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Front Cover :
5 tpd plant for recovery of Energy from non
recyclable Waste Plastics.
Conceptualised, Designed & Commissioned by
Innovative Industrial Equipment, Nagpur, India.
Planned and produced by : in any form or by any means without permission in writing
from the publisher.
Innovative Industrial Equipment Pvt. Ltd.,
502, 5th Floor Gotmare Market, Laxmi Bhavan
Dharampeth, Nagpur - 440 010, India.
Copywrite c IIE India,2008.
All rights Reserved. No part of this book may be reporduced
1930 Mahatma Gandhi in his pursuit for freedom Early However, with India's economy growing at
established an ashram in a remote village, in 2008 around 10% a year, the staggering financial
the central India called SEVAGRAM. outlay needed for the energy sector across the
Sevagram had no electricity but India's country to maintain such a growth pattern has
elite would make their way in the dark to talk prompted significant reforms.
with Mahatma Gandhi about the bright future.
16th-17 th Energy Recovery Technology [ERT].
1990 Our concern to liberate Rural India October A truly sustainable waste management solution,
started way back in the year 1991, when we 2008 diverting waste plastics from MSW & BMW was
started exploring the wonderful Energy Efficient demonstrated at UREDA [Uttara Khand Renewable
Material BAMBOO and developed a range products Energy Development Agency], Dehradoon on the
of commercial applications. request from Hiltron [A State Government
2000 We further focused goal to develop the
system and infrastructure required for 22nd-24 th Energy Recovery Technology [ERT].
generating energy from waste and specifically October A truly sustainable BMW management solution, was
form post consumer plastics gained result. 2008 demonstrated to SGPGI [Sanjay Gandhi Post
Graduation Institute, Lucknow] and UPPCB [Uttar
5th-7th Trials and test runs on the mixed variety Pradesh Pollution Control Board], for
March of Waste Plastics were tested by Indian Oil evaluation,as an environmentally friendly
2003 Limited at their Faridabad R & D Center. process than conventional systems of disposal.
9th UNI reported an exciting development from 16th-20 th Energy Recovery Technology [ERT] is a
March Nagpur. Fuel from hydrocarbons locked in Dec truly sustainable waste management solution,
2003 plastics. It is just rearranging a few bonds 2008 diverting plastic waste from MSW & BMW was
which ultimately results in the conversion of demonstrated to DST [Department of Science &
plastic waste into energy.One kg of Waste Technology ] at MES, Vasco, Goa.
plastic was converted into Hydrocarbon fuel
within three and a half hours. 2009 Two ERT Plant for MSW & two ERT Plants for
BMW are proposed by Hiltron at Uttar Khand,
June Trials and test runs on the variety of based on the technology and know-how from IIEPL.
2003 mixed and hazardous Waste Plastics were tested One ERT Plant for BMW at SGPGI Hospital is
by Indian Oil Limited at their Faridabad R & D proposed under the advice of UPPCB, Lucknow.
Center. One ERT Plant for BMW at GMC [Government
Medical College] Bimbolin, Goa is advocated by
2004 India's first ever Waste Plastic to energy GEDA [Goa Energy Development Agency]
plant was designed by IIE under close Three ERT Plant are proposed in DPR for
supervision of IOL R&D. forth coming financial year at Goa.
2005 India's first ever Waste Plastics to The amount of energy that can be recovered
energy plant was commissioned by IIE . from waste depends upon the type of waste, the
moisture content, and the caloric (BTU) value.
2007 Sixty two years after gaining For example, a 400 ton per day system utilizing
independence, only 30% of Rural Indian MSW is capable of producing approximately 6 or
households have access to sustained electricity 10 mega watts of electricity.
