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Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname
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Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname

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Energy use in developing countries has risen more than fourfold over the past three decades and is expected to continue increasing rapidly in the future. This increase in energy use is necessary …

Energy use in developing countries has risen more than fourfold over the past three decades and is expected to continue increasing rapidly in the future. This increase in energy use is necessary
and desirable, since energy services are essential for economic growth and improved living standards.
Electricity is one of the most important ingredients for social and economic development in Suriname.
The growth rate in Suriname is approximately 10% annually, and is higher than the demand forecast
in other countries in the region, which have typical values between 3% and 7%. There is a strong
relationship between economic growth and energy usage. Therefore electric utility’s duty is to
facilitate future growth by assuring a reliable and secured supply of electric power. In this context
there are interesting developments realized and forthcoming in the electricity sector in Suriname
induces by the rapid increase in demand for electrical power the coming years. In this first
contribution an overview of the main characteristics of the Energy Companies of Suriname (N.V.
E.B.S.) is given, followed by developments over the past 7 years in the electricity sector of Suriname,
and expansion potentials for the future. This technical article shares knowledge and experience for
practical and proven solutions in the electricity power sector of Suriname. Furthermore, as result of
the trend towards sustainability, reducing environmental pressure and other global concerns the
potential of alternative power sources will be touched. The use of energy efficient apparatus and
energy savings in T&D practices are highlighted. The business sectors are given opportunities to
explore the possibilities in the demand and supply business of the electric power industry in Suriname.

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  • 1. Technical Article 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference “Sharing Knowledge and Experience for Practical, Proven Solutions”Developments and Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System in Suriname by Samuel Mehairjan MSc*, Ravish P.Y. Mehairjan BSc** * Director Generation & Transmission N.V. E.B.S., Paramaribo, Suriname ** Graduate Student Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Abstract E nergy use in developing countries has risen more than fourfold over the past three decades and is expected to continue increasing rapidly in the future. This increase in energy use is necessary and desirable, since energy services are essential for economic growth and improved living standards. Electricity is one of the most important ingredients for social and economic development in Suriname. The growth rate in Suriname is approximately 10% annually, and is higher than the demand forecast in other countries in the region, which have typical values between 3% and 7%. There is a strong relationship between economic growth and energy usage. Therefore electric utility’s duty is to facilitate future growth by assuring a reliable and secured supply of electric power. In this context there are interesting developments realized and forthcoming in the electricity sector in Suriname induces by the rapid increase in demand for electrical power the coming years. In this first contribution an overview of the main characteristics of the Energy Companies of Suriname (N.V. E.B.S.) is given, followed by developments over the past 7 years in the electricity sector of Suriname, and expansion potentials for the future. This technical article shares knowledge and experience for practical and proven solutions in the electricity power sector of Suriname. Furthermore, as result of the trend towards sustainability, reducing environmental pressure and other global concerns the potential of alternative power sources will be touched. The use of energy efficient apparatus and energy savings in T&D practices are highlighted. The business sectors are given opportunities to explore the possibilities in the demand and supply business of the electric power industry in Suriname. * Contact: Samuel Mehairjan, s.mehairjan@nvebs.com
  • 2. IntroductionSuriname, also known as the Beating Heart of the Amazon, is a former Dutch colony and politicallyindependent since 25 November 1975. Suriname is a major Caricom member since 4 July 1995 and isclassified as a continental Caribbean country. The N.V. Energie Bedrijven Suriname (EBS), the Dutchtranslation for Energy Companies of Suriname, is since 3 years a utility member of CARILEC. The EBSis a 100% government owned company responsible for the delivery of electricity and gas in thecoastal areas and for electricity in some interior areas of Suriname. The districts in Suriname, typicallyin the coastal areas, are provided with electricity by independently operated power systems by EBS.Furthermore, small power systems exist in the interior of Suriname, which are owned and operated bythe Department for Rural Energy of the Ministry of Natural Resources (DEV). The operating frequencyin Suriname is 60Hz and typical voltage ratings are 161kV and 33kV for transmission purpose and 13.8kV, 12kV and 6kV for distribution purpose, whereas