Note 1: Daniel, L. (14 June 1999). Intelligent managers in tune with workplace stresses. Federal Times. 16.
The intelligence test was a primary step in the development of the applied branches of psychology. Educational psychologists stimulated the applied nature of educational psychology by using the intelligence test as a way to help them group children to make teaching more effective. Personnel managers saw the intelligence test as a way to keep less efficient and effective workers off the payroll. To the 19th Century psychologist, intellectual ability was an intriguing research possibility. The idea that there may be individual variations in ability or that the focus of teaching should be learning weren’t yet developed. In 1904, the French Minister of Public Instruction became concerned about the children in Parisian schools who were unable to profit from the given instruction. He wanted to devise a plan to develop schools for such children but needed a method to identify them. Alfred Binet, a psychologist studying individual differences and mental abilities, produced a list of thirty tasks, in a range of difficulty, normed the tasks and thus developed the first of the recognized standardized intelligence tests. Subsequent tests and subsequent developments drew in to “intelligence” a variety of additional factors: creativity, environment, heredity, social stimulation , age, and personality factors. It was the Army which caused intelligence testing to come to the public eye--through its intelligence testing of soldiers. The term, “IQ” became an accepted popular term and again spurred on the development of the various branches of applied psychology.
Neisser, U., et. al. ((1996.) Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist , 51, 77-101.
Phineas Gage lived during the 1840’s. He was a bright, social person. He was well balanced and even shrewd. Energetic and persistent, too. Then he had an accident where an iron bar went through his head. He seemed to recover fully and actually returned to work. At that time, physicians argued that most of the human brain was filler, so they thought Phineas had healed when the wound healed. Then life began to deteriorate for Phineas Gage. He became fitful, irreverent, profane even, impatient of restraint when it conflicted with his desires. He could no longer serve as construction foreman. He left and worked on a ranch in South America, eventually returned to the states and died penniless and family-less. He is often used as the example--why emotions underlie good decision making. He exemplified the condition of impaired emotions which appeared to link to his poor decisions. Previously, he had been the young wonder.
Amygdala: a major structure leading to patterns of physiological change which pause when emotion occurs. The connection is thalamus to cortex to amygdala. Thus, we may have an emotional reaction/response before we’re aware what’s going on. View this chart first and then rapidly move to the next, which shows the amygdala. The following is a good reference for the learner... Diamond, M.C., Scheibel, A.B., and Elson, L.M. (1985). The human brain coloring book . New York: Barnes & Noble Books, a Division of Harper & Row, Publishers. 1-2; 1-3.
Antonio Damasio, in Descartes’ Error , asserts that concerted activity at all levels of the cortex assist rational decision making. For a reference citation, see your Reference list in the syllabus.
Question for thought and perhaps later exploration: How does emotion as an essential contributor to rational decision making fit with the theories of critical thinking as espoused by Richard Paul and taught in the SBLMP curriculum? Specifically look at the division made between rational thought and emotional thought. Damasio, A. (1994.) Descartes’ error . New York: Avon Books.
Based on Goleman’s book (1995), Emotional Intelligence Daniel Goleman is a writer; not a researcher. As a writer he had the gift of explaining the research to others. He is also a psychologist.
Another way to express the framework comes directly from Goleman’s work (available from www.eiconsortium.org ) is: Personal Competence Self-Awareness emotional awareness accurate self assessment self-confidence Self-Regulation self control trustworthiness conscientiousness adaptability innovation Self-Motivation achievement drive commitment initiative optimism Social Competence Social Awareness empathy service orientation developing others leveraging diversity political awareness Social Skills influence communication leadership change catalyst conflict management building bonds collaboration and cooperation team capabilities
Interesting to note; there are gender differences here. Females experience a greater range of intensity in emotions. More of these differences will be covered later, too.
Alexithymia = when self awareness is impoverished. There are no words for emotion. There is difficulty in distinguishing between emotions. There is impoverished capacity for emotions. Also, this person is likely to be overly concerned about physical symptoms. Reference Taylor, G. J., et. al. (1991.) The alexithymia construct: A potential paradigm for psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatics, 32, 153-164.
