Router Fundamentals


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Router Fundamentals

  1. 1. Router Fundamentals Chapter 4
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives Explain router components Explain router installation Discuss router boot sequence Define Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Explain Command Line Interface (CLI) Perform initial router configuration Set hostname, banners and passwords for the router Manage the configuration registerChapter 4 2
  3. 3. Recall - I Different network devices include:  Hubs  Routers  Switches  Bridges  Repeaters Different types of hubs include:  Active  Passive  HybridChapter 4 3
  4. 4. Recall - II Different WAN devices include:  WAN Switch  Access Server  Modem  Channel Service Unit  ISDN Terminal AdapterChapter 4 4
  5. 5. Router Components Router components allow the router to enter the bootup process, load its operating system, and configuration files Router Components Configuration Processor ROM RAM Flash NVRAM RegisterChapter 4 5
  6. 6. Router Boot Sequence The router requires all the router components during its bootupChapter 4 6
  7. 7. Internetwork Operating System IOS acts as an interface between the network devices and the user It is stored in the flash memory of the router The Cisco IOS software requires the processor of the system for configuring and maintaining the network devices Different features of IOS include:  Support for different technologies  Scalability  SecurityChapter 4 7
  8. 8. Router Ports Router ports help to configure the router, verify its configuration and access Cisco IOS Router Ports Console Port Auxiliary PortChapter 4 8
  9. 9. Rear Panel of the Cisco RouterChapter 4 9
  10. 10. CLI ModesChapter 4 10
  11. 11. CLI Prompts CLI prompts allow you to navigate and recognize the mode that you have entered CLI prompts include:  Interfaces  Sub-Interfaces  Line  RouterChapter 4 11
  12. 12. Accessing Help and History Command Description? Help for all available commands in the modeCommand ? Describes all the first parameters of the commandcom? Lists the commands that begin with comcommand parm? Lists the characters that begin with parmcommand When the tab is pressed in between the word, the CLIparm<Tab> completes the word. If the CLI is idle, it indicates that the typed characters can form more possible wordscommand parm1 ? Lists all the next parameters and their descriptionChapter 4 12
  13. 13. Enhanced Editing Commands - I The enhanced editing commands include:  Ctrl + A - Moves the cursor to the beginning of a line  Ctrl+E - Moves the cursor to the end of the line  Esc+B - Move the cursor back by one word  Ctrl+B - Move the cursor back by one character  Ctrl+F - Move the cursor forward by one character  Esc+F - Move the cursor forward by one word  Ctrl+D - Deletes one characterChapter 4 13
  14. 14. Enhanced Editing Commands - II  Backspace - Deletes one character  Ctrl+R - Recalls a line  Ctrl+U - Deletes a line  Ctrl+W - Deletes a word  Ctrl+Z - Returns to EXEC from the configuration mode  Tab - Finishes typing a wordChapter 4 14
  15. 15. Router History Commands Command Description Ctrl+P or Up arrow Displays the last command entered Ctrl+N or Down arrow Displays the previously entered commands show history Displays the last 10 command entered show terminal Displays terminal configuration and size of history buffer terminal history size Allows to change the buffer sizeChapter 4 15
  16. 16. Router Administrative Functions Router administrative functions allow easy troubleshooting and maintenance of routers Router administrative function include:  Assigning hostname  Assigning banners  setting passwordChapter 4 16
  17. 17. Banners Banner is a message displayed to all the users when they access the router through Telnet, console and auxiliary ports It can be used to display information about the router itself or nay kind of security message Four types of banners available for the Cisco routers are:  Message of the day banner  Exec process creation banner  Incoming terminal line banner  Login bannerChapter 4 17
  18. 18. Summary - I The router components enable the router to start the boot up process, load its operating system, and load its configuration files The Power-On-Self-Test or the POST component provides a series of diagnostic tests for the router The POST is a series of 14 tests that run in the reverse numerical order The bootstrap program or the ROM Monitor component enables you to initialize the processor hardware when the router bootsChapter 4 18
  19. 19. Summary - II The bootstrap program loads the IOS image for the router The different values for the image in the configuration register are:  0x0 - Boots the router into ROM monitor mode  0x1 - Boots the router using the Mini-IOS  0x2–0xF - Boots the router using the default boot sequenceChapter 4 19
  20. 20. Summary - III The boot system commands in the startup-config file are:  boot system flash IOS filename - Enables you to boot from flash memory  boot system tftp IOS filename tftp server ip address - Enables you to boot from a TFTP server  boot system rom - Enables you boot from system ROMChapter 4 20
  21. 21. Summary - IV The bootstrap program offers a console-based interface or monitor for working with the program Mini-IOS component provides an alternate file for the router boot up, if the existing image file is unavailable ROM monitor is a component stored in the microcode of RAM The flash memory contains IOS using which the router can bootChapter 4 21
  22. 22. Summary - V NVRAM or Non-Volatile RAM is a type of random access memory that stores the configuration files for the router Configuration register is a component that controls the booting process of a router The router can be connected through console port, auxillary port or Telnet program CLI is a character or text based interface that allows manual configuration of the router User Exec Mode enables you to work with the router and execute very simple commandsChapter 4 22