19 Certified Usage 24
20 Photographs 25
1 Introduction 05
2 Benefits of plastics 06
3 Loss of Resources 07
4 Damage to Environment 08
5 Oil Fuels modern world 08
6 Plastics 10
7 Waste Plastics Disposal 11
8 Bio Medical Waste [BMW] 12
9 BMW Treatment 13
10 ERT Process 14
11 Plant Specifications 15
12 Operations 16
13 Process Specifications 17
14 Process Diagrams & Graph 18
15 Waste to Energy 19
16 Energy Recovery 16
17 Fuel Overview 21
18 Typical Analysis 22
01 INTRODUCTION Awisemansometimesaid`therearetwowaystostudy
E nergy is life.Generating energy
from waste Plastics is a great
Our concern for environment started out way
chasethem with nets theninspecttheirdeadbodies,
back in the year 1991, when we started exploring the we selectedthesecond.
wonder material Bamboo the energy efficient material We RECOVER ENERGY FROMWASTE
and developed a range products of commercial
applications. The concept further extended to without hazel
eliminate the waste and recover energy. Our efforts
bear fruit and we realised the potential. We shifted
to develop the system and infrastructure required for
generating energy from waste plastics [post consumer
plastics/non recyclable plastics].
The world's annual consumption of plastic
materials has increased from around 5 million tones in
the 1950s to nearly 100 million tones today. Packaging
represents the largest single sector of plastics use.
The sector accounts for 35% of plastics consumption
and plastic is the material of choice in nearly half of
all packaged goods.
There are about 50 different groups of
plastics, with hundreds of different varieties. All
types of plastic are recyclable. To make sorting and
thus recycling easier, the American Society of
Plastics Industry developed a standard marking code to
help consumers identify and sort the main types of
plastic. These types and their most common uses are
PET Polyethylene terephthalate - Fizzy drink bottles and oven-ready meal trays.
HDPE High-density polyethylene - Bottles for milk and washing-up liquids.
Polyvinyl chloride - Food trays, cling film, bottles for squash, mineral
water and shampoo.
LDPE Low density polyethylene - Carrier bags and bin liners.
PP Polypropylene - Margarine tubs, microwaveable meal trays.
Polystyrene - Yoghurt pots, foam meat or fish trays, hamburger boxes and egg
PS cartons, vending cups, plastic cutlery, protective packaging for electronic
goods and toys.
Any other plastics that do not fall into any of the above categories. - An
example is melamine, which is often used in plastic plates and cups.
02 B E N E F I T S O F annually in the UK is estimated to be nearly 3
million tones. An estimated 56% of all plastics
PLASTICS waste is used packaging, three-quarters of which
is from households. It is estimated that only 7%
The considerable growth in plastic use is due of total plastic waste arising are currently being
to the beneficial properties of plastics. These recycled. The production and use of plastics has a
include: range of environmental impacts. Firstly, plastics
S Extreme versatility and ability to be production requires significant quantities of
tailored to meet very specific technical resources, primarily fossil fuels, both as a raw
needs. material and to deliver energy for the
S Lighter weight than competing materials, manufacturing process. It is estimated that 4% of
reducing fuel consumption during the world's annual oil production is used as a
transportation.Extreme durability. feedstock for plastics production and an
S Resistance to chemicals, water and impact. additional 3-4% during manufacture.
S Excellent thermal and electrical insulation
A report on the production of carrier bags
properties. made from recycled rather than virgin polythene
S Good safety and hygiene properties for food concluded that the use of recycled plastic
packaging.Excellent thermal and electrical resulted in the following environmental benefits:
• reduction of energy consumption by two-
S Relatively inexpensive to produce.
Plastics makes up around 7% of the • production of only a third of the sulphur
average household dustbin.[Source : Analysis of dioxide and half of the nitrous oxide ,
household waste composition and factors driving ? reduction of water usage by nearly 90%,
waste increases] • reduction of carbon dioxide generation by
The amount of plastic waste generated
Many everyday consumer items now contain 03 Loss of RESOURCES
electronic parts. Every year an estimated 1 million
tones of waste electronic and electrical equipment
(WEEE) are discarded by householders and commercial When obsolete materials are not recycled, raw
groups in the UK. Dealing with this waste is an materials have to be processed to make new products.
important issue as electronic goods are becoming This represents a significant loss of resources as
increasingly short lived, and so ever increasing the energy, transport and environmental damage
quantities of obsolete and broken equipment are caused by these processes is large.