the customers are provided with low voltagelevels of 120/220V. A summary of the main power systems are given bellow and depictedgeographically in figure 1 [1], [2], [5]:The EPAR system for Paramaribo and the surroundings, reaching as far as the Ocean in the North,Stolkertsijver in the District of Commewijne in the East, Carl Francois in the District of Saramacca inthe West and The Zanderij (Airport) area in the South. The EPAR system has by far the highestconsumption of electric power in Suriname (consumption of 1000 GWh/a);The ENIC system for New Nickerie in West Suriname, and the surroundings reaching as far as GrootHenar in the West (consumption of 50 GWh/a);The District Power Systems, each operating as an isolated power system with one or more DieselGenerator Sets in a local power house and located at: Albina, Moengo, Boskamp, Coronie,Wageningen, Apoera (total consumption together is around 24 GWh/a);The Rosebel Gold Mines where the Gold Mine operations of IAMGOLD in the Brokopondo districtare supplied with electric power via a dedicated 161 kV overhead power line coming from AfobakaHydro power Plant. This system is built and owned by Rosebel Gold Mines (consumption 170 GWh/a);The Brokopondo Distribution system feeding some villages in the Brokopondo district from the13.8 kV system at the Afobaka Hydro Power Plant of about 7 GWh/a; The small villages supplied bythe Ministry of Natural Resources is more than 1 GWh.Suriname is located on the Northern edge of South America, and bordered by Guyana, French Guiana, Brazil and the Atlantic Ocean Facts & Figures Name: Republic of Suriname Population: ± 492.829 (2004) Capital City: Paramaribo Currency: Surinam Dollar (SRD) Languages: Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo, others Land Statistics Coastline: 240 miles (386 km) Land Area: 63.038 sq miles (163.270 sq km)Suriname can be divided into two main geographic regions; the coastal lowlands of the North, and the tropical rainforests and savanna of the West and South. Suriname is home to the W.J.van Blommestein Lake, one of the largest reservoir lakes on the planet; created by a river dam, it provides hydro power for many of the country’s industries. Almost 14% of Suriname is allocated to series of National Parks and Nature Reserves. Suriname is a land of rivers and Amazon rainforests. Source: www.worldatlas.comFig. 1: Overview of different power systems of EBS [2] 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 2
  • 3. Short History of EBS was constructed in the Suriname River in the Brokopondo district from 1960 to 1965. ThisThe EBS has its root back 100 years ago, hydro power station was taken into operationestablished by the Dutch. Similar power and in 1965 and 90% of the generated power ofgas companies are found in the Dutch Antilles approximately 1000GWh went into the Curacao, Aruba, St. smelting of aluminium, 80km farther, at the Martin, Bonaire etc. Paranam refinery. And the remaining 80GWh Suriname was provided on annual basis was sold to the Suriname of electrical energy for government for the Paramaribo grid. In 1999 the first time in the year the aluminium refinery of Suralco L.L.C. at 1909. The company was Paranam was closed down due to changes in named the Nederlansch- the aluminium business and environmental Indische Gas concerns of the aged smelter. Since then the Maatschappij (N.I.G.M). government of Suriname can purchase an In this period there were average of 80MW, with a peak of 100MW, and1082 power points and 88 gas street light up to 700GWh per year from the Hydro Powerpoints. Because of continues growth of the Plant (HPP) for supplying the Paramaribo grid.demand for more energy the company was For this purpose a new 27 km transmission lineinclined to expand the generation of more of 161 kV and 2 substations were constructedelectric power for Suriname. In 1928 in 2006. The additional power is generated byconcession was granted to N.I.G.M. for the diesel engines running on premium diesel andsupply of power in Paramaribo over a period of heavy fuel oil all supplied by the Suriname Oil50 years and in 1929 they started to build a Company (Staatsolie).power station containing 3 diesel generatorswith a total capacity of roughly 1.19MW. Growth of Electricity Demand inLooking at the core business of the company Surinamethe name of the company was changed inOverzeese Gas en Energie Maatschappij Due to the end of the military regime and(OGEM) in the year 1953. This name was more return of democracy from 1987 the economyin accordance to the of Suriname has taken a fast growth that isactivities of the found back in the demand growth of electricalcompany. Because of power of about 6 % per annum. In the past 4the growing demand for years the demand has been growing towardsgas in the 50’s a new approximately 10 % per year. Such growthdepartment was added rate is higher than other Caribbean countries,to OGEM and was which have typical growth rates between thenamed the OGANE. This 3% and 7% [10]. The high growth rate indepartment was Suriname is a result of the fast economicalresponsible for the development witnessed since 2000. This is duesupply of gas. On the EBS Head Office to the development of the oil industry, refinerysecond of January in the year 1968 the process, and growth in the mining sectorcompany changed the name from OGEM to the especially the gold sector (IAMGOLD). AddedNV Energie Bedrijven Suriname (N.V. to this the fast growth of new housingE.B.S.). During the 1950’s a Dutch civil Prof. schemes, the installation of air-conditioners,W.J. Van Blommestein identified the hydro the tourist industry (e.g. Berg en Dal Resort),potentials of the Suriname Rivers. Since Alcoa the horeca sector in development (Royaland Billiton were exploiting the bauxite ores Torarica Hotel, Best Western Hotel and Marriotand Suralco had the intention to smelt Hotel) and other commercial developments arealuminium in Suriname the existing hydro demanding more power. The following graphelectrical power lake and station of 189MW shows the fast growth in the EPAR power system for the period 1966-2009. The fast 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 3
