most efficient.
Validating UI and Usability Golden rule: get the design correct first, then validate Build wireframes and prototypes Conduct initial Heuristic evaluation based on global heuristics Validate against VIMM model (Cognitive model)- Visual, Intellectual, Memory, Motor Check NCPI (Surface model)- Navigation, Content, Presentation, Interaction Build Hi Fidelity prototypes Conduct end user testing or representative user testing (if constraints, pull people form other projects to navigate through the prototypes, lean over their shoulders and observe, don’t guide or help them!) Iterate Retest Develop Conduct Alpha or Beta usability testing, try and recruit actual user samples Choose between remote or onsite testing depending upon dynamics
UI Patterns- Why? UI patterns are proven way of achieving an interaction or information grouping and or User Interface layout ex: Tabs, Inline editing, Breadcrumbs, Wizards, grid systems for layouts People around the world are used to many recurring patterns, why reinvent? Word of caution: Do not pick patterns without validating against your domain specific needs or constraints. A pattern that works in healthcare may not work in financial domain. Performance metrics are different for each domain
Guidelines, Style guides, Repository UX Guidelines: Define UX guidelines considering business and user needsex: CSR should be able to close a call within two clicks. Customer search should always be visible While in call, CSR should see relevant customer banner or header information ref: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd834141.aspx UI Style guides: Define UI style guide for developers to follow through out development life cycle. Mitigates the risk of individual interpretation on presentation layer Align with company or customer branding Helps visual design layer to align with UX guidelinesex: button CSR Dashboard > Customer dashboard > resolution 30 px Trailing links should be active and underlined, active link should not be hyperlinked 60 px (min) First level warning! Final warning!
Case study- PHS
After initial assumptions and interpretations
After a structured UCD process and Usability testing