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Ert 100131 Rg

  1. 1. ENERGY RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY [(ERT) A Review INNOVATIVE INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Energy RecoveryTechnology th Private Limited . . . 502,5 floor,GotmareMarket,WHC Road,Dharampeth,Nagpur-440010,Tel:917122558318,Fax:917122550277,Email:r avinafde,
  2. 2. Front Cover : 5 tpd plant for recovery of Energy from non recyclable Waste Plastics. Conceptualised, Designed & Commissioned by Innovative Industrial Equipment, Nagpur, India. Planned and produced by : in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher. Innovative Industrial Equipment Pvt. Ltd., 502, 5th Floor Gotmare Market, Laxmi Bhavan Square, Dharampeth, Nagpur - 440 010, India. Copywrite c IIE India,2008. All rights Reserved. No part of this book may be reporduced
  3. 3. 1930 Mahatma Gandhi in his pursuit for freedom Early However, with India's economy growing at established an ashram in a remote village, in 2008 around 10% a year, the staggering financial the central India called SEVAGRAM. outlay needed for the energy sector across the Sevagram had no electricity but India's country to maintain such a growth pattern has elite would make their way in the dark to talk prompted significant reforms. with Mahatma Gandhi about the bright future. 16th-17 th Energy Recovery Technology [ERT]. 1990 Our concern to liberate Rural India October A truly sustainable waste management solution, started way back in the year 1991, when we 2008 diverting waste plastics from MSW & BMW was started exploring the wonderful Energy Efficient demonstrated at UREDA [Uttara Khand Renewable Material BAMBOO and developed a range products Energy Development Agency], Dehradoon on the of commercial applications. request from Hiltron [A State Government Organisation ]. 2000 We further focused goal to develop the system and infrastructure required for 22nd-24 th Energy Recovery Technology [ERT]. generating energy from waste and specifically October A truly sustainable BMW management solution, was form post consumer plastics gained result. 2008 demonstrated to SGPGI [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduation Institute, Lucknow] and UPPCB [Uttar 5th-7th Trials and test runs on the mixed variety Pradesh Pollution Control Board], for March of Waste Plastics were tested by Indian Oil evaluation,as an environmentally friendly 2003 Limited at their Faridabad R & D Center. process than conventional systems of disposal. 9th UNI reported an exciting development from 16th-20 th Energy Recovery Technology [ERT] is a March Nagpur. Fuel from hydrocarbons locked in Dec truly sustainable waste management solution, 2003 plastics. It is just rearranging a few bonds 2008 diverting plastic waste from MSW & BMW was which ultimately results in the conversion of demonstrated to DST [Department of Science & plastic waste into energy.One kg of Waste Technology ] at MES, Vasco, Goa. plastic was converted into Hydrocarbon fuel within three and a half hours. 2009 Two ERT Plant for MSW & two ERT Plants for BMW are proposed by Hiltron at Uttar Khand, June Trials and test runs on the variety of based on the technology and know-how from IIEPL. 2003 mixed and hazardous Waste Plastics were tested One ERT Plant for BMW at SGPGI Hospital is by Indian Oil Limited at their Faridabad R & D proposed under the advice of UPPCB, Lucknow. Center. One ERT Plant for BMW at GMC [Government Medical College] Bimbolin, Goa is advocated by 2004 India's first ever Waste Plastic to energy GEDA [Goa Energy Development Agency] plant was designed by IIE under close Three ERT Plant are proposed in DPR for supervision of IOL R&D. forth coming financial year at Goa. 2005 India's first ever Waste Plastics to The amount of energy that can be recovered energy plant was commissioned by IIE . from waste depends upon the type of waste, the moisture content, and the caloric (BTU) value. 2007 Sixty two years after gaining For example, a 400 ton per day system utilizing independence, only 30% of Rural Indian MSW is capable of producing approximately 6 or households have access to sustained electricity 10 mega watts of electricity. supply.