  • 4. growth is experienced in the Paramaribo Supply of Electricity, Short & Medium (EPAR) and Brokopondo grid, while the Term Nickerie grid (ENICK) is growing with 6 % per year. The supply of electricity is generated by premium diesel with diesel driven generators Peak Demand (MW) trend for the EPAR system and nowadays a substantial part is fuelled with 160 Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO). The majority of 140 electricity is delivered by hydro power from the 120 HPP Afobaka. Since 1999 the contribution of 100 hydro power to the grid is at least 700GWh,MW 80 and in extra raining seasons this amount is 60 40 increased with 15-20% contractually. Suriname 20 is a fortunate CARILEC utility member that is - blessed with many rivers and plenty of fresh water. Due to this gift the country is covering Year more than 80 % of her electricity demand with Fig. 2: Peak demand trend for the EPAR system [5] a renewable energy source (see figure 4). In the period of 1982 to 2006 load-shedding became an inevitable practice due to frequent shortage of supply in the EPAR grid. This created inconvenience for business, industry and households. Since 2006 the load-shedding has stopped as a consequence of the rehabilitation and expansion of the power plant of EBS, the commissioning of the 161kV transmission infrastructures from Paranam to The electric power supply in Suriname is Paramaribo and the erection of a new IPP (SPCS). In order to look at future demand delivered by approximately 80% from hydro growth historical analysis are used. Based on power an analysis of trends in customer numbers and Fig.4: The Brokopondo Hydro Power Plant (HPP) of average consumption, the demand projections Suralco in the district Brokopondo for the EBS system as a whole can be derived. In 2006 there were some extra dry months in This has resulted in an annual growth rate of Suriname. The Brokopondo hydro lake could 6.5% for the Base Scenario. For the Low, Base therefore not acquire enough water from the and High Scenarios, the growth rates are streams that resulted in serious shortage of respectively 2.7 %, 6.4 % and 10.0 % [1]. power. The government had to lease about 30MW of rental power from a foreign contractor for 3 months to cope with this inferior situation. It should be noted that since August 2009 till April 2010 a long dry season is afflicting Suriname and the hydro lake is slinking rapidly. Since August 2009 extra thermal power of average 60 MW is generated in the thermal power station of EBS and backed up by SPCS. Although hydro power is cheaper and a renewable source, it should be kept in mind that dry years can come Fig. 3: Peak demand projection in the EPAR system for 3 scenarios [1], [5] unexpectedly so the utility should always have reserve thermal capacity installed to meet the 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 4
  • 5. power demand for the less wet years. In the capacity was installed and are operated. Thistable 1 the installed capacity, peak demand was a cost, time saving and efficient action inand consumption for 2009 are listed. short time to increase generation capacity.Location Inst. Cap. Peak Consumption In ENIC system 15.6MW is installed, while in 2009 (MW) demand (GWh) the EPAR system 43.2MW has been installed 2009 (MW) by EBS. Three years ago the State Oil Company (IPP) has installed 14MW and is nowEPAR 73 170 1000 expanding with an additional 14 MW of generation capacity.ENICK 16 10 50District 18 4 31 High Voltage Transmission Line & Substation (161 kV)Others 303 80 650 In 2004 the EBS signed a contract with L & TTable 1: Main characteristics of different power systems in (Larsen & Toubro) from India to build 2Suriname [5] substations and a 27 km double circuit 161 kVDevelopments in the past 7 years transmission line of 150 MW capacity toConversion from Diesel to Heavy Fuel Oil increase the transport of hydro energy from(HFO) Paranam to Paramaribo, reducing transmission losses with 8% over this route, and increasingIn 2004 the costs of generating power with reliability and flexibility for the overall EPARLFO premium diesel were rising rapidly. EBS grid.first performed a research with a consultantfrom Denmark followed by a Caribbeanconsultant and an engine manufacturer toconvert 4 Mirrlees Blackstone diesel operatedengines to HFO fuelled engines. The savingswould pay back the new conversion cost inless than 2 years. Together with the fuelconversion, and additional fuel treatment unitsthe whole EBS power plant was automatedwith a state-of-the art monitoring system, thePower Data System. This system is helping theplant operators and engineers to manageengine performance better and operate the Fig. 5: The 161 kV Switchyard of EBS at Meckendam [2]engines more reliably, with less damageespecially to cylinder heads. This system also Expansion of 36 kV network, EVPprovides automatic reports and historical data projectsis stored which in turn helps the engineers tomake better maintenance planning on wearing The driving forces for system modernization