thrown away. Electronic and electrical equipment
makes up on average 4% of European municipal waste, In 1998 it was estimated that of the 6 million
and is growing three times faster than any other tones of electrical equipment waste arising in
municipal waste stream. Europe the potential loss of resources was
? 2.4 million tones of ferrous metal
Electrical waste includes digital watches, ? 1.2 million tones of plastic
fridges, TVs, computers and toys. Not only is this ? 652,000 tones of copper
waste stream disparate in function but in addition ? 336,000 tones of aluminum
the materials of which they are comprised vary ? 336,000 tones of glass
considerably. For example an average TV contains 6%
metal and 50% glass whereas a cooker is 89% metal and This was in addition to the loss of heavy
only 6% glass. Other materials used include metals, lead, mercury, flame retardants and more.
plastics, ceramics and precious metals. The complex The production of these raw materials and the goods
array of product types and materials make waste made from them entails environmental damage through
electrical and electronic equipment difficult to mining, transport, water and energy use. For
manage. example, according to a recent UN study, the
manufacture of a new computer and monitor uses 240kg
The main component of waste electronic of fossil fuels, 22kg of chemicals and 1500 liters of
equipment is large household appliances known as water. Similar quantities of materials are used in
white goods, which make up 43% of the total. The next the manufacture of an average car. The nature of many
largest component is IT equipment which accounts for of these materials is such that they can be recycled
39%. Much of this is made up of computers, which with relative ease preventing the waste associated
rapidly become obsolete. Televisions also represent with producing new raw materials.
a large proportion, with an estimated 2 million TV
sets being discarded each year.
The disposal of electronic and electrical
appliances in landfill sites or through incineration
creates a number of environmental problems.
04 DAMAGE TO THE
ENVIRONMENT 05 OIL FUELS THE
Another major problem is the toxic nature of It brought great changes to economies and
many of the substances, including arsenic, bromine, lifestyles in a short span of time. Nothing else to
cadmium, halogenated flame retardant, hydro date can equal the enormous impact which the use of
chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), lead, mercury and oil has had on people, so rapidly, and in so many ways
PCBs. around the world. With global oil prices shooting up,
there is all-round fear that petrol and diesel prices
The estimated number of fridges and freezers will go up and the subsidy burden for kerosene and
being disposed in the UK is 3 million units annually. LPG will swell. With crude touching an all-time high
These units contain gases such as $70 a barrel, fears are mounting over inflation.
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and
hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) used for the The speed at which the human race is using
coolant and insulation. Both CFCs and HCFCs are energy resources has become a serious issue. Not only
greenhouse gases which when emitted into the are these energy resources being depleted at an
atmosphere, contribute to climate change. alarming rate, but they are also causing some severe
Fluorescent lighting contains potentially
harmful substances such as highly toxic heavy
metals, in particular mercury, cadmium and lead. If
they enter the body, these substances can cause
damage to the liver, kidneys and the brain. Mercury
is also a neurotoxin and has the potential to build
up in the food chain. The mercury content is the main
concern with fluorescent lighting. A four-foot long
fluorescent tube may contain over 30 milligrams of
mercury. The EC permissible limit for mercury in
drinking water is 1 part per billion, equivalent to
0.001mg a litre.
According to a survey by consultancy ERA
Technology, electrical equipment manufacturers are
reacting "very slowly" to a legal requirement to damage to the environment.
remove lead from their products; most of the
companies have no planned date for completing the
switch to lead-free technologies. Rapid growth of industry has increased the
demand for crude which is presently being imported.
70 per cent of India's oil requirement is met by
Finding suitable landfill sites is also imports; the oil bill constitutes more than one
becoming an increasing problem, where large fourth of total country's import; oil is the second
quantities of electronic waste arise. New rules in
force call for the cessation of co-disposal of biggest conventional energy and world prices are
hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. unlikely to drop significantly; and the country's
production of crude has remained stagnant at 32-33
Most types of fuel reserves were formed
millions of years ago by the natural decomposition of
trees and other plant material. On land, the
combination of heat and pressure slowly changed the
plant matter into coal. Natural gases and petroleum
were also formed in a similar way but in the ocean. As
you can see we are exhausting these resources far and other biomass fuels. Because of their high heating
faster than they are being restored, and if we value, the residual plastics in MSW provide an
continue this practice, the earth will be completely excellent fuel for waste-to-energy plants. Residual
stripped of all of its life-giving properties. plastics mean those plastics that remain in MSW after
some plastic is diverted from MSW for environmentally
Oil is a unique energy source that has no and economically sound material recovery. Even in
complete replacement in all its varied end uses. The communities with extensive recycling, residual
British scientist Sir Crispin Tickell concludes, plastics at less than 10 percent by weight of MSW can
"...we have done remarkably little to reduce our provide over 20 percent of the fuel value for a local
dependence on a fuel [oil] which is a limited WTE plant.
