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Coastal Defense Management : A Group Report

Coastal Defense Management : A Group Report






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    Coastal Defense Management : A Group Report Coastal Defense Management : A Group Report Document Transcript

    • 2
    • SUMMARY INTRODUCTIONI. THE CASE OF NORTH SEA REGION A. General Definitions 1) Erosion i. Definition ii. When does erosion become a problem? 2) Flooding i. What is flooding? ii. Causes B. Current state of the North sea areas: 1) Main countries affected 2) Milestones of a common coastal defense strategy: 3) Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management Strategy: i. Principles: ii. Existing defense structures:II. INDICATORS: A. Innovative Defense structures: 1) Eco-Innovative defense structures: i. Wave energy converters ii. Natural barriers iii. Floating urbanization and benchmarking B. Indicators for Eco-Innovative defense 1) The DPSIR framework for Coastal defense systems: 2) Suggested indicators and assessment: 3) Suggested indicators system within the sustainability framework CONCLUSION 3
    • INTRODUCTION In several countries around the world, coastal erosion and flooding are generatinghuge turmoil in economy, ecologic and societal scales. Among those countries, the ones ofthe Northern European region are one of the biggest zones at risk. Those phenomena arenatural processes accelerated by human activities. However with the pressure of transitiontowards sustainable defense systems, it is ambitioned to trigger an eco-friendly challengetowards a co-evolution between men and natural erosion processes. In this context, this file highlights the eco innovative processes for coastal defenseand focuses on the required indicators to implement those eco-innovative systems. The first part is dedicated to general definitions of the studied topic; then thanks toseveral reasons that are exposed further, attention is paid to the North Sea region as theoutdoor laboratory for our indicators system. In a final step, we focus on the indicators andtheir implementation in two suggested frameworks in order to assess their relevance. 4
    • I. THE CASE OF NORTH SEA REGION A.General Definitions: 1) Erosion: i. Definition: Coast erosion is the process of wearing away material from a coastal profile due toimbalance in the supply and export of material from ascertain section. It takes place in theform of scouring in the foot of the cliffs or dunes or at the subtotal foreshore. Coastalerosion takes place mainly during strong winds, high waves and high tides and storm surgeconditions, and results in coastline retreat and loss of land. The rate of erosion is correctlyexpressed in volume/length/time, e.g. in m3/m/year, but erosion rate is often usedsynonymously with coastline retreat and thus expressed in m/year. ii. When does erosion become a problem? Coastal erosion becomes a problem when there is no room to accommodate change: ahighly urbanized coastal zone will certainly face difficulties with coastal erosion. The question ishow much room is needed and what human uses are compatible with a dynamic coastline. Unlesswe know the natural behavior of the coast, we cannot formulate a sustainable, economicallyrational and socially acceptable coastal management strategy. Coastal erosion and coastal flooding are often linked. One may lead to another,especially where shorelines separating the sea from flat, low lying land are eroding.FIG: 1 Types of erosion 5
    • 2) Flooding: i. What is flooding: While flash flooding can occur anywhere from heavy rains and poor drainage, coastalflooding occurs when intense, offshore low-pressure systems drive ocean water inland. Thewater pushed ashore is called storm surge. Fig 2: Ocean currents in North Sea region From the picture above it is clearly seen that ocean currents mainly entering viathe north entrance exiting along Norwegian coast and if a sea level increase due to climatechange has a potential threat for North Sea region. There are different coastal flooding levelsthat are based on the amount water rises above the normal tide in a particular area andevery level requires appropriate approach and methods. They are following: MINOR: Nuisance coastal flooding of locations adjacent to the shore. Minor beacherosion can occur. Minor coastal flooding is not expected to close roads or do any majorstructural damage to homes and other buildings. MODERATE: More substantial coastal flooding, threatening life and property. Someroads may become impassable due to flooding. Moderate beach erosion will occur alongwith damage to some homes, businesses, and other facilities. MAJOR: A serious threat to both life and property. Numerous roads will likelybecome flooded. Many homes and businesses along the coast will receive major damage.People should review safety precautions and prepare to evacuate if necessary. Major beacherosion is also expected. Knowledge on how to manage flood risk is widespread and 6
