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  • 1. Chapter 11: Situational Influences Consumer Behavior - A Framework John C. Mowen Michael S. Minor
  • 2. Key Concepts
    • Consumer Situations
    • Types of situational influences
    • Influence of physical surroundings
    • Store location effects
    • Store atmosphere
    • Task definition
    • Categories of gift-giving situations
    • Influence of time
    • Time differences across cultures
    • Types of antecedent states
  • 3. The Environment and the Exchange Process Cultural Environment Economic Environment Subcultural Environment Regulatory Environment Group/ family Processes Situational Influencers Individual Processes Buying Unit Exchange Process Marketer
  • 4. Consumer Situations . . .
    • consist of temporary environmental factors that form the context within which a consumer activity occurs at a particular place and time.
    • include factors that:
      • Involve the time and place in which a consumer activity takes place
      • Explain why the action takes place
      • Influence consumer behavior
  • 5. Table 11-1: Belk’s Situational Elements
    • Physical surroundings
    • Social surroundings
    • Time
    • Task definition
    • Antecedent states
  • 6. Physical Surroundings . . .
    • . . .are the concrete physical and spatial aspects of the environment that encompass a consumer activity.
  • 7. Effects of Music on Shoppers
    • In a supermarket store study sales increased daily by 38% when slower music was played.
    • A restaurant study found when slow music was played, liquor sales increased.
  • 8. Effects of Music continued
    • Playing peppy music while on hold or waiting in line doesn’t make time pass more quickly.
    • Louder music increases “pace of events” perception but raises estimates of time durations.
  • 9. The Effects of Crowding on Consumers
    • Density - how closely packed people are (i.e., the physical arrangements of people in a space).
    • Crowding - the unpleasant feelings that people experience when they perceive that densities are too high and that their control of the situation has been reduced to unacceptable levels.
  • 10. High - and Low-density...
    • High-density situations may be beneficial -
      • More perceived control in bar study, less in bank study.
      • In “fun” situations, density enhances pleasure.
    • There is usually an optimal level of density.
    • Other elements (time, convenience) as important for shopping behavior.
  • 11. Consumer Crowd Behavior
    • In some circumstances consumers behave like hysterical crowds
      • Large groups may cause high physiological arousal among each of the members
      • The high arousal results in the tendency of each member of the crowd to act on a dominant idea or tendency
      • Each person in a crowd becomes inconspicuous and individual responsibility is lost.
  • 12. Store Location . . .
    • . . . influences consumers from several perspectives.
    • Consumers have “cognitive maps” of a city’s geography that may not match the actual locations of retail stores.
    • Image transference exists: The image of anchor stores affects that of smaller stores in the same shopping center.
  • 13. Store Layout . . .
    • . . . is the physical organization of a store that creates specific traffic patterns, assists retailers in the presentation of merchandise, and helps create a particular atmosphere.
  • 14. Atmospherics . . .
    • . . . refers to how managers manipulate the design of the building, interior space, layout of aisles, texture of carpets and walls, scents, colors, shapes, and sounds experienced by customers to achieve a certain effect.
  • 15. Atmospherics and Shopping Behavior Influences Influences Atmosphere
      • Emotional Response
    Behavior Layout Sounds Smells Texture... Pleasure/ displeasure Arousal/ Boredom Time in Store Affiliation Buying
  • 16. Olfactory Cues...
    • Shoppers perceive higher quality goods in scented stores.
    • Odors should be consistent with store offerings.
    • These cues are expensive to maintain.
  • 17. Effects of Spatial Arrangements…
    • Space modifies/shapes behavior
    • Retail store space affects consumers
    • Retail stores affect attitudes, images
    • Stores can create desired consumer reactions
  • 18. Social Surroundings . . .
    • . . . deals with the effects of other people on a consumer in a consumption situation.
  • 19. The Task Definition . . .
    • . . . the situational reasons for buying or consuming a product or service at a particular time and place.
    • Usage situations form the context in which a product is used and influence the product characteristics sought by a consumer.
  • 20. Occasion-Based Marketing Opportunities
    • Sometimes a product is locked into one usage situation, limiting market potential.
    • Consumers may come to consider the product inappropriate for all other situations.
  • 21. Gift-Giving Motivations Voluntary Obligatory Low High Altruism Reciprocity creation Ritual obligation Love, friendship
      • Degree of Self-Interest
    Gift Type
  • 22. Gift Behavior and Gender...
    • Women start shopping earlier for Christmas (October vs. November)
    • Spend more time shopping/gift (2.4 vs. 2.1 hours)
    • Are more successful (fewer of their gifts are exchanged)
    • But men spend 50% more/gift.
  • 23. Self-Gifts...
    • Premeditated, indulgent
    • Rewarding an accomplishment, therapy for disappointment
    • Baseball glove/Front-end loader
  • 24. Time...
    • Individual differences in conception…
    • Time as a product
    • Time as a situational variable
  • 25. Time: Individual Differences...
    • People Can Use Time in Four Different Ways :
      • Work
      • Necessities
      • Housework
      • Leisure
    Obligatory Discretionary
  • 26. Individual Time Differences Are Influenced by Culture...
    • Linear Separable. There is a past, present, future. The future is expected to be better: the idea of “progress”. Activities are a means to an end.
    • Circular Traditional. The future is like the present. Do today only what has to be done today. Time and money aren’t related.
    • Procedural Traditional. Task Orientation. Meetings take as long as necessary.
  • 27. Time as a Product
    • Many Purchases Are Made to Buy Time
      • The “time-buying consumer” is a consumer who engages in buying time through these products
      • Time-saving qualities are a key promotional idea
      • Time can act as a product attribute
  • 28. “Perception Management,” Time, and Lines
    • In 1998, 70 Northern California MacDonald’s restaurants tried multiple lines vs. one line.
    • The single, serpentine line is most popular -
      • Multiple lines actually move people faster
      • But jumping from line to line creates stress.
  • 29. Time as a Situational Variable
    • How much time a consumer has available to do a task influences the buying strategy used to select and purchase the product.
    • With limited time, there is less information search.
  • 30. Antecedent States . . .
    • . . . are the temporary physiological and mood states that a consumer brings to a consumption situation.
    • Physiological State: Hunger.
    • Mood State: Happy feelings.
  • 31. Antecedent States . . . . . . Can lead to problem recognition. . . . Can change the “feeling” component of hierarchy of effects (Ch. 8) . . . Mood states influence behavior, e.g. shopping to alleviate loneliness.
  • 32. Usage Situation, Person, and Product Interactions
    • The Buying Act Results From Interactions That Occur Among :
      • Consumption situations
      • Characteristics of the buying unit/person
      • The product or service being offered
  • 33. Managerial Implications
    • Positioning. Situational variables offer multiple opportunities for positioning.
    • Research. May indicate which situations present opportunities for new products.
    • Marketing Mix. Firms may be able to present time-saving attributes as a tradeoff for a higher price.
    • Segmentation. An increase in the female work force presents opportunities to market to the segment of males doing more of their own shopping.
  • 34. Situation-by-Product Interaction Tennis Match Party Mixer High Low Gatorade Ginger Ale