inand tearing of parts. Asset information and Suriname are load growth, equipments norelated data can be retrieved after a failure to longer compatible with the changingdiscuss and analyse causes of the failure. requirements (short circuit capabilities), ageing of the system and technological developments.Expansion of the Generation Capacity In this context EBS has upgraded, expanded, retrofitted and installed a number of 36kVEBS has decided to retrofit bigger and more substations & cable network throughout theefficient diesel generator sets in its power EPAR system. The old and aged installationsplants. Foundations on piles that were more date from 1964 and up, with air insulated bus-than 40 years old were partly excavated and bars and oil insulated circuit breakers.new concrete was casted and engines of triple 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 5
  • 6. EBS has upgraded and retrofitted substations region. See figure 6 for a snapshot of the newof 36kV, build 3 new substations of 36/6kV EBS Reliability tool.and 4 new substations of 36/12kV with somestep-down transformers of 20 and 25MVA.Distribution outgoing feeders and more than100 Ring Main Units (RMU) are installed inorder to connect new customers and improvevoltage profiles throughout the system.Furthermore, hundreds of km of 15kVunderground cables are lay-down and newdistribution transformers of 12/6kV &220/127V were installed. This has increasedthe capability and flexibility for EBS to deliverthe demand in power in the dense populatedcity and in the less dense populated outskirtsof EPAR system. More than 4000 new electric Fig. 6: Snapshot overview of the EBS Reliability Tool [5]connections are made each year. EBS Dispatch CentreSubsequently 50% of the substations of theEPAR power system are automated for control EBS has performed a technical study with aand command purpose with SCADA consultant to design a dispatch centre for theapplications. This substation automation is complete EPAR power system, the IPP’s andhelping the engineers in the command centre eventually for other districts. In 2011 this newto control, take decisions and operate the dispatch centre with the latest SCADAsystem much better and faster. Disturbances monitoring and control application of 25are detected sooner and where possible substations and 5 generation station should beswitching of circuit breakers is operated into operation. Together with thisremotely. This practice is contributing to modernization of the control and monitoringreduce the duration of failures and improve the applications additional new networks, radioavailability of power. Substations are far from and fiber-optic communication links will beeach other and most of the customers are installed. EBS aims to have complete controlliving in less dense populated areas. With the and command performed from the dispatchapplication of SCADA restoration time is centre which should be equipped with futurereduced, while disturbances are dealt with SCADA capabilities at the control centre level.efficiently. Furthermore this should be consolidated into a single centralized location. The main goal is toThe EBS Reliability Tool coordinate with all IPP’s and to monitor the transmission and distribution for control ofEBS has recently developed a reliability frequency, reserve spinning, voltage profiles,program with a consultant to measure its power flows and outage handling.reliability performances and is part of thereliability improvement program. This new Improve Transmission System Protectionoutage reporting program has been deliveredin 2009. Starting 2010 this tool will be used In the period 2009-2010 a comprehensiveand as a result EBS will be able to follow the analysis of the transmission system protectiontrend analysis of the SAIDI, CAIDI and SAIFI (161kV and 33kV) is performed [5]. All relaysreliability indices. As a consequence EBS can will have to function more coordinated andstart strategic reliability improvement adequately. Older type relays that do not meetprograms. At the same time EBS will have the the requirement of the new calculations andpossibility to compare reliability statistics and coordination must be replaced. This study willto benchmark against other utilities in the be beneficial for EBS in order to improve the 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 6
  • 7. reliability of the system. At the same time EBS the EBS wants to go for fast load-sheddingwill learn and understand what changes need based on frequency decay [5]. Added to thisto be anticipated and implemented, given the study, a similar approach with the ETAPrapid growth of electrical load in the power software will be conducted for a voltagesystem. stability analysis. A P-V analysis will be performed to determine the maximum loadImprove Dynamic & Voltage stability in that could be supported for a given networkEPAR grid configuration without voltage collapse. This result will provide important information fromBecause of some recent large disturbances and an operational and planning perspective.the fluctuations in the lake levels at theAfobaka Hydro Power Plant EBS became more Expanding the 161 kV Transmissionaware of the importance of ensuring the Systemstability of the system during criticalcontingencies in the system. Consequently, Currently a technical study is being performedEBS is performing a system wide stability study for the delivery and construction of a doubletogether with a consultant for the prediction circuit 161kV transmission line of 10km and 2and improvements of frequency load-shedding substations. The purpose of