    • fragmented across the North Sea region. The five North Sea countries show similar attitudestowards managing flood risk, but at some points they may differ, caused by the fact thatphysical context defines the appropriate strategy. ii. Causes: Floods from the sea can be caused by overflow, overtopping and breaching of flooddefenses like dikes and barriers as well as flattening of dunes/dune erosion. Land behind thecoastal defences may be flooded and experience damage. A flood from sea may be causedby a heavy storm (storm surge or tidal flood), a spring tide, or particularly a combinationthereof. A timely reminder of the ever present risk was the storm surge on 9 November2007 which resulted in the highest water levels for 50 years along parts of the North Seacoastline and - in the Netherlands - led to the operation of a full scale dike watch for the firsttime in 30 years. The surge also caused considerable erosion at some Wadden islands andminor flooding in certain harbor areas. Storm surge barriers like the Thames barrier andMaeslant barrier were closed. In England, several hundreds of people were evacuated. B. Current state of the North sea areas: The North Sea is situated between the countries Norway, Denmark, Germany, theNetherlands, Belgium and United Kingdom. It is linked to the Atlantic Ocean in the north andalso in the southwest, via the Channel. To the east it links up with the Baltic Sea. TheKattegat is considered an interchange zone between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea.Including estuaries and fjords, the total surface area of the North Sea is approximately750,000 km² and its total volume 94,000 km³. The drainage area of the North Sea coversabout 850.000 km2 and is inhabited by about 184 million people. Fig4: North Sea region 7
    • 1) Main countries affected: The Danish coastline comprises active coastal cliffs where the sea erodes material, aswell as beach-ridge complexes where material is deposited in the lee of prevailing winds.About 80% of the Danish population lives in urban areas near the coast. A total of about1800km of coastline is protected by dykes or other types of coastal protection.Two-thirds of the Netherlands, a sophisticated land in terms of industrial and agriculturalinfrastructure containing high exposed values, lies below sea level. A catastrophic seainundation in 1953 in which 1,850 people drowned, led the Dutch, at great expense, todevelop exceptional expertise in flood protection and land reclamation.The Netherlands’ extensive dyke system is constantly re-evaluated and strengthened whereappropriate. These protections theoretically offer a higher level of protection than theThames Barrier in London. Yet no insurer or reinsurer seems willing to grant the cover freely.However well-protected the Netherlands is, the sheer accumulation of potential loss to thatalmost unthinkable 10,000- year sea event forces prudence and caution. Those marketswilling to grant the cover (usually non-Dutch), spread their available capacity sparinglyacross their clients. Flood loss potential is assessed cautiously, especially for BusinessInterruption.The UK has more than 6000km of coastline. Ports, harbors, marine industries, powergeneration and beaches are essential to manufacturing, trade, recreation, fishing andtourism. In addition, many parts of our coastline are important wildlife sanctuaries orbreeding grounds. Over the last 30 years these attractions have drawn more people andindustries to the coast. Climate change and rising sea levels are likely to have a severeimpact on the UK coast by 2080. The total rise in sea levels off the UK coast may exceed onemeter and could potentially reach two meters. The frequency of intense storm events isexpected to increase and, along with the rise in sea level, to lead to more coastal flooding.Temperatures are expected to rise, particularly in the south and east of the UK. 8
    • 2) Milestones of a common coastal defense strategy:Spatial planning issues are generally well developed in the North Sea region countries on thelandward side of the coastline. However, in the marine area, many (often national) sectorialagencies regulate different issues with little reference to integrative thinking and publicinvolvement. At the same time, the traditional terrestrial-based planning system often lacksmechanisms for dealing with issues, which overlap the marine and terrestrial.Country Ministerial Authorities Local Authority LevelDenmark Environment (ICZM); Defense (oil); Industry (tourism); Country Transport & Works (defense)Germany Transport, Building & Housing MunicipalityBelgium Agriculture; Environment; Public Works, Transport and Regional Town and Country PlanningNetherlands Ministry for Transport, Public Works and Water Regional ManagementUnited Kingdom Environment, Transport and the Regions; Environment Regional &County Agency (Reference: EUCC, www.coastalguide.org)Belgium For a long time the seacoast has been the domain for sectoral planning mainlyserving tourism and recreation. Due to the small length of the coast and heavy populationpressures most of the seacoast became urbanized and half of the coastal dunesdisappeared.. A new plan for the coast (Kust 2002 Plan) has been prepared which fullyintegrates conservation objectives with economic developments. Projects are also ongoingto improve the conservation and management of coastal dunes.Denmark Denmark has an elaborate spatial planning, especially in the coastal zone, with a highlevel of horizontal (cross-sectoral) integration and participation. The Danish Planning Actstipulates communication between the state, the counties and the municipalities. Regionalplans (to be renewed every 4 years) usually provide guidelines for the rational use of coastalareas including planning of recreational activities. A national ICZM policy does not exist. All 9