resource, and for which there is no comprehensive
substitute in prospect." Detailed study has recently documented the
ability of plastics to improve combustion in a modern
Coming to realize that oil is finite, any and WTE plant. The study also looked at the contribution
all suggestions of means to replace oil are welcomed. of plastics to air emissions. This was done by
Cheerful myths are enthusiastically embraced. These intentionally adding plastics to the regular MSW feed
include: that dams and their reservoirs are a source to the plant and carefully monitoring the release of
of indefinitely renewable energy and that they are pollutants. Plastics were shown to have negative
environmentally benign; that solar, wind, geothermal, effect on air pollution loads to the environment. The
and hydro-electric power can supply the electrical study included a specific examination of dioxin and
needs, from the Arctic to the tropics, of the Earth's furan emissions, this means that the danger to the
nearly six billion people (likely to become at least ozone layer from green house gases will continue to
10 billion in the next fifty years); that coal, oil rise, if alternative energy cannot keep pace.
from oil sands, and biofuels can replace the 72
million barrels of oil the world now uses daily; and Indeed, many people remain concerned about the
that somehow electricity produced from various potential for WTE plants to negatively impact air
alternative energy sources can readily provide the quality and increased recycling. For these reasons,
great mobility which oil now gives to the more than 600 along with the relatively low landfill tipping fees
million vehicles worldwide. Regrettably, none of that exist in many parts of the U.S., WTE is not
these cheerful myths appear to be valid. growing.
The reality appears to be that the world is
rapidly running out of a resource that in many ways is
irreplaceable. The result will be a great change in
economies, social structures, and lifestyles. We will
soon exhaust this capital, and we will have to go to
work to try to live on current energy income. It will
not be a simple easy transition.
Oil is a finite resource. Life will go on, but
in a different paradigm. Oil will be sorely missed.
Alternative energy is useable energy from any source
other than by involving the burning of fossil fuels
(natural gas, coal and oil) or the splitting of atoms
(nuclear power). It includes renewable energy (hydro,
geothermal, biomass and wind) as well as solar energy.
Alternative energy is very important today since the
average consumption of electricity is increasing in
virtually every country in the world.
Plastics for the most part are derived from
petroleum and natural gas and have heating values
measured in British thermal units (Btu) competitive
with coal and heating oil and superior to wood, paper,
06 PLASTICS They are also unique in that their properties may be
customized for each individual end use application.
A plastic is a type of synthetic or man-made
polymer; similar in many ways to natural resins found Waste plastic problem is an ever-increasing
in plants and trees. Their usage over the past century menace for global environment. Because of
has enabled society to make huge technological flexibility, durability and economy, a phenomenal
advances. The first man-made plastic was unveiled by rise is observed in the plastic consumer base.
Alexander Parkes at the 1862 Great International Throughout the world, research on waste plastic
Exhibition in London. Parkes claimed that this new management is being carried out at war-footing. In
material could do anything that rubber was capable of, developed countries, few waste plastic disposal /
yet at a lower price. He had discovered a material that conversion methods have been implemented but are not
could be transparent as well as carved efficient and economically feasible.
into thousands of different shapes.