  4. 4. 19 Certified Usage 24 INDEX 20 Photographs 25 1 Introduction 05 2 Benefits of plastics 06 3 Loss of Resources 07 4 Damage to Environment 08 5 Oil Fuels modern world 08 6 Plastics 10 7 Waste Plastics Disposal 11 8 Bio Medical Waste [BMW] 12 9 BMW Treatment 13 10 ERT Process 14 11 Plant Specifications 15 12 Operations 16 13 Process Specifications 17 14 Process Diagrams & Graph 18 15 Waste to Energy 19 16 Energy Recovery 16 17 Fuel Overview 21 18 Typical Analysis 22
  5. 5. 01 INTRODUCTION Awisemansometimesaid`therearetwowaystostudy BUTTERFLIES: E nergy is life.Generating energy from waste Plastics is a great promise. Our concern for environment started out way chasethem with nets theninspecttheirdeadbodies, OR Sit quietlyinagardenandwatchthemdanceamongthe flowers, back in the year 1991, when we started exploring the we selectedthesecond. wonder material Bamboo the energy efficient material We RECOVER ENERGY FROMWASTE and developed a range products of commercial applications. The concept further extended to without hazel eliminate the waste and recover energy. Our efforts bear fruit and we realised the potential. We shifted to develop the system and infrastructure required for generating energy from waste plastics [post consumer plastics/non recyclable plastics]. The world's annual consumption of plastic materials has increased from around 5 million tones in the 1950s to nearly 100 million tones today. Packaging represents the largest single sector of plastics use. The sector accounts for 35% of plastics consumption and plastic is the material of choice in nearly half of all packaged goods. There are about 50 different groups of plastics, with hundreds of different varieties. All types of plastic are recyclable. To make sorting and thus recycling easier, the American Society of Plastics Industry developed a standard marking code to help consumers identify and sort the main types of plastic. These types and their most common uses are [Table 1]: PET Polyethylene terephthalate - Fizzy drink bottles and oven-ready meal trays. HDPE High-density polyethylene - Bottles for milk and washing-up liquids. Polyvinyl chloride - Food trays, cling film, bottles for squash, mineral PVC water and shampoo. LDPE Low density polyethylene - Carrier bags and bin liners. PP Polypropylene - Margarine tubs, microwaveable meal trays. Polystyrene - Yoghurt pots, foam meat or fish trays, hamburger boxes and egg PS cartons, vending cups, plastic cutlery, protective packaging for electronic goods and toys. Any other plastics that do not fall into any of the above categories. - An OTHER example is melamine, which is often used in plastic plates and cups. 5
  6. 6. 02 B E N E F I T S O F annually in the UK is estimated to be nearly 3 million tones. An estimated 56% of all plastics PLASTICS waste is used packaging, three-quarters of which is from households. It is estimated that only 7% The considerable growth in plastic use is due of total plastic waste arising are currently being to the beneficial properties of plastics. These recycled. The production and use of plastics has a include: range of environmental impacts. Firstly, plastics S Extreme versatility and ability to be production requires significant quantities of tailored to meet very specific technical resources, primarily fossil fuels, both as a raw needs. material and to deliver energy for the S Lighter weight than competing materials, manufacturing process. It is estimated that 4% of reducing fuel consumption during the world's annual oil production is used as a transportation.Extreme durability. feedstock for plastics production and an S Resistance to chemicals, water and impact. additional 3-4% during manufacture. S Excellent thermal and electrical insulation A report on the production of carrier bags properties. made from recycled rather than virgin polythene S Good safety and hygiene properties for food concluded that the use of recycled plastic packaging.Excellent thermal and electrical resulted in the following environmental benefits: insulation properties. • reduction of energy consumption by two- S Relatively inexpensive to produce. thirds, Plastics makes up around 7% of the • production of only a third of the sulphur average household dustbin.[Source : Analysis of dioxide and half of the nitrous oxide , household waste composition and factors driving ? reduction of water usage by nearly 90%, waste increases] • reduction of carbon dioxide generation by two-and-a-half times. The amount of plastic waste generated 6