    • coastal counties are more or less actively involved in coastal zone management andplanning.Germany The organizational structure for decision making and planning in Germany involvesthree different political levels of decision making: community, state and federal government.The States (Länder) are the first responsible bodies for spatial planning and for coastal andwater management. Planning in the German coastal zone has a predominantly sectoralcharacter, with little integration of land and sea. All natural ecosystems in the coastal zoneale protected.Netherlands There is a long tradition of integrated planning in the Netherlands as a result of thepopulation density and high economic development pressures. Planning frameworks for allsectors are made at a national level and they are usually tuned to each other because theirdevelopment is a long process involving many stakeholders, ministries and the Parliament.Cicin-Sain and Knight (1998) consider the Netherlands to be the world leader in ICZM forcoastal defence and in harmonization of national coastal and ocean policies.United Kingdom National policies and regional strategies form the framework for coastal managementin the UK. In England and Wales coastal management is strongly determined by instrumentssuch as National Parks, Heritage Coasts and properties of national NGOs (e.g. National Trust,RSPB, local trusts). Management initiatives are locally based, non-statutory, cross-sectoralplans, implemented through voluntary partnerships. Local management initiatives oftenfeature strong public consultation. Examples of this are the various Estuary ManagementPlans. Primarily based upon sea defense interests, also many Shoreline Management Plansare currently developing (in principle for all "coastal cells"). Various sources conclude thatthe complicated and strongly sectoral legal framework will hamper effective ICZM. As aresult of extensive EC-funding for UK -projects in the context of the EU DemonstrationProgram for ICZM and the Estuary Management Plans the UK is quickly developing localexperience. 10
    • 3) Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management Strategy: i. Principles: Management plans for coastal erosion should be based on the principle of workingwith natural processes. The EUROSION recommendations [1] propose four concepts to assistin making this principle operational: The coastal sediment cell, Coastal resilience, favourablesediment status, and Strategic sediment reservoir.Coastal sediment cell: We already encountered the coastal sediment cell in the previouschapter, where it was defined as a coastal compartment that contains a complete cycle ofsedimentation including sources, transport paths and sinks. The cell boundaries delineatethe geographical area within which the budget of sediment is determined, providing theframework for the quantitative analysis of coastal erosion and accretion. In this respect,coastal sediment cells constitute the most appropriate units for achieving the objective offavourable sediment status and hence coastal resilience.Favourable sediment status: EUROSION proposed the introduction of the concept offavourable sediment status as the cornerstone for sustainable shoreline management toEuropean legislation but this was not realized. It is defined as the situation where theavailability of coastal sediments supports the objective of promoting coastal resilience ingeneral and of preserving dynamic coastlines in particular. A neutral or positive sedimentbalance is often required to arrive at this favorable status.Strategic sediment reservoir: Strategic sediment reservoirs are supplies of sediment of‘appropriate’ characteristics that are available for replenishment of the coastal zone, eithertemporarily (to compensate for losses due to extreme storms) or in the long term (at least100 years). They can be identified offshore, in the coastal zone (both above and below lowwater) and in the hinterland. It is recognized that many coastal erosion problems are causedby a human induced imbalance in the sediment budget. Natural sediment sources aredepleted by sand mining activities, trapped in river reservoirs upstream or fixed by coastalengineering structures. Restoring this balance will require identifying areas where essentialsediment processes occur, and identifying strategic sediment reservoirs from wheresediment can be taken without endangering the natural balance. 11