Over time these will impact cardiovascular disease, the progression of diabetes; influence cancer onset or progression. Anxiety and cardiovascular disease predict subsequent cardiac events, the onset of hypertension, and even sudden death from fatal MI’s. Stress management reduces that risk and psychological intervention can make a difference. Having good emotional health influences good physical health.
Mayer, J.D., and Salovey, P. (1995.) Emotional intelligence and the construction and regulation of feelings. Applied and Preventive Psychology , 4, 197-208.
In neurobiological terms also referred to as “somatic markers.”
Quickly relate the social relationships and managing emotions in others topic to Office of Personnel Management Executive Core Qualifications (ECQ’s) and to Army Values as exemplified by FM 22-100; leadership; duty; respect; selfless service; honesty; integrity; personal courage. This ground will be covered more thoroughly in a later slide dealing with organizations and EI.
Making criticism constructive is an example. See Weisinger, H. Ph.D. (1998.) Emotional intelligence at work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The nice personality is one of the dangers in creating an EQ instrument--empathy can be faked.
Recent research explores abuse-driven brain changes. In the relation between early abuse and dysfunction of the limbic system; Patients with abuse scored higher on a temporal lob epilepsy-related symptoms checklist; patients with sexual abuse scored significantly higher yet. Maltreatment before age 18 has more impact than later abuse; males and females were similarly affected. Researchers hypothesize that adequate nurturing and the absence of intense early stress permits brains to develop in a manner that is less aggressive and more emotionally stable, social, empathic and hemispherically integrated (75.) Teicher, M.H. (march 2002.) Scars that won’t heal: The neurobiology of child abuse . Scientific American. 68-75
Don’t interpret “dysfunction” too clinically. Many of the items on the list represent our daily challenges. The message is, when any or several of these exceed our capacity for acceptable behavior we need help. At that point, too, we would be the last person to recognize the problem. It is therefore important for supervisors and trusted coworkers to recognize the behaviors associated with “going overboard”.
Is the person in the wrong job? An introvert, highly intuitive who doesn’t follow through administratively. Someone who wanted to with with numbers; now is supervising people Does the job require the person to be difficult? Are they doing someone else’s dirty work? What about the group dynamic? Is someone a prima donna--strong minded, runs rough shod over everyone else? Personal & Interpersonal “ loose cannon” needs to be able to control intimidated temper and fear; be overwhelmed confident & assertive diffident --useful tools are 360 o ; videotaping behavior, executive coach
It was Super Bowl Sunday, that sacrosanct day when most American men are to be found in front of their TV’s. A departing flight from New York to Detroit was delayed two hours, and the tension among the passengers--almost entirely businessmen--was palpable. When they finally arrived in Detroit, a mysterious glitch with the boarding ramp made the plane stop about a hundred feet from the gate. Frantic about being late, passengers leapt to their feet anyway. One of the flight attendants went to the intercom. How could she most effectively get everyone to sit down so that the plane could finish taxiing to the gate? WHAT’S BEHIND THIS? She did not announce, in a stern voice: “Federal regulations require that you be seated before we can move to the gate.” Instead, she warbled in a singsong tone, suggestive of a playful warning to an adorable small child who has done something naughty but forgivable, “You’re staaan-ding!” At that everyone laughed and sat back down until the plane had finished taxiing to the gate. And, given the circumstances, they got off the plane in a surprisingly good mood. WHAT’S BEHIND THIS? -- Taken from: Pires de Castro, A. (1999). Motivation and emotional intelligence--case studies and their results. American Society for Training and Development International Conference, Atlanta, GA. May 1999.
Ask how many students attended the ECQ session given earlier in July. Social Competence Social Awareness empathy service orientation developing others leveraging diversity political awareness Social Skills influence communication leadership change catalyst conflict management building bonds collaboration and cooperation team capabilities Available from www.eiconsortium.org First quote taken from Goleman, D. (1999). Guidelines for best practices for emotional intelligence training . American Society for Training and Development International Conference, Atlanta, GA, May 1999.
Item 1 taken from: Saratoga Institute; quoted in Hartin, B. and Lace, S. (1999). The workforce challenge and education & training’s strategic response . American Society for Training and Development International Conference, Atlanta, GA, June 1999. Item 2 taken from: Rhinesmith, S. H., (1999). Leading across borders . American Society for Training and Development International Conference, Atlanta, GA, June 1999.