  7. 7. Many everyday consumer items now contain 03 Loss of RESOURCES electronic parts. Every year an estimated 1 million tones of waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) are discarded by householders and commercial When obsolete materials are not recycled, raw groups in the UK. Dealing with this waste is an materials have to be processed to make new products. important issue as electronic goods are becoming This represents a significant loss of resources as increasingly short lived, and so ever increasing the energy, transport and environmental damage quantities of obsolete and broken equipment are caused by these processes is large. thrown away. Electronic and electrical equipment makes up on average 4% of European municipal waste, In 1998 it was estimated that of the 6 million and is growing three times faster than any other tones of electrical equipment waste arising in municipal waste stream. Europe the potential loss of resources was ? 2.4 million tones of ferrous metal Electrical waste includes digital watches, ? 1.2 million tones of plastic fridges, TVs, computers and toys. Not only is this ? 652,000 tones of copper waste stream disparate in function but in addition ? 336,000 tones of aluminum the materials of which they are comprised vary ? 336,000 tones of glass considerably. For example an average TV contains 6% metal and 50% glass whereas a cooker is 89% metal and This was in addition to the loss of heavy only 6% glass. Other materials used include metals, lead, mercury, flame retardants and more. plastics, ceramics and precious metals. The complex The production of these raw materials and the goods array of product types and materials make waste made from them entails environmental damage through electrical and electronic equipment difficult to mining, transport, water and energy use. For manage. example, according to a recent UN study, the manufacture of a new computer and monitor uses 240kg The main component of waste electronic of fossil fuels, 22kg of chemicals and 1500 liters of equipment is large household appliances known as water. Similar quantities of materials are used in white goods, which make up 43% of the total. The next the manufacture of an average car. The nature of many largest component is IT equipment which accounts for of these materials is such that they can be recycled 39%. Much of this is made up of computers, which with relative ease preventing the waste associated rapidly become obsolete. Televisions also represent with producing new raw materials. a large proportion, with an estimated 2 million TV sets being discarded each year. The disposal of electronic and electrical appliances in landfill sites or through incineration creates a number of environmental problems. 7
  8. 8. 04 DAMAGE TO THE ENVIRONMENT 05 OIL FUELS THE MODERN WORLD. Another major problem is the toxic nature of It brought great changes to economies and many of the substances, including arsenic, bromine, lifestyles in a short span of time. Nothing else to cadmium, halogenated flame retardant, hydro date can equal the enormous impact which the use of chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), lead, mercury and oil has had on people, so rapidly, and in so many ways PCBs. around the world. With global oil prices shooting up, there is all-round fear that petrol and diesel prices The estimated number of fridges and freezers will go up and the subsidy burden for kerosene and being disposed in the UK is 3 million units annually. LPG will swell. With crude touching an all-time high These units contain gases such as $70 a barrel, fears are mounting over inflation. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) used for the The speed at which the human race is using coolant and insulation. Both CFCs and HCFCs are energy resources has become a serious issue. Not only greenhouse gases which when emitted into the are these energy resources being depleted at an atmosphere, contribute to climate change. alarming rate, but they are also causing some severe Fluorescent lighting contains potentially harmful substances such as highly toxic heavy metals, in particular mercury, cadmium and lead. If they enter the body, these substances can cause damage to the liver, kidneys and the brain. Mercury is also a neurotoxin and has the potential to build up in the food chain. The mercury content is the main concern with fluorescent lighting. A four-foot long fluorescent tube may contain over 30 milligrams of mercury. The EC permissible limit for mercury in drinking water is 1 part per billion, equivalent to 0.001mg a litre. According to a survey by consultancy ERA Technology, electrical equipment manufacturers are reacting "very slowly" to a legal requirement to damage to the environment. remove lead from their products; most of the companies have no planned date for completing the switch to lead-free technologies. Rapid growth of industry has increased the demand for crude which is presently being imported. 70 per cent of India's oil requirement is met by Finding suitable landfill sites is also imports; the oil bill constitutes more than one becoming an increasing problem, where large fourth of total country's import; oil is the second quantities of electronic waste arise. New rules in force call for the cessation of co-disposal of biggest conventional energy and world prices are hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. unlikely to drop significantly; and the country's production of crude has remained stagnant at 32-33 million tones. Most types of fuel reserves were formed millions of years ago by the natural decomposition of trees and other plant material. On land, the combination of heat and pressure slowly changed the plant matter into coal. Natural gases and petroleum were also formed in a similar way but in the ocean. As 8