    • ii. Existing defense structures:GROYNES: One of the most frequently used protection types used to stabilize the coast.They are help build up beach material by preventing longshore drift. Groynes build upbeaches at a small scale & are cheaper than sea walls. Groynes can reduce the amount ofsediment down coast, which may have an effect on areas elsewhere (as these areas might imentget starved of material and their beaches get smaller). They also have a short lifespan.SEA WALLS: Vertical or sloping structures, built along the shoreline in an attempt to stoperosion and can be constructed from any type of material e.g. from sand material- sand-filled bags toreinforced concrete structures. Often controversial as they are ugly and can be destroy destroyedeventually. Waves scour at the bases of the walls & eventually undermine them, causingfailure. As a result, seawalls only provide temporary protection before needing replacement.They are expensive. The object of defence work is to dissipate wave energ (beaches do this energyvery well) whereas sea walls have the opposite effect walls concentrate wave energy and effect-reflects it back at the sea. The wall receives maximum impact which weakens the structure.ROCK ARMOUR (RIP-RAP): Large boulders that work in a similar way to seawalls, but they similarare permeable structures. They are able to dissipate wave energy by absorbing the impact ofthe waves. Rip-rap structures do not suffer from the wave scour that afflict the seawalls. rapClearly, masses of boulders are much cheaper than sea walls & are longer lasting. However, cheaperthey are pretty unappealing to the eye & can reduce the recreational value of the beach.They can also act as groynes & can prevent down drift movement of sediment. And also wedo have REVETMENTS and GABIONS which are the part of Hard Engineering. GABIONS 12
    • BEACH NOURISHMENT: Replacement of sand/pebbles on eroding beaches. The bestexample is the nourishment of beaches at Miami Beach where 17.7 million m³ of sedimentwas dredged & moved to the beach to provide an area for recreation & also to protect theexpensive properties that were found in the location. The problem with beach nourishmentis that one severe storm event may remove vast amounts of the expensive sediment.BEACH RESHAPING: Sand dunes and cliffs are a natural sea defence. They dissipate waveenergy and protect the area behind from flooding. They are stabilised by fences or byplanting grasses to hold the sand and rocks together. This is cheap and effective but easilydamaged by people if not maintained.MANAGEMENT RETREAT or COASTAL REALIGNMENT: This is where in certain areas, the seais allowed to reclaim (flood) the land that was once covered by the sea. This often meansthat farmland is lost, but the pressures of floods are reduced because it creates salt marshesthat can be flooded and can absorb the energy. A natural and long-term sustainable solutionand does require compensation for land that is lost. Positive and Negative impact of Coastal realignment: POSITIVE NEGATIVE Cheaper in the long term as structures Farmland and livelihoods lost not having to be maintained Sea levels rising- can’t expect to keep People’s homes will be sacrificed position of the current coastline Will produce wetland, which would have Coastal realignment, but for how long? huge wildlife potential Where do you draw the boundary? Can you keep retreating? Only giving back what naturally belongs Cost of compensation will be extremely to the sea high. Salt marshes absorb tidal/wave energy Can’t be adopted in built-up areas and reduce the impact of flooding 13
    • II. INDICATORS: 1) Selected innovative Defense structures: i. Wave energy converters: Wave Energy Converters: are "smart" wave generation systems, which use uniquely,shaped buoys to capture and convert wave energy into low-cost, clean electricity. The floatrise and fall with up and down motion, lifting force, change of water level, hydraulic air lock,and incident flux of waves. The motion of the floats is then delivered to shore by a subsea cable. The Shore-located, machinery room”/hydro pneumatic system (located on land, just like a regularpower station), converts the energy from this motion into fluid pressure, which is used tospin a generator, producing electricity. The floats are attached by robust arms to any type ofstructure, such as (but not limited to) breakwaters, peers, poles, and floating and fixedplatforms. The system is Aesthetically pleasing, does not have any noise pollution, does notgenerate solid waste or wastewater, does not have any gaseous emissions and is totallyclean and pollution free.At large scale commercial size sea wave power plants, the waves will enable the lifting of upto 100 floats in turn. This will enable a continuous energy production and a smooth output.The total wave power potential of the world is 2 x 10 6MW. The tidal energy is wavering with250Kw available from December to March, 75Kw between April to November and has peakvalue of 150Kw. The economics of wave energy power, though not yet competitive withfossil fuels, are promising and the situation is improving with more advanced technology.Capital costs for 100MW installation is $1200 to $1500/Kw with operating costs of 5 cents /Kwh & load factor around 20%. Estimated international cost for power from wave energy isaround 9.2 C/KwH. 14