It takes hard work to unlearn an existing habit and propel yourself forward to learn a new habit and make it your own.
Box 1: Von Hoffman, C. (June, 1999). Crabs, cranks. and curmudgeons. How to manage difficult people . Harvard Management Update, 4-5. --It says, “Increases retention. Decreases absenteeism. Increases overall organizational growth.” Box 2: Cherniss, C. and Goleman, D. (1998). Bringing emotional intelligence to the workplace . A technical report issued by the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations. Available from: www.eiconsortium.org . Box 3: Byron Stock & Associates. Emotional Intelligence, Getting to the heart of performance. American Society for Training and Development International Conference, Atlanta, GA, June 1999.
In “ differentiating between emotion and the need to take action” add two subcomponents: promoting action in response to sadness/depress inhibiting action in response to anger/hostility “ Gut feelings” are somatic markers. A neurobiological understanding of how unconscious and conscious use of “gut feelings” can effectively guide decisions. Could this be the essence of wisdom?
Daniel Goleman and several other authors are working on a test to measure and / or map an Emotional Quotient. As of Spring 1999, they were still running test populations. You will find several such sources on the Internet, offering for large amounts of money to test your emotional intelligence. Right now, I see such tests as a waste of money. Spend your efforts in getting people to understand and apply the concepts.
“ EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SETS APART GOOD LEADERS” – BY GROUP 3 AN INTRODUCTION EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought… Concepts of intelligence are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena .
Damasio’s work shows how neurobiology can help us understand the role of emotion in thinking. We constantly learn more about this important area.
Work like his underlies the concepts of emotional intelligence .
There are less obvious advantages to emotional experience.
Emotion is emerging as an essential contributor to rational decision making.
WHAT IS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EI)? The capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others , for motivating ourselves , and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships.
The more strategies the better Managing one’s own emotions
USING EMOTIONS TO MAXIMIZE INTELLECTUAL PROCESSING AND DECISION MAKING
As a person matures, emotions begin to shape and improve thinking by directing a person’s attention to important changes, (e.g., a child worries about his homework while continually watching TV. A teacher becomes concerned about a lesson that needs to be completed for the next day. The teacher moves on to complete the task before concern takes over enjoyment.
Mayer and Salovey, 1995 self motivation
UTILIZING MILD EMOTIONAL SWINGS TO PERFORM ONE’S OPTIONS MORE EFFECTIVELY
“ Gut feeling ” can be used to effectively guide decisions --a neurological understanding of how unconscious and conscious gut feelings guide decisions, e.g., when prioritizing, emotions help move the decisions.
Using emotions to maximize intellectual processing and decision making
THE ART OF SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS--MANAGING EMOTIONS IN OTHERS
To excel at people skills means having and using the competencies to be an effective friend, negotiator, and leader . One should be able to guide an interaction, inspire others, make others comfortable in social situations, and influence and persuade others.
THE SUBTLE AND COMPLEX ABILITIES WHICH UNDERLIE PEOPLE SKILLS
Being attuned to others’ emotions
Promoting comfort in others through the proper use of display rules
Using own emotional display to establish a sense of rapport
The art of social relationships--managing emotions in others
50% of work satisfaction is determined by the relationship a worker has with… his/her boss.
EI is a prerequisite for effective leadership across borders.
Requires a high level of self-mastery and people skills; ability to put yourself into the positions of others.
A ONE-DAY SEMINAR WON’T DO IT. Unlearn old habits
WHAT IS TRAINING IN EI WORTH? Increases retention. Decreases absenteeism. Increases overall organizational growth. Could increase production as much as 20% Current estimates to American Business: Losing between $5.6 and $16.8 Billion annually
If we knew nothing about a store except that employee attitudes had improved 5%, we could predict that its revenue would rise .5% above what it otherwise would have been. --Sears executive, Harvard Business Review, January, 1998
NINE STRATEGIES FOR Taking the time for mindfulness Recognizing and naming emotions Understanding the causes of feelings Differentiating between emotion and the need to take action Preventing depression through “learned optimism” Managing anger through learned behavior or distraction techniques Listening for the lessons of feelings Using “gut feelings” in decision making Developing listening skills Promoting Emotional Intelligence