  9. 9. you can see we are exhausting these resources far and other biomass fuels. Because of their high heating faster than they are being restored, and if we value, the residual plastics in MSW provide an continue this practice, the earth will be completely excellent fuel for waste-to-energy plants. Residual stripped of all of its life-giving properties. plastics mean those plastics that remain in MSW after some plastic is diverted from MSW for environmentally Oil is a unique energy source that has no and economically sound material recovery. Even in complete replacement in all its varied end uses. The communities with extensive recycling, residual British scientist Sir Crispin Tickell concludes, plastics at less than 10 percent by weight of MSW can "...we have done remarkably little to reduce our provide over 20 percent of the fuel value for a local dependence on a fuel [oil] which is a limited WTE plant. resource, and for which there is no comprehensive substitute in prospect." Detailed study has recently documented the ability of plastics to improve combustion in a modern Coming to realize that oil is finite, any and WTE plant. The study also looked at the contribution all suggestions of means to replace oil are welcomed. of plastics to air emissions. This was done by Cheerful myths are enthusiastically embraced. These intentionally adding plastics to the regular MSW feed include: that dams and their reservoirs are a source to the plant and carefully monitoring the release of of indefinitely renewable energy and that they are pollutants. Plastics were shown to have negative environmentally benign; that solar, wind, geothermal, effect on air pollution loads to the environment. The and hydro-electric power can supply the electrical study included a specific examination of dioxin and needs, from the Arctic to the tropics, of the Earth's furan emissions, this means that the danger to the nearly six billion people (likely to become at least ozone layer from green house gases will continue to 10 billion in the next fifty years); that coal, oil rise, if alternative energy cannot keep pace. from oil sands, and biofuels can replace the 72 million barrels of oil the world now uses daily; and Indeed, many people remain concerned about the that somehow electricity produced from various potential for WTE plants to negatively impact air alternative energy sources can readily provide the quality and increased recycling. For these reasons, great mobility which oil now gives to the more than 600 along with the relatively low landfill tipping fees million vehicles worldwide. Regrettably, none of that exist in many parts of the U.S., WTE is not these cheerful myths appear to be valid. growing. The reality appears to be that the world is rapidly running out of a resource that in many ways is irreplaceable. The result will be a great change in economies, social structures, and lifestyles. We will soon exhaust this capital, and we will have to go to work to try to live on current energy income. It will not be a simple easy transition. Oil is a finite resource. Life will go on, but in a different paradigm. Oil will be sorely missed. Alternative energy is useable energy from any source other than by involving the burning of fossil fuels (natural gas, coal and oil) or the splitting of atoms (nuclear power). It includes renewable energy (hydro, geothermal, biomass and wind) as well as solar energy. Alternative energy is very important today since the average consumption of electricity is increasing in virtually every country in the world. Plastics for the most part are derived from petroleum and natural gas and have heating values measured in British thermal units (Btu) competitive with coal and heating oil and superior to wood, paper, 9