Plastics being non biodegradable
In 1907, Leo Hendrik get accumulated in the environment. If
Baekland, stumbled upon the formula this problem is not addressed properly,
for a new synthetic polymer it will lead to mountains of waste
originating from coal tar plastic. Environment protection Agency
subsequently named "bakelite". By U.K. estimates that by the year 2005 the
1909, Baekland had coined "plastics" amount of waste plastic throw will be
as the term to describe this 65% more than that in year 1997.
completely new category of
materials. In the manufacture of PVC,
common salt is added to the oil-based
Plastics did not really take feedstock to provide the chlorine
off until after the First World War, element in the long chain polymer. It is
with the use of petroleum, a this chlorine element that may cause
substance easier to process than toxic dioxins and furans to be produced,
coal into raw materials. Plastics when PVC is burnt. Without the chlorine
served as substitutes for wood, there would be no dioxins or furans
glass and metal during the hardship emissions. These two are the most toxic
times of World Wars I & II. Plastics chemicals known to humans and can cause
had thus come to be considered a variety of serious health problems
'common' - a symbol of the consumer including damage to the reproductive
society. Since the 1970's, we have system, the immune system and cancer. As
witnessed the advent of 'high-tech' far as possible PVC plastics should
plastics used in demanding fields therefore not be burnt.
such as health and technology. New
types and forms of plastics with new A penchant for wrapping
or improved performance everything in plastic and then burning
characteristics continue to be the rubbish indiscriminately has turned
developed. Japan into the dioxin centre of the
world. Dioxins, a highly toxic group of chemicals
From daily tasks to our most unusual needs, that are known to cause birth defects, skin disease
plastics have increasingly provided the performance and cancer, are produced when polyvinyl chloride
characteristics that fulfill consumer needs at all (PVC) and other plastic waste is burned at
levels. Plastics are used in such a wide range of temperatures below 700 degrees Celsius. So toxic is
applications because they are uniquely capable of dioxin that a dose no bigger than a single grain of
offering many different properties that offer salt can kill a man.
consumer benefits unsurpassed by other materials.
07 WASTE PLASTICS
EU focus on waste management European
Commission, Directorate-General Environment,
Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection discloses the
following key facts about the European waste
situation [Table 2].
Land Fill Composting Incineration Recycling Transportation Energy Recovery
Emission of SO2 ,
No Emissions under
NOx, HCl, HF, Emissions of dust
NMVOC, CO, CO2 NOx, SO2, release
Emission of CH4, Emission of CH4, Emission reaction conditions.
N2 O, dioxins, of hazardous
Air CO2; odours CO2 ; odours s of dust Emission norms
dibenzofurans, substances from
acceptable to CPCB
heavy metals(Zn, accidental spills
Pb, Cu, As)
Leaching of salts, Risk of surface Water is not a
heavy metals, Deposition of Waste water and process component.
biodegradable hazardous water groundwater It is only a cooling
and persistent substances on discharg contamination media which can be
organics to surface water es from accidental optionally replaced
groundwater spills by compressed air.
Risk of soil The bulk material is
Accumulation of Land filling
Land filling of slag, contamination converted in the fuel
Soil hazardous of final
fly ash and scrap from accidental and hence no side
substances in soil residues
spills effects to the soil.
Soil occupancy; Soil occupancy; Visual intrusion;
Visual The landscape is not
Landscape restriction on restriction on restriction on Traffic
other land uses other land uses other land uses
Totally safe for eco
Contamination and Contamination and Contamination and Risk of
Ecosystem accumulation of accumulation of accumulation of contamination
toxic substances in toxic substances in toxic substances in from accidental
the food chain the food chain the food chain spills
Risk of exposure The plants can be
Exposure to Exposure to to hazardous installed in the urban
hazardous hazardous Noise substances from area without
substances substances accidental spills; disturbance.