this project is tosettings. These studies and analysis are further lower the transmission system lossesperformed using the ETAP engineering analysis and to increase the transportation capacity ofsoftware to create models and simulations. the EPAR system to meet the demand in theWith the implementation of the new SCADA Western part of EPAR.Way Forward…EBS is constantly planning and implementing projects inorder to improve and create supply and transportation Electricity issues in developing countriescapacity to meet Suriname’s economic growth requirements (IEEE)and at the same time fulfilling the need for security of Electricity issues and challenges in developingsupply. Many challenges are still to be accepted and dealt countries are numerous. They consist of, howeverwith, but EBS is motivated and has dedicated personnel and are not limited to:engineers to meet these future challenges. EBS closely works  Inaccessibility of electricity (as well as lowwith high ranked consultancy companies and experienced in- quality of supplyhouse knowledge to advice on their projects. This will ensure  Environmental as well as technological issues  Shortage of capital and need for large capitalthat investments made by EBS to secure energy, are investmentseconomically justified.  Institutional weaknesses and pricing difficulties 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 7
  • 8. Future Expansions Potential in SurinameSummary of Some Business OpportunitiesNew 200 MW Electric Power PlantTo meet the demand that is at a rate of 10 % per year and to replace outdated generators EBS hasidentified a new location in South-West of Paramaribo to build a new generation station.Environmental, geo-structural, technical requirements and financial studies are performed. A 200 MWstation with reciprocating engines of 20 -25 MW will be installed. The first stage is to have 60 MW in 2years connected to the grid. And in following years more gen-sets and electrical installations will beinstalled. In order to keep up with the high growth rate which EBS is witnessing the last couple ofyears and expecting in coming couple of years , this projected 200MW electric power plant isnecessary on a short time bases to prevent an energy crisis in Suriname. Fig. 7: Artist impression of the proposed power plant of EBS [5]A substation with step-up transformers, 12 kV and 36 kV switchgear and complete control andprotection system will be installed. Later, in the stages to follow, also 161 kV installations andtransmission facilities will be needed for connection with the remaining part of the grid.International Interconnection between Suriname en French-Guiana, EDB-bankDuring 1998-1999 the EBS and EDF1 of French Guiana had intensified technical relations oncooperation and knowledge exchange between the two electrical power companies. From this relation,a plan had been developed to perform an Interconnection Study for the Suriname/French-Guianapower system. This was performed in the period 2005-2006. If at least 30MW of power, preferablyhydro power, would be reserved from Suriname to be delivered to French-Guiana, this interconnectionand related investment costs would become feasible. There would be additional technical, reliabilityand availability benefits arising from this interconnection. EBS and EDF would need less installed andoperated spinning reserves if interconnected. With the converter system a very precise VAR control(reactive power compensation) and voltage regulation can be performed. In time of calamity on oneside, the neighboring side can deliver power from its reserves through the tie-lines and vice versa.Technical provisions to be built in this project are:1 Électricité de France 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 8
  • 9. A 150 km of 161 kV transmission line from Paramaribo to Albina, a converter station 60/50 Hz at theborder and a 90 kV link to the French Guyana power system, 2 river crossing of the Suriname riverand the Marowijne river with submarine cables, Substations and power connections in Moengo andAlbina in the Marowijne district, complete control system. The costs are about 30 million USD forSuriname and 22 million USD for the French Guyana. SURINAME FRENCH-GUIANA Fig. 8: Sketch of the characteristics of Suriname/Fr-Guyana interconnection [5]Rice Husk Power Plant in District NickerieThis district is the Western border of Suriname with Guyana. The capital of Nickerie is Nieuw Nickerie(Suriname’s second city). Nickerie is an agriculture district. This district is the main provider of rice forthe domestic market as well for the export. Other important sources of income are bananas, timberexploitation and fishing. About 90% of rice cultivation of Suriname is in the district Nickerie. Currentlyapproximately 160.000 tons of rice is harvested annually; this number can grow in the near future dueto expansion in rice production because of higher demand and better world-market prices. This willresult in about 50.000 tons rice-husk (the hard protecting coverings of grains of rice) is producedannually; this rice husk is presently considered as waste and being dumped in the rivers or burned inopen air. This is going on for the past 50 – 70 years and immensely burdens the environment andsurrounding population. Typical problems are air pollution, health problems, river pollution resulting indying out of fish and methane gas (CH4) formation released to the environment. Methane is a potentgreenhouse gas with a high global warming potential. Generating power from this waste product,abundantly available now, and of which availability might increase in the near future, can become along term sustainable source. While oil prices keep rising and to mitigate the severe environmentalproblems, EBS wants to built a power plant using the rice husk biomass to fuel the production ofelectricity [4], [7]. This plant would be best located at the former sugar cane plantation Waterloo inthe center of Nickerie. This location fits technically in transporting rice husk to the plant. 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 9