  10. 10. 06 PLASTICS They are also unique in that their properties may be customized for each individual end use application. A plastic is a type of synthetic or man-made polymer; similar in many ways to natural resins found Waste plastic problem is an ever-increasing in plants and trees. Their usage over the past century menace for global environment. Because of has enabled society to make huge technological flexibility, durability and economy, a phenomenal advances. The first man-made plastic was unveiled by rise is observed in the plastic consumer base. Alexander Parkes at the 1862 Great International Throughout the world, research on waste plastic Exhibition in London. Parkes claimed that this new management is being carried out at war-footing. In material could do anything that rubber was capable of, developed countries, few waste plastic disposal / yet at a lower price. He had discovered a material that conversion methods have been implemented but are not could be transparent as well as carved efficient and economically feasible. into thousands of different shapes. Plastics being non biodegradable In 1907, Leo Hendrik get accumulated in the environment. If Baekland, stumbled upon the formula this problem is not addressed properly, for a new synthetic polymer it will lead to mountains of waste originating from coal tar plastic. Environment protection Agency subsequently named "bakelite". By U.K. estimates that by the year 2005 the 1909, Baekland had coined "plastics" amount of waste plastic throw will be as the term to describe this 65% more than that in year 1997. completely new category of materials. In the manufacture of PVC, common salt is added to the oil-based Plastics did not really take feedstock to provide the chlorine off until after the First World War, element in the long chain polymer. It is with the use of petroleum, a this chlorine element that may cause substance easier to process than toxic dioxins and furans to be produced, coal into raw materials. Plastics when PVC is burnt. Without the chlorine served as substitutes for wood, there would be no dioxins or furans glass and metal during the hardship emissions. These two are the most toxic times of World Wars I & II. Plastics chemicals known to humans and can cause had thus come to be considered a variety of serious health problems 'common' - a symbol of the consumer including damage to the reproductive society. Since the 1970's, we have system, the immune system and cancer. As witnessed the advent of 'high-tech' far as possible PVC plastics should plastics used in demanding fields therefore not be burnt. such as health and technology. New types and forms of plastics with new A penchant for wrapping or improved performance everything in plastic and then burning characteristics continue to be the rubbish indiscriminately has turned developed. Japan into the dioxin centre of the world. Dioxins, a highly toxic group of chemicals From daily tasks to our most unusual needs, that are known to cause birth defects, skin disease plastics have increasingly provided the performance and cancer, are produced when polyvinyl chloride characteristics that fulfill consumer needs at all (PVC) and other plastic waste is burned at levels. Plastics are used in such a wide range of temperatures below 700 degrees Celsius. So toxic is applications because they are uniquely capable of dioxin that a dose no bigger than a single grain of offering many different properties that offer salt can kill a man. consumer benefits unsurpassed by other materials. 10
  11. 11. 07 WASTE PLASTICS DISPOSAL EU focus on waste management European Commission, Directorate-General Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection discloses the following key facts about the European waste situation [Table 2]. Land Fill Composting Incineration Recycling Transportation Energy Recovery Emission of SO2 , No Emissions under NOx, HCl, HF, Emissions of dust the controlled NMVOC, CO, CO2 NOx, SO2, release Emission of CH4, Emission of CH4, Emission reaction conditions. N2 O, dioxins, of hazardous Air CO2; odours CO2 ; odours s of dust Emission norms dibenzofurans, substances from acceptable to CPCB heavy metals(Zn, accidental spills & MPCB. Pb, Cu, As) Leaching of salts, Risk of surface Water is not a heavy metals, Deposition of Waste water and process component. biodegradable hazardous water groundwater It is only a cooling Water and persistent substances on discharg contamination media which can be organics to surface water es from accidental optionally replaced groundwater spills by compressed air. Risk of soil The bulk material is Accumulation of Land filling Land filling of slag, contamination converted in the fuel Soil hazardous of final fly ash and scrap from accidental and hence no side substances in soil residues spills effects to the soil. Soil occupancy; Soil occupancy; Visual intrusion; Visual The landscape is not Landscape restriction on restriction on restriction on Traffic intrusion damaged. other land uses other land uses other land uses Totally safe for eco Contamination and Contamination and Contamination and Risk of system. No Ecosystem accumulation of accumulation of accumulation of contamination contaminants toxic substances in toxic substances in toxic substances in from accidental released to the food chain the food chain the food chain spills environment. Risk of exposure The plants can be Exposure to Exposure to to hazardous installed in the urban Urban hazardous hazardous Noise substances from area without Area substances substances accidental spills; disturbance. traffic 11