08 PLASTICS IN BIO- comparatively high capital investment. In addition,
it requires separate manpower and infrastructure
MEDICAL WASTE development for proper operation and maintenance of
EU focus on waste management European
Commission, Directorate-General Environment, The concept of BMW integrated with the non recyclable
Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection discloses the Plastic Waste not only addresses such problems but
following key facts about the European waste also prevents proliferation of treatment equipment in
situation & Bio Medical Waste [Table 3] a city. In turn it reduces the monitoring pressure on
regulatory agencies. By running the treatment
Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facility can be equipment at to its full capacity where the
an added feature where bio-medical waste generation availability is low due to land character, density of
from a number of healthcare units, is imparted habitation, life style, Medical facility, etc.. The
necessary pre treatment to reduce adverse effects cost of treatment of per kilogram gets significantly
that this waste may pose. The treated waste may reduced. Its considerable advantages have made BMW
finally be sent for recovery of energy in the ERT popular and proven concept in many developed
process. Installation of individual treatment countries
facilities by small healthcare units requires
SN Waste Category Disposal Method
1. Plastic wastes after disinfection and shredding Recycling or municipal landfill
2. Disinfected Sharps (except syringes)
(i) If encapsulated Municipal landfill
(ii) If non-encapsulated Municipal landfill/ Possibility of recycling shall be explored
3. Incineration ash Secured landfill
4. Other treated solid wastes Municipal landfill
5. Oil & grease Incineration
6. Treated waste water Sewer/drain or recycling
09 BMW INCINERATION particular combustor (like a specific medical waste
incinerator) increases its dioxins emissions.
Medical waste incineration is a Major Source Medical waste incineration releases many
of Dioxins and Many Other Air Pollutants. U.S. EPA's other air pollutants that are problems for human
dioxins emissions inventory estimated that medical health, like mercury, carbon monoxide, nitrogen
waste incineration was the nation's third largest oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrogen chloride, fine
dioxins source, emitting 15% of all the dioxins on particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic
the national inventory. The prevalence of chlorine- hydrocarbons, cadmium, and lead.
containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic
products in medical waste is one contributor to Advantages and Disadvantages of Common
dioxins formationstudies show that increasing the Medical waste Treatment Systems [Table 4]
amount of chlorine or chlorine-containing PVC in a
Type Factors Advantages Disadvantages
Volume and weight Public opposition
Turbulence and mixing
Reduction High investment & operation costs
Moisture content of waste
Incineration Unrecognizable waste Acceptable High maintenance cost
Filling combustion chamber
for all waste types Significant air pollutants requiring expensive control
Temperature and residence time
Heat recovery potential for large equipment
Maintenance and repair
systems Bottom and fly ash may be hazardous
Temperature & pressure
Low investment cost Appearance, volume unchanged a
Low operating cost Not suitable for all waste types
Steam Autoclave Size of waste load
Ease of biological tests Possible air emissions
Length of treatment cycles
Low hazard residue Ergonomic concerns
Chamber air removed
Moisture content of waste Mod -High investment cost
Significant volume reduction
Microwave Microwave strength Not suitable for all waste types
Absence of liquid discharge
Duration of exposure Possible air emissions
Extent of waste mixture
Concerns for chemicals, Significant volume High investment cost
temperature, reduction Not suitable- all waste types
pH Chemical contact time Waste & Unrecognizable waste Possible Air emissions
chemical mixing Recirculation vs Rapid processing Need for chemical storage
flow-through Waste deodorization Ergonomic concerns
A Autoclaveincorporatemacerationorshreddingduring Waste characteristics Almost no waste remains Novel technology b