  • 10. Fig. 9: Burning of rice husk in the open air in district Nickerie [7]The cost to set-up this power plant is about 16 million USD and will take 2 years of installation andcommissioning time. The cost of the power can be around USD 0.10 while the payback time can bemore than 10 years. But from environmental perspective this project is considered very feasible.The project consists of [1], [4], [7]:  Detailed engineering, procurement of materials and equipment and project management for a 4 MWe / 12 kV generator and 6 MVA transformer 12/36 kV Power Generation Plant/Substation running on rice husk and producing approximately 45 GWh/a  Installation of synchronizing equipment to operate this power plant in parallel with the excising ENIC power plant at Clarapolder.  The necessary power lines to connect the Rice husk Power plant to the ENIC grid. The Nickerie River Fig. 10: Schematic overview of the projected location of the Rice Husk power plant and infrastructures [7]The Jai-Tapanahony Hydro Diversion planThe Jai-Tapanahony is a multifaceted project of which the main intention is to develop extra hydropower capacity. This plan is envisaged in the South-Eastern part of Suriname and comprises a groupof dams and hydro power plants which diverts part of the waters of Tapanahony River and Jai Creek 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 10
  • 11. into the existing Afobaka Hydro Lake and generates energy by this procedure and increases the capacity in the Afobaka Hydro Power Plant. Diversion systems and Dams will be constructed; generators in the dams and transmission lines will be erected and connected to the Afobaka HPP to transport the power to the Paramaribo grid [1], [3]. All weather roads will be constructed to connect the Jai- Tapanahony expansion project. Together with the HPP at the Tapanahony dam, 4 HPP at the other locations, Jai 1, Marowijne 1, 2, 3 will have a capacity of 305 MW (see figure 11). At Afobaka a second HPP will be constructed with a capacity of 116 MW thus increasing the installed capacity at Afobaka HPP to 305 MW. In rain season the 5 Jai- Tapanahony-Marowijne Creeks HPP’s will produce 305 MW of power, and the water will be collected in the Afobaka reservoir. In the dry season there will be no diversion of water from Jai-Tapanahony and the lake levels will be high enough for the 2 Afobaka HPP’s to produce 189 MW + 116 MW = 305 MW [1]. The cost of these projects is about 800 million USD. The cost of electricity around USD 0.09 will be less than power produced from thermal generation. The construction time can be 6 to 8 years [1], [3]. This project illustrates the immense potential for developing hydro power even further in Suriname. If realized, this project will secure Suriname of sustainable energy for many years. As stated by [11] this project should shift from a desk study performed by a Brazilian Engineering Company (Camargo Correa) to feasibility studies in short notice.Fig. 11: Schematic overview of projected dams of the Jai-Tapanahony diversion plan [3]The Kabalebo Hydro Power Project (West inundation of land, high initial costs and healthSuriname Hydro Power Project) and risk issues associated with water misuse and degradation.Since 1977 this Hydro Power Project in theKabalebo River (West of Suriname) is The Grankriki HPPenvisaged. The projected capacity will be 350MW to 850 MW [1]. In the first stage a dam This project is located approximately 180 kmand a 350 MW HPP are planned in the South-East of Paramaribo. Grankriki flows intoKabalebo River. In the second stage diversion the Marowijne River. A reservoir of 20.000 haof water of the Lucy River and the Corantijn should deliver 15 MW of power. A 66 kVRiver and a dam with HPP at Tijgervallen will transmission line with substations areextend the power production to 850 MW. projected. The capital costs are USD 75There is a bright future for renewable power million.capacity in Suriname, however has to beweighed against other factors as well e.g. the 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 11
  • 12. Domestic Waste Power Plant in district waterfalls far in the interiors is very costly andWanica time consuming [1], [5].In Paramaribo and the surrounding districts In the past some villages (Kwamalasumutu)there is a lot of domestic waste that is dumped were supplied with solar power but did not lastat a central location. The Ministry of Public for long time due to poor maintenance.Works and the environmental agencies haslooked into this waste and its potential for In the future further application of solar powerrecycling. There are studies that showed the to meet the demands for delivery of electricalpotential to generate electric power from gas power should be a priority for environmentalgenerated of the waste. The capacity is about and economic reason.10 MW. This is bio-waste energy and is The places where villages are near waterfallsconsidered a renewable form of power the government should install micro and miniproduction. This project can start very fast, HPP. Besides lighting this power can bebecause the technology is already available applied