  12. 12. 08 PLASTICS IN BIO- comparatively high capital investment. In addition, it requires separate manpower and infrastructure MEDICAL WASTE development for proper operation and maintenance of treatment systems. EU focus on waste management European Commission, Directorate-General Environment, The concept of BMW integrated with the non recyclable Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection discloses the Plastic Waste not only addresses such problems but following key facts about the European waste also prevents proliferation of treatment equipment in situation & Bio Medical Waste [Table 3] a city. In turn it reduces the monitoring pressure on regulatory agencies. By running the treatment Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facility can be equipment at to its full capacity where the an added feature where bio-medical waste generation availability is low due to land character, density of from a number of healthcare units, is imparted habitation, life style, Medical facility, etc.. The necessary pre treatment to reduce adverse effects cost of treatment of per kilogram gets significantly that this waste may pose. The treated waste may reduced. Its considerable advantages have made BMW finally be sent for recovery of energy in the ERT popular and proven concept in many developed process. Installation of individual treatment countries facilities by small healthcare units requires SN Waste Category Disposal Method 1. Plastic wastes after disinfection and shredding Recycling or municipal landfill 2. Disinfected Sharps (except syringes) (i) If encapsulated Municipal landfill (ii) If non-encapsulated Municipal landfill/ Possibility of recycling shall be explored 3. Incineration ash Secured landfill 4. Other treated solid wastes Municipal landfill 5. Oil & grease Incineration 6. Treated waste water Sewer/drain or recycling 12
  13. 13. 09 BMW INCINERATION particular combustor (like a specific medical waste incinerator) increases its dioxins emissions. Medical waste incineration is a Major Source Medical waste incineration releases many of Dioxins and Many Other Air Pollutants. U.S. EPA's other air pollutants that are problems for human dioxins emissions inventory estimated that medical health, like mercury, carbon monoxide, nitrogen waste incineration was the nation's third largest oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrogen chloride, fine dioxins source, emitting 15% of all the dioxins on particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic the national inventory. The prevalence of chlorine- hydrocarbons, cadmium, and lead. containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic products in medical waste is one contributor to Advantages and Disadvantages of Common dioxins formationstudies show that increasing the Medical waste Treatment Systems [Table 4] amount of chlorine or chlorine-containing PVC in a Type Factors Advantages Disadvantages Volume and weight Public opposition Turbulence and mixing Reduction High investment & operation costs Moisture content of waste Incineration Unrecognizable waste Acceptable High maintenance cost Filling combustion chamber for all waste types Significant air pollutants requiring expensive control Temperature and residence time Heat recovery potential for large equipment Maintenance and repair systems Bottom and fly ash may be hazardous Temperature & pressure Low investment cost Appearance, volume unchanged a Steam penetration Low operating cost Not suitable for all waste types Steam Autoclave Size of waste load Ease of biological tests Possible air emissions Length of treatment cycles Low hazard residue Ergonomic concerns Chamber air removed Waste characteristics Unrecognizable waste Moisture content of waste Mod -High investment cost Significant volume reduction Microwave Microwave strength Not suitable for all waste types Absence of liquid discharge Duration of exposure Possible air emissions Extent of waste mixture Concerns for chemicals, Significant volume High investment cost temperature, reduction Not suitable- all waste types Mechanical/ pH Chemical contact time Waste & Unrecognizable waste Possible Air emissions Chemical chemical mixing Recirculation vs Rapid processing Need for chemical storage flow-through Waste deodorization Ergonomic concerns A Autoclaveincorporatemacerationorshreddingduring Waste characteristics Almost no waste remains Novel technology b the treatment processthatresultsinavolume Plasma / Temperature Unrecognizable waste Air emissions must be treated reductionofupto80%aswellasanunrecognizable Pyrolysis Length of treatment cycle Heat recovery potential Skilled operator needed waste stream. Waste characteristics Almost no waste remains Novel technology c b Twotechnologieshave demonstratedthecapabilityto ERT Temperature Unrecognizable waste Air emissions must be treated treatpathologicalwaste. Length of treatment cycle Heat recovery potential Skilled operator needed 13