    • Fig5: Wave energy converter ii. Natural barriersIt is well known that that partial or complete removal of tree cover may accelerate waterdischarge and increase flood risk during the rainy season. So, one of the prevention methodof flooding can be deforestation or afforestation. It will protect soils and reduce erosionrates and the amount of runoff, thus, preserves the coastal area.However, more important defense against such coastal hazards as flooding and erosion arecoastal wetlands and coastal vegetation. These buffers absorb wave energy and floodwaters,helping to minimize damage to coastal areas.Its idea is to restore or preserve coastal vegetated areas, which provide natural barriers tocoastal flooding and erosion, reducing the cost of maintaining sea walls and other coastaldefenses.The natural coastal defense structures of North Sea region that have low environmentalimpact on the environment are salt marshes, bottom vegetation plants such as seagrassesand biogenic reefs. Seagrasses are the only flowering plants that can liveunderwater. They can be found in Europe from the intertidal zone at the shore to depthsdown to 50-60 m. The functions that provide seagrasses are weakening of the waves 60(depends on the seagrass density, the canopy height over the water depth and the rigidity of canopy 15
    • the plant), protection of the hinterland from flooding and stabilizing the seabed.Biogenic reefs are rocky marine habitats or biological concretions that were created byanimals that rise from the seabed. They help to break and mitigate the power of waves andhave an important regulation role in European coastal and deep seas, providing a range ofgoods and services such as storm protection and flood control.Salt marshes are areas in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and salty orbrackish water, occupied by salt tolerant plants such as herbs, grasses or low shrubs. These salt-tolerantplants have extensive root systems, which enable them to survive during storm buffering storms,the impact on upland areas. If the up shore migration of the marsh is physically blocked by a up-shoredike or seawall the marsh might be squeezed between the rising sea level and the fixedbarrier- the principle of ‘coastal squeeze’. This leads to the loss of the many importantecosystem services. One of several ‘soft’ engineering options to avoid coastal squeeze ismanaged realignment. It means breaching an existing coastal defense, such as a sea wall oran embankment, and allowing the land behind to be flooded by the incoming tide. This landis then left to be occupied by saltmarsh vegetation that helps to reduce wave energy,erosion rates during storm events and provides an important habitat for coastal flora andfauna. This offers numerous environmental benefits and is often seen as the cheap and environmentalsustainable coastal defense option. However, it is not used in Germany, the Netherlands andBelgium because of lack of public support and economical reasons. In order to mitigate andreduce adverse effects of flooding and erosion it is necessary to preserve ecosystems that fprovide natural weapons against these hazards. iii. Floating urbanization and benchmarking benchmarking: Floating urbanization regarding flood is a way of adaptation to flood disasters The disasters.new concept of the amphibious house in lowland area as a flood mitigation strategy is one ofthe eco-innovative responses for the coastal flood defense. It evaluates the awareness and innovative 16
    • acceptance level of flood plain settlers to consider amphibious house as a safe shelter fordwelling in lowland area (Mohamad I.M. et al, 2012). The transfer from a water-abandonedcity to an amphibious city being a flood response strategy also opens new opportunities forcities. Floating or amphibious urbanization has such benefits as: Cost efficiency,environmental friendly, easy to construct, durability, suitable mooring and movementsystem, risk flexibility and adaptability, new surface for habitat (instead of land) Floating urbanization could also be applied for recreational reason or to allow rivers tofind their own space and even regarding to economical issues. Requiring the later on newconstruction within floodplains, and considering same for threatened shorelines, is one wayto plan for the future. Although floating homes near the coast need protected waters, waveattenuation through wave walls and dykes (as used in Europe) are a future possibility. There are two types of floating buildings, permanently floating homes and homes thatare sit on the ground during the dry season and float only when flood waters swell. If riversrise above their banks, the houses simply rise upwards as well. During flash flood, the entirecommunity, with its houses and shops is automatically afloat. Floating houses considered asan approach with the advantage of flexibility in both vertical direction (moving with afluctuating water level) and horizontal direction to float the buildings whereas. Amphibioushouse based on the similar concept but limited for horizontal movement. However, both ofthe approaches are used in water side locations as solutions for floating urbanization. Why is it eco-innovation? Floating houses has been a well known concept. Theearliest houseboats were officially recorded in 1905 (1). Innovation is in considerationfloating urbanization as a whole concept for float defense strategy and novel sustainableform of human habitat. Building floating urban areas is the next obvious step, asdevelopment pressure is making terrestrial resources increasingly scarce. Floatingurbanization is compatible with important sustainability goal – energy use and waterstorage. Water is very good at absorbing and retaining heat from the sun, so this energy canbe used for heating and cooling floating buildings. When the sea level rises and salt waterpenetrates further inland via the rivers and groundwater, the country’s fresh water supplycomes under wide-scale pressure: floating buildings can contain their own fresh-watersupplies to avoid this problem. Building on water also provides a safe haven for residentsliving in flood prone areas. 17