for small scale industrial developmentsand mature. and refrigeration of meat and agriculturalTransmission & Distribution Expansions products. The existing diesel gen-sets can be used as back-up system together with theIn the EPAR, ENIC and Rural Areas solar power systems in the form of a hybridtransmission and distribution infrastructure, connected system. Small wood fired steamsubstations, transformers, lighting and generator sets can also be an alternative formetering will be purchased and installed in the the power production for the villages in theyears to come. These investments, that are interior, since wood is abundantly availablenecessary, will be implemented to meet the and the villagers can collect this bypower demand in the rapidly growing themselves.community and to ensure the reliability ofsupply to the customer. It is a yearly Application of power efficient apparatusinvestment of more than 15 million USD. and lightingRural Electrification Efficiency is a simple concept which can perhaps best be summed up with the formula,In the interior of Suriname there are about 112 “doing more with less.” The focus is to complyvillages that have a diesel generator unit with the international commitment to reducevarying from 10 to 500 kW. Most of the power usage in future and to reduce CO2villages are provided with diesel / gasoline fuel footprint. All customers will have to switchon monthly bases. There is no tariff regime in over to the energy efficient lights that areplace and supply to the communities comes developing rapidly nowadays. Energy savingfree of charge. The total operating cost for apparatus and soft starting motor will have toDEV is estimated to be around 4 million USD be applied in every building and houses.per year. The cost per kWh comes to about Scientists has shown that in 2020 – 2030USD 0.70. It is the policy of the government to power consumption per households will becontinue delivering this kind of supply to the halved when energy efficient apparatus inisolated people, Marrons and American combination with energy efficient lamps will beIndians. It is for their social welfare and applied, and when households will use solarbenefit to give power a few hours of the night panels and small wind mills to generate powerand where possible longer. The power can be and deliver to the grid. And by usingnecessary for medical use, communication, appropriate enabling technologies to link thelighting and conservation of food. above mentioned to the grid their potential canTransportation of fuel across the rivers with be fully realized. This is where the application of intelligent (smart) technologies comes in[6]. 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 12
  • 13. Utilities will be able to control and handle this in the last 3 years and expected to progressdevelopment with the Smart grid applications with this pace, which is the highest comparedto come [6], [8]. Starting with simple energy to several other Caribbean countries. Theefficient apparatus is where EBS wants to start coming year’s developments in the powerthe journey towards an intelligent sustainable sector of Suriname will be promising andenergy system in the end. Organizational, inevitable. Proven identified projects like Jai-regulatory and policy issues are the biggest Tapanahony HPP, Nickerie Rice Husk Powerhurdles to overcome in this topic before Plant, Bruynzeel Diesel/HFO Generating Plant,Suriname can make progress in this area of Domestic waste power plant, introduction ofinterest. photovoltaic energy for remote villages and installation of Mini and Micro HPP are businessIndeed, the term “efficiency” is typically opportunities. The installation of the dispatchassociated with how energy is consumed at centre, installation of SCADA applications,the point of end use, but the concept of transmission and distribution infrastructure areefficiency can also be applied to how energy is projects that will have to be realized andproduced and distributed [9]. Using higher create promising opportunities for doingvoltages in T&D, the application of high business in Suriname.efficient distribution transformers andadvances monitoring and control system EBS Acknowledgmentswill be able to reduce network losses. Thiscontributes to CO2 reduction of the power grid. The authors would like to acknowledge Ir L. Boksteen, Dr.ir. V.S. Ajodhia and allGreater energy efficiency in the T&D system departments and related engineers of EBS andmeans lower emissions in generation to deliver Staatsolie for their contribution and helpfulthe same amount of consumed energy. advice, which have been useful in writing this technical article.Concluding Remarks BiographyFor Caribbean countries it is an importantcondition for their economic development to Samuel Mehairjan, was born in Nickerie Suriname on 4 August 1956. Heassure a secure and reliable supply of received a BSc in Electricalelectricity. EBS is fully aware of the important Power Engineering inrole that the electric power sector plays for the Suriname. In 1991 hedevelopment for Suriname. As utility member received his MSc degree from Tennessee Technologicalof CARILEC, EBS has better chances to benefit University (TTU) USA infrom the important changes Caribbean power Power Engineering. Until nowsectors are witnessing. This first contribution he is for 29 years with thehas shared knowledge and experience of EBS and is currently Director for Generation andproven and practical solution in the Suriname Transmission. He has a clear view for the needs ofelectrical sector. Added to this it highlights the the people and solutions