  14. 14. 10 ERT PROCESS The subject system is designed indigenously having modular process units for providing flexibility in operations, production & maintenance. The process is flexible enough to design the end products on-line without a break in the continuity of process. The process is designed for the Waste Plastic sourced from the Municipal Waste stream with a factor of variation at 5.0 % to 20.0 % for normal feed. The process is also suitable for a dedicated feed if required with initial testing and trial. The process modules, which house the equipment, components, sensors, piping, valves & controls are designed as follows [Table 5] PARTICULARS DESCRIPTION VOLUME (lXbXh m) 01 Pre- Feed Sizing, Grading Cleaning and Storing in day-bin, 3.0X35.0X10.0 02 Feed Conveying from Day-Bin, Feeding & Heating, 3.0X7.5X9.0 03 Melting Melting & separating non plastic solids coke etc., 3.0X7.5X9.0 04 Reactor Reacting plastic with catalytic additive, 3.0X7.5X8.0 05 Final Product Separating and collecting liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons, 3.0X7.5X7.0 06 Instrumentation Process controls, date acquisition etc., 4.5X9.0X3.5 14
  15. 15. 11 PLANT SPECIFICATIONS Operating Ranges of the Plant [Table 6] - SECTIONS DESCRIPTION RANGE UNIT Energy [Ele] 15 kW A Pre Feed Section 0 Temperature 30 – 35 C Energy [Ele] 5.5 kW B Feed Section Heater 8 kW 0 Temperature 175- 200 C Heater [Ele] 15 kW C Melting Vessel Geared Motor 0.5 kW 0 Temperature 250 - 300 C Heater [Ele] 15 kW D Reactor Vessel Geared Motor 0.5 kW 0 Temperature 350 - 450 C Flow Rate 400 E Vapor Density Kg/hr kg/m 3 4.0 – 5.0 F Feed Rate 420 – 450 Kg/hr Mixed W aste Plastic of Bulk density 0.3 – 0.4 kg/m 3 HDPE LDPE 55 – 60 % PP G Feed Type PVC 10 – 15 % PET Polyester 10 – 15 % ABS & Others 10 – 15 % Calcium Hydroxide Feed Rate 0 – 20 kg/hr H [optional] Feed Ratio 1 : 175 Feed Rate 2.0 – 2.5 kg/hr I Additive Feed Ratio 1 : 200 15
  16. 16. 12 OPERATIONS [Table 7] SECTIONS UNIT 0 A Pre Feed Section C 0 B Feed Section C 0 C Melting Vessel C 0 D Reactor C E Normal System Pressure kg/cm2 F Calcium Hydroxide Flow Rate kg/hr G Additive Flow Rate kg/hr 16
  17. 17. 13 PROCESS SPECIFICATIONS PRE FEED SYSTEM This process of sizing, grading and cleaning the waste is manual and semi mechanized. The machines are charged with the waste manually which is collected and transferred to the storage / day bin for feeding the vessels [Table 8]. SECTION PARTICULARS UNIT Materials of construction M.S. & HSS Waste material feed rate 450 – 500 kg/hr 0 Temperature 30 – 40 C FEED SECTION This Auto/manual section consists of the Feeding Hopper, Pre-melting feeder, Cooling Water jackets, Pressure gauges, Temperature sensors, outlets & gaseous vents, etc. The mixed waste plastic from the day bin is fed into the pre melting Feeder and then charged in the melting vessel. The solid metal, glass etc. is removed from the melting section continuously after the charging is over [Table 9]. SECTION PARTICULARS UNIT Materials of construction SS – 310, SS – 316 Feed Rate 420 – 450 [Min - Max] kg/hr [Section Input] 435 [Average] Vessel Pressure 10 – 15 kg/cm2 0 Temperature 175 – 200 C Semi molten plastic with all the extraneous Output Rate matter such as glass, stone, metal etc. kg/hr [Section Output] 435 [Average] 17
  18. 18. PROCESS SECTION This Auto/manual section consists of the Inlet of Melting Vessel, Ceramic Insulation Jackets, Cooling water, Pressure Gauges, Temperature Sensors, Outlets & Gas Vents [chlorine / Hydrochloric acid gaseous] etc. The mixed waste plastic from the pre feeder is received from the inlet in the Melting Vessel. The solid non molten / non plastic is removed from the melting section continuously after the initial charging is over. The non plastic contents are continuously removed, cooled and collected for disposal [Table 10]. SECTION PARTICULARS UNIT Materials of construction SS – 310, SS – 316 Feed Rate 420 – 450 [Min - Max] kg/hr [Section Input] 435 [Average] Vessel Pressure 10 – 15 kg/cm2 0 Temperature 175 – 200 C Output Rate Extraneous matter such as glass, stone, metal etc. kg/hr [Section Output] 435 [Average] 18
  20. 20. 