the treatment processthatresultsinavolume Plasma /
Temperature Unrecognizable waste Air emissions must be treated
Length of treatment cycle Heat recovery potential Skilled operator needed
Waste characteristics Almost no waste remains Novel technology c
b Twotechnologieshave demonstratedthecapabilityto ERT Temperature Unrecognizable waste Air emissions must be treated
treatpathologicalwaste. Length of treatment cycle Heat recovery potential Skilled operator needed
10 ERT PROCESS
The subject system is designed indigenously
having modular process units for providing
flexibility in operations, production &
maintenance. The process is flexible enough to
design the end products on-line without a break in
the continuity of process. The process is designed
for the Waste Plastic sourced from the Municipal
Waste stream with a factor of variation at 5.0 % to
20.0 % for normal feed. The process is also suitable
for a dedicated feed if required with initial testing
and trial. The process modules, which house the
equipment, components, sensors, piping, valves &
controls are designed as follows [Table 5]
PARTICULARS DESCRIPTION VOLUME (lXbXh m)
01 Pre- Feed Sizing, Grading Cleaning and Storing in day-bin, 3.0X35.0X10.0
02 Feed Conveying from Day-Bin, Feeding & Heating, 3.0X7.5X9.0
03 Melting Melting & separating non plastic solids coke etc., 3.0X7.5X9.0
04 Reactor Reacting plastic with catalytic additive, 3.0X7.5X8.0
05 Final Product Separating and collecting liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons, 3.0X7.5X7.0
06 Instrumentation Process controls, date acquisition etc., 4.5X9.0X3.5
11 PLANT SPECIFICATIONS
Operating Ranges of the Plant [Table 6] -
SECTIONS DESCRIPTION RANGE UNIT
Energy [Ele] 15 kW
A Pre Feed Section 0
Temperature 30 – 35 C
Energy [Ele] 5.5 kW
B Feed Section Heater 8 kW
Temperature 175- 200 C
Heater [Ele] 15 kW
C Melting Vessel Geared Motor 0.5 kW
Temperature 250 - 300 C
Heater [Ele] 15 kW
D Reactor Vessel Geared Motor 0.5 kW
Temperature 350 - 450 C
Flow Rate 400
E Vapor Density Kg/hr kg/m 3
4.0 – 5.0
F Feed Rate 420 – 450 Kg/hr
Mixed W aste Plastic of Bulk density 0.3 – 0.4 kg/m 3
LDPE 55 – 60 %
G Feed Type
10 – 15 %
Polyester 10 – 15 %
ABS & Others 10 – 15 %
Calcium Hydroxide Feed Rate 0 – 20 kg/hr
[optional] Feed Ratio 1 : 175
Feed Rate 2.0 – 2.5 kg/hr
Feed Ratio 1 : 200
A Pre Feed Section C
B Feed Section C
C Melting Vessel C
D Reactor C
E Normal System Pressure kg/cm2
F Calcium Hydroxide Flow Rate kg/hr
G Additive Flow Rate kg/hr
PRE FEED SYSTEM
This process of sizing, grading and cleaning
the waste is manual and semi mechanized. The machines
are charged with the waste manually which is
collected and transferred to the storage / day bin
for feeding the vessels [Table 8].
SECTION PARTICULARS UNIT
Materials of construction M.S. & HSS
Waste material feed rate 450 – 500 kg/hr
Temperature 30 – 40 C
This Auto/manual section consists of the
Feeding Hopper, Pre-melting feeder, Cooling Water
jackets, Pressure gauges, Temperature sensors,
outlets & gaseous vents, etc. The mixed waste plastic
from the day bin is fed into the pre melting Feeder
and then charged in the melting vessel. The solid
metal, glass etc. is removed from the melting section
continuously after the charging is over [Table 9].
SECTION PARTICULARS UNIT
Materials of construction SS – 310, SS – 316
Feed Rate 420 – 450 [Min - Max]
[Section Input] 435 [Average]
Vessel Pressure 10 – 15 kg/cm2
Temperature 175 – 200 C
Semi molten plastic with all the extraneous
matter such as glass, stone, metal etc. kg/hr
This Auto/manual section consists of the
Inlet of Melting Vessel, Ceramic Insulation Jackets,
Cooling water, Pressure Gauges, Temperature
Sensors, Outlets & Gas Vents [chlorine /
Hydrochloric acid gaseous] etc. The mixed waste
plastic from the pre feeder is received from the
inlet in the Melting Vessel. The solid non molten /
non plastic is removed from the melting section
continuously after the initial charging is over. The
non plastic contents are continuously removed,
cooled and collected for disposal [Table 10].
SECTION PARTICULARS UNIT
Materials of construction SS – 310, SS – 316
Feed Rate 420 – 450 [Min - Max]
[Section Input] 435 [Average]
Vessel Pressure 10 – 15 kg/cm2
Temperature 175 – 200 C
Output Rate Extraneous matter such as glass, stone, metal etc.