for the fast development ofdevelopments that the Suriname power sector the Power Industry in Suriname. At present he is also a lecturer in High Voltage Engineering at thehas undergone, and additionally gives a University of Suriname. He has been a member ofglimpse of expansions potentials. EBS is IEEE for many years.continually planning and implementing projectsin order to improve and create supply and Ravish P.Y. Mehairjan, was born in Paramaribo, Suriname, on April 11,transportation capacity to meet Suriname’s 1987. He graduated Cumeconomic growth requirements and at the Laude as BSc in Electricalsame time fulfilling the need for security of Power Engineering at the Anton de Kom Universitysupply. The Suriname community has suffered of Suriname in July 2008,from 1985 to 2006 with loadshedding due to where he conducted ashortage in generating capacity. The growth study for EBS. In thisrate in demand for power is high (8 to 10 %) study he looked at 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 13
  • 14. alternative methods to reduce the impact of long-lasting outages in the West part of the Paramaribopower system. At present Ravish is working towards Abbreviationsan MSc in Electrical Power Engineering withspecialization in High Voltage Technology & Asset EBS – Energy Companies of Suriname (Energie BedrijvenManagement at the Delft University of Technology Suriname)in the Netherlands. Ravish is member of the Energy SPCS – Staatsolie Power Company SurinameClub of Delft University of Technology, which is a CARILEC – The Caribbean Electric Utility Servicestudent-led club of academia and industry. Corporation Caricom – Caribbean Community T&D – Transmission & DistributionReferences GWh – Gigawatt Hour MW – Megawatt[1] Preliminary Assessment Report, SURINAME POWER kW – Kilowatt SECTOR ASSESSMENT AND ALTERNATIVES FOR ITS MODERNIZATION (ATN/SF-9038-SU), KEMA May 2008. kV – Kilovolt HFO – Heavy Fuel Oil[2] B Sc graduation report, “Find an alternative method to HPP – Hydro Power Plant reduce the impact of long lasting outages on the 33/12 IPP - Independent Power Producers kV distribution transformers of substation S/S-D and S/S-K in the Western part of the EPAR network”, Ravish RMU – Ring Main Unit P.Y. Mehairjan, July 2008. SCADA – Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition SAIDI – System Average Interruption Duration Index[3] Presentation of Suralco L.L.C of the Jai-Tapanahony SAIFI – System Average Interruption Frequency Index Hydro Diversion Plan by Mr Pederson 2004-2005. CAIDI – Customer Average Interruption Duration Index EDF - Électricité de France[4] Study and presentation on Rice Husk PP by R. Gandhi United Engineering Calcutta, India.[5] Technical year reports and documents of NV EBS[6] Lecture manuscript on Sustainable Power Engineering by Prof Ferreira, Delft University of Technology. Appendix[7] Presentations on Rice Husk PP Nickerie and Power Demand and Supply for the Future, Jan 2010 by S. Additional information which could be relevant Mehairjan. to the reader is included by the authors under[8] Smart Grid, the Key Driver for a Sustainable Energy the notion Appendix. Typical information Future, Carilec Industrial Journal July 2009, by Ravish P.Y. Mehairjan & Evita N. Parabirsing. included in this section is additional information on EBS, customer growth rates[9] Energy Efficiency in the Power Grid, 2007 ABB Inc. and type of customers, typical growth rates of Caribbean countries in the region.[10] Caribbean Regional Electricity Generation, Interconnection, and Fuel Supply Strategy, Interim Report, Nexant & World Bank, Jan 2010. EBS facts:[11] Interview with Ir. Lothar Boksteen, Engineer developing Employees 943 options for hydro power potential in Suriname, Feb 2010. Turnovers 274 million SRD[12] Elektriciteit: Vraag, Aanbod en Toekomstvooruitzichten, Business Seminar, Feb 2010 (in Dutch) by Samuel Properties 649 million SRD Mehairjan Investments 182 million SRD Power Sales 927 GWh (EPAR) Peak Power 175 – 180 MW Appendix Table 2: Facts & Figures of EBS [12] 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 14
  • 15. Appendix Table 2: Net Peak Demand Load Forecast (MW) [10]Appendix Figure 1: Different categories of customers and the related growth rates in the EBS system [1] 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 15
  • 16. 900 Electricity resources 2000-2007 800 GWh (Electricity into the System) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 - 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Year Suralco (Hydro Power) EBS (Conventional) Staatsolie (Conventional)Appendix Figure 2: Electricity resources in Suriname for the period 2000-2007 including the major resource categories [1], [5] 3,000 Electricity Consumption (GWh) for Suriname 2,500 2,000 GWh 1,500 1,000 500 - 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Total 1,29 1,35 1,43 1,72 1,79 1,94 2,01 2,09 2,17 2,25 2,34 2,44 2,54 2,65 Others - - - 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 Refinery - - - - - 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 Iamgold 111 118 149 166 184 184 184 184 184 184 184 184 184 184 Suralco 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 EBS 795 846 900 958 1,01 1,08 1,15 1,22 1,30 1,39 1,48 1,57 1,68 1,78 Appendix Figure 3: Electricity consumption in Suriname and predicted growth forecast [1], [5] 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 16
  • 17. 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference © Copyright Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish 2010 17

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