    • Benchmarking: The concept of floating housing is currently widely implemented inthe Netherlands. This country has a long history of fight and coexistence with water areas.The vision of the modern Netherlands’ innovative architects and planners is to build entirefloating cities with floating infrastructures – roads, shops, parks as well as homes. Theconcept is catching on as it can be adapted to anywhere in the world, but especially wherethere are deltas vulnerable to flooding or islands at risk of disappearing under the sea.One of the examples of such floating urban area is the village of Maasbommel in centraleastern Netherlands. It is the site of a pilot housing project, in which the constructioncompany Dura Vermeer has been trying out its new designs for ‘floating urbanization’. Thevillage of Masbommel is an ideal location because it is regularly exposed to high water levelsand as a result the underlying ground is becoming less stable. In 2010 there were already 32houses with an amphibious design that float when the water rises and 12 houses which floatall the time (European Environmental Agency, 2010). The village of Maasbommel, Netherlands Amsterdam, IJ Lake. Lightweight 3 story steelhomes are supported by concrete “tubs” submerged in the water to a depth of half a story. Bedrooms are on the lowestfloor. 18
    • Another example of floating urban area is a project of IJburg neighborhood in Amsterdam,Netherlands, which is currently on a stage of construction (http://www.rohmer.nl, 2010). 75 (http://www.rohmer.nlmodern floating homes by Architectenbur Architectenbureau Marlies Rohmer use docks as sidewalks andthe IJ Lake as a backyard. The flotilla is a large scale adaptive development in a country that large-scalewill be disproportionately affected with rising sea. 2) The D D.P.S.I.R framework for Coastal ork defense systems: Here the idea is to evaluate coastal defense issue within the DPSIR framework. In issueorder to avoid any risk of potential confusion, the following framework focuses on what wedecided to qualify as “facts” or “events” (in order to make the difference with indicato indicators). 19
    • 3) Suggested measurements within the sustainability framework: For wave energy converter indicators:Their Signal Effect: It produces green energy supply without GHGs and the action of thewave absorbers reduces the shoreline and breakwaters erosion. Wave energy convertercreates awareness about eco-innovation and green energy. It clearly shows the benefits ofsustainabilityTheir Incentive effect: It reflects the benefit of green energy supply with no emission!It will reduce the use of fossil fuel in generating electricity hence reducing GHGs! For Natural barriers indicators:Their Signal effect: The lands that are at risk of flooding and erosion could be protected bymechanisms provided by nature.Their Incentive effect on society to preserve environment in order to prevent economiclosses from natural hazardsThe Analytical insight: The shift from artificial coastal defense systems to natural will“green” the whole economy –instead of struggling with the nature society will useecosystem functions not only to reduce costs of flooding and erosion but also to get benefitsfrom ecosystem good and services. For floating urbanization indicators:Their Signal effect:Eco-innovation indicators will focus on the capacity of innovating, rather than the state ofthe environment. Floating urbanization is an innovative engineering solution that helpsgovernments and individuals reduce economic and human losses.Furthermore, floating urbanization is a type of response indicator that boosts the greeningof the economy since it is a solution that does not fight against nature. On the contrary, ithelps people and infrastructures adapt to the risk of flooding. - Decrease level of risk and harmful impact from flooding to urban environment (population, economy etc). - effectiveness of solution 20
    • Their Incentive effect – live with nature – towards adaptation philosophy, don’t fight with nature, but adapt to natural conditions – Shift towards renewable energy sources, new schemes of socio-economic activities, and improve society’s relationship with the environment.The Analytical insight:Floating urbanization creates a total change of habitat form, because it modifies social,economic, technical, regulation, environmental systems. Due to the almost endless number of potential indicators regarding Coastal defensemanagement systems, we decided to focus on the ones that seem more relevant to us. Wedecided to split our indicators within three key sectors that are the pillars of sustainability: Environmental indicators: Reflect trends in the state of the environment. They aredescriptive in nature if they describe the state of the environment in relation to a particularissue (e.g., eutrophication, loss of biodiversity or over-fishing). They become performanceindicators if they compare current conditions with targeted ecological conditions. Economic indicators: They help measure the improved quality of life in coastal areas,as well as in sustainable socioeconomic benefits. Social indicators: Allows getting viable information about the population awarenessregarding the whole management strategy. In some cases the defense strategy mightrequire from one part of the population to move to a less favorable place; which mightgenerate hostility and lack of support upon the project. EXAMPLES OF COASTAL DEFENSE INDICATORS ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL ECONOMIC OTHERRainfall and rainfall Number of GDP per capita Constructionfrequency research materials companies or institutionsClimate change Number of houses Cost of construction Number of natural(temperature) destroyed of cost-defense barriers structures 21