15 WASTE TO ENERGY 16 ENERGY RECOVERY The sharp increase in energy consumption Energy from waste in its strictest sense particularly in the past several decades has raised refers to any waste treatment that creates energy in fears of exhausting the globe's reserves of the form of electricity and/or heat from a waste petroleum and other resources in the near future. The source such as Municipal Solid Waste, Bio Medical huge consumption of fossil fuels has caused visible Waste, Non Recyclable Waste Plastics etc.. Such damage to the environment in various forms. technologies reduce or eliminate waste that is Approximately 90% of our energy consumption comes traditionally streamed to a "greenhouse gas" from fossil fuels. Due to industrializations and emitting landfill, or consume waste materials from population growth our economy and technologies today existing landfills. Energy from waste is also called largely depend upon natural resources, which are not energy recovery process producing electricity replaceable. directly through combustion, or produces a Now, the world is looking for alternate energy combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, resources. Hence, it is necessary to encourage and methanol, ethanol or synthetic fuels. emphasize the research and development activities The renewable sources are cost effective, covering a broad spectrum of possible renewable user-friendly, so that they can easily beat the fossil resources, as their contributions are substantial. fuels. By promoting renewable energy sources we can Renewable Energy sources are not depleted. This won't avoid, Air pollution, soil pollution and water create any environmental pollution. The main pollution. Country's Economy will increase. advantage of using renewable resource is it is Throughout the year these sources are available available throughout the year. A one time investment without affecting the Environment. can drew energy for many decades without affecting the In India the amount of waste generated per environment. Implementation of renewable energy capita is estimated to increase at a rate of 1%-1.33% sources would result in country's economic annually. It is estimated that the total waste development. quantity generated in by the year 2047 would be Power sector is one of the key sectors approximately about 260 million tonne per year. The contributing significantly to the growth of country's enormous increase in waste generation will have economy. Our country largely depends on the thermal impacts in terms of the land required for waste power generation and a right fuel mix, based on well- disposal. It is estimated that if the waste is not diversified portfolios of indigenous and imported disposed off in a more systematic manner, more than fuel. The major advantage using renewable resources 1400 sq. km of land would be required in the country by is that they are distributed over a wide geographical the year 2047 for its disposal. area, ensuring that developing regions have access to Table 11 below gives the details of the energy electricity generation at a stable cost for the long- term future. This is not the case with fossil fuels in potential from various sources and the level of particular petroleum products. achievement from them. Every year human activity dumps roughly 8 SN Sources Potential Achievement billion metric tons of carbon into the atmosphere, 6.5 billion tons from fossil fuels and 1.5 billion from 01 Wind 45,000.00 2,980.00 deforestation. It creates lot of environment problem 02 Hydro Power Plant 15,000.00 1,700.00 and finally our ecological cycle will be affected. 03 Biomass Power 19,500.00 750.00 04 Solar Panel [MW/km²] 20.00 2.00 05 Waste to Energy [MW] 20,000.00 50.00 20
  21. 21. 17 FUEL Overview Fuels used for electricity generation broadly fall into one of Three main categories the municipal waste is being considered as a potential source for energy production due to high volume generations, easy availability, low procurement cost and directly helping environment and saving the fossil fuel [Table 12]. Fossil fuels Biomass fuels Nuclear Municipal Solid Waste Coal, fuel oil and natural gas which Crops, agricultural waste for example short- Waste generated from house hold waste, Uranium or are traded on the international rotation coppice, or by-products from other crop industrial waste etc. generally classified as ‘MOX’ fuel. market. and organic processes. organic, plastics and non organic. The individual characteristics of these fuel types tend to shape the choice and optimum size of the combustion technology employed, however in general the unit cost of production varies and can be generalized as follows per [Table 13]. INR / MWh Method Min Max Gas 1,345.50 1,518.00 Wind 1,380.00 2,070.00 Coal 1,656.00 1,897.50 For conventional large size plant Hydro 1,759.50 3,898.50 Biomass 2,001.00 4,002.00 Nuclear 3,829.50 5,002.50 Waste Plastics For small plants up to 1MW 2,250.00 2,810.00 [Non recyclable] Large plants the cost of production per unit shall reduce further. 21
  22. 22. 18 Typical ANALYSIS The chemical properties of the Plastic Derived Fuel [PDF] liquid and gaseous are as follows- 22
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  24. 24. 19 CERTIFIED USAGE The Plastic Derived Fuel [PDF] liquied and gaseous can be efficiently used in current scenario of fuel and energy crisis to various industrial usage. 24
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  26. 26. Some Visuals Opposite Page the Plant View Above the demonstration of PDF in progress. Right Demonstrating the potential of PDF. 26
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