[Section Output] 435 [Average]
15 WASTE TO ENERGY 16 ENERGY RECOVERY
The sharp increase in energy consumption Energy from waste in its strictest sense
particularly in the past several decades has raised refers to any waste treatment that creates energy in
fears of exhausting the globe's reserves of the form of electricity and/or heat from a waste
petroleum and other resources in the near future. The source such as Municipal Solid Waste, Bio Medical
huge consumption of fossil fuels has caused visible Waste, Non Recyclable Waste Plastics etc.. Such
damage to the environment in various forms. technologies reduce or eliminate waste that is
Approximately 90% of our energy consumption comes traditionally streamed to a "greenhouse gas"
from fossil fuels. Due to industrializations and emitting landfill, or consume waste materials from
population growth our economy and technologies today existing landfills. Energy from waste is also called
largely depend upon natural resources, which are not energy recovery process producing electricity
replaceable. directly through combustion, or produces a
Now, the world is looking for alternate energy combustible fuel commodity, such as methane,
resources. Hence, it is necessary to encourage and methanol, ethanol or synthetic fuels.
emphasize the research and development activities The renewable sources are cost effective,
covering a broad spectrum of possible renewable user-friendly, so that they can easily beat the fossil
resources, as their contributions are substantial. fuels. By promoting renewable energy sources we can
Renewable Energy sources are not depleted. This won't avoid, Air pollution, soil pollution and water
create any environmental pollution. The main pollution. Country's Economy will increase.
advantage of using renewable resource is it is Throughout the year these sources are available
available throughout the year. A one time investment without affecting the Environment.
can drew energy for many decades without affecting the In India the amount of waste generated per
environment. Implementation of renewable energy capita is estimated to increase at a rate of 1%-1.33%
sources would result in country's economic annually. It is estimated that the total waste
quantity generated in by the year 2047 would be
Power sector is one of the key sectors approximately about 260 million tonne per year. The
contributing significantly to the growth of country's enormous increase in waste generation will have
economy. Our country largely depends on the thermal impacts in terms of the land required for waste
power generation and a right fuel mix, based on well- disposal. It is estimated that if the waste is not
diversified portfolios of indigenous and imported disposed off in a more systematic manner, more than
fuel. The major advantage using renewable resources 1400 sq. km of land would be required in the country by
is that they are distributed over a wide geographical the year 2047 for its disposal.
area, ensuring that developing regions have access to Table 11 below gives the details of the energy
electricity generation at a stable cost for the long-
term future. This is not the case with fossil fuels in potential from various sources and the level of
particular petroleum products. achievement from them.
Every year human activity dumps roughly 8 SN Sources Potential Achievement
billion metric tons of carbon into the atmosphere, 6.5
billion tons from fossil fuels and 1.5 billion from 01 Wind 45,000.00 2,980.00
deforestation. It creates lot of environment problem 02 Hydro Power Plant 15,000.00 1,700.00
and finally our ecological cycle will be affected.
03 Biomass Power 19,500.00 750.00
04 Solar Panel [MW/km²] 20.00 2.00
05 Waste to Energy [MW] 20,000.00 50.00
17 FUEL Overview
Fuels used for electricity generation
broadly fall into one of Three main categories the
municipal waste is being considered as a potential
source for energy production due to high volume
generations, easy availability, low procurement
cost and directly helping environment and saving the
fossil fuel [Table 12].
Fossil fuels Biomass fuels Nuclear Municipal Solid Waste
Coal, fuel oil and natural gas which Crops, agricultural waste for example short- Waste generated from house hold waste,
are traded on the international rotation coppice, or by-products from other crop industrial waste etc. generally classified as
market. and organic processes. organic, plastics and non organic.
The individual characteristics of these fuel
types tend to shape the choice and optimum size of
the combustion technology employed, however in
general the unit cost of production varies and can be
generalized as follows per [Table 13].
INR / MWh
Gas 1,345.50 1,518.00
Wind 1,380.00 2,070.00
Coal 1,656.00 1,897.50
For conventional large size plant
Hydro 1,759.50 3,898.50
Biomass 2,001.00 4,002.00
Nuclear 3,829.50 5,002.50
Waste Plastics For small plants up to 1MW
[Non recyclable] Large plants the cost of production per unit shall reduce further.
18 Typical ANALYSIS
The chemical properties of the Plastic
Derived Fuel [PDF] liquid and gaseous are as follows-