    • Sea level rise Flood resilience Number of Number of constructions protective techniquesMean sea level Recovery time Coastal area risk Infrastructure management budget permeabilityTide height Number of Restoration costs Share of floating prevention action urban areas and non- plans floating located in flood risk areasFlood duration Number of Capital value of Percentage of evacuation plans losses floating (on water and ground based) buildingsFlood frequency Number of Number of Performance of restored areas infrastructures, per floating and non- type floating urban areasLocation of flooded area Population growth Number of Resilience of coastal infrastructures defense solutions to located in vulnerable higher rates of areas climate changeShoreline position Population density Yield of agricultural productsAvailable space for Urbanization Poverty levelconstruction (urbanized areas location and surface)Wind speed and Number of building Ecologicaldirection code regulations importance valueVegetation surface Population Extra payment forreduction or increase and adaptability floating systemlocationTerrain elevation Individual risk Type of marine perception activitiesLand use modification Population at risk Waste production(expansion/reduction)Soil permeability Flood vulnerability IndustrializationWave energy period Importance of Costs of applying flood maintenance protection strategies EXAMPLES OF COASTAL DEFENSE INDICATORS ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL ECONOMIC OTHERWave height Social Cost of energy by accceptability for source changesWave direction Percentage of Comparison of people talking management costs 22
    • effective actionType of current Number of deaths Cost of destroyed related to flooding propertiesType and density of Number of Cost of the healthcoastal vegetation vulnerable problems affected by people(elder and flooding infirm) located in the floodplainSalinization of soils Number of people Costs od adaptation suffering long term of existing flood and health affects coastal defense (stress due to schemes flooding)Coast type Social Number of coastal accceptability for defense structures changes that have bad environmental effect (cause erosion)The contribution of floodand coastal erosion riskmanagement to nationalbiodiversity targetsNumber of schemes, areaor length of coastalrealignment Conclusion Although the steps in this Frame are logical and rational, the practice of erosionmanagement shows that and endless number of potential indicators are unused. Indicatorsare entire part of the sustainable coastal management strategy. According to the EUROSION2OO8 report, Coastal state indicators are often not monitored regularly and evaluations areseldom performed. This hampers an effective and sustainable solution to the problem. Italso makes erosion control practices less transparent and thus difficult. The North Sea regionis a good example of several initiatives for coastal defense risk management, but a lot ofeffort has to be made in order to broaden sustainable systems and this will surely witnessthe devising of new types of indicators in a macro coastal level. 23
    • REFERENCES: Brown, J.D., Spencer, T., Möller, I. (2007) Modelling storm surge flooding of an urban area with particular reference to modelling uncertainties: a case study of Canvey Island, UK. Water Resources Research, 43, doi:10.1029/2005WR004597. 1-22. Jorissen, R, Litjens J and Mendez Lorenzo A 2000 Flooding risk in coastal areas. Risks, safety levels and probabilistic techniques in five countries along the North Sea coast. The Hague, Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, 61pp. www.safecoast.org http://klimatilpasning.dk/en- US/Coast/Climate%20change%20impact%20on%20coasts/Sider/Forside.aspx http://www.jrf.org.uk/publications/impacts-climate-change-disadvantaged-uk-coastal- communities NORCOAST – Recommendation on improved Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the North Sea Region, County of Jutland, 2000 ICZM – Integrated Coastal Zone Management CML, PSI, CSM (2008) ECO-DRIVE: A framework for measuring eco-innovation: typology of indicators based on causal chains, Final Report, FP6-2005-SSP-5-A. http://www.theseusproject.eu/wiki/Natural_barriers Amphibious House, a Novel Practice as a Flood Mitigation Strategy in South-East Asia. Mohamad Ibrahim Mohamad, Mohammad Ali Nekooie, Zulhilmi Bin Ismail. Public Policy and Administration Research. Vol.2, No.1, 2012 European Environmental Agency, 2010. http://www.rohmer.nl, 2010. vincent.callebaut.org, 2008 24