Vault Proplapse Repair


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A powerpoint presentation on management of vault prolapse.It is based on RCOG guidelines.

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Vault Proplapse Repair

  1. 1. Management of Vault prolapse Based on RCOG guide lines Dr.V.Ravimohan
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>post-hysterectomy vaginal prolapse </li></ul><ul><li>descent of the vaginal cuff scar below a point that is 2 cm less than the total vaginal length above the plane of the hymen </li></ul><ul><li> International Continence Society </li></ul>
  3. 3. Prevention <ul><li>McCall culdoplasty at the time of vaginal hysterectomy is a recommended measure to prevent enterocele formation- Grade A </li></ul><ul><li>What is McCall culdoplasty? </li></ul><ul><li>approximating the uterosacral ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>using continuous sutures </li></ul><ul><li>to obliterate the peritoneum of the posterior cul-de-sac as high as possible </li></ul>
  4. 4. Prevention <ul><li>Suturing the cardinal and uterosacral ligaments to the vaginal cuff at the time of hysterectomy is a recommended measure to avoid vault prolapse— Grade B </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrospinous fixation at the time of vaginal hysterectomy is recommended when the vault descends to the introitus during closure- Grade B </li></ul>
  5. 5. Assessment <ul><li>Assessment of the woman should be comprehensive and objective </li></ul><ul><li> addressing quality of life </li></ul><ul><li> looking for all pelvic floor defects </li></ul><ul><li> should be based on standard tools </li></ul>
  6. 7. What is POPQ? <ul><li>Pelvic organ prolapse quantification </li></ul><ul><li>Image is on </li></ul>
  7. 8. POPQ <ul><li>Six sites </li></ul><ul><li>reference to the plane of the hymen </li></ul><ul><li>measured in centimeters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>above or proximal to the hymen (negative number) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>below or distal to the hymen (positive number) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with the plane of the hymen defined as zero. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Point A <ul><li>The anterior and posterior points A (Aa, Ap) are located on the midline vaginal wall 3 cm proximal to the hymen (range ±3 cm). </li></ul>
  9. 10. Point B <ul><li>The anterior and posterior points B (Ba, Bp) represent the maximum extent of prolapse of the anterior and posterior vaginal wall (range -3 cm to total vaginal length [tvl]). </li></ul>
  10. 11. Point C &D <ul><li>Point C represents the position of the cervix or vaginal cuff, and point D, the posterior fornix. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The genital hiatus (gh) is measured from the external urethral meatus to the posterior midline hymen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The perineal body (pb) is measured from the posterior midline hymen to the midanal opening. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. occult stress incontinence <ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a full bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>after reducing theprolapse with a pessary or sponge holder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not currently validated by evidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is not a substitute for adequate patient counselling about this complication. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The role of prophylactic surgery for occult stress incontinence is unclear </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Indirect recurrence <ul><li>post-hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse may be associated anterior or posterior vaginal wall prolapse </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to address such defects at the same time will lead to women presenting with recurrent prolapse from those defects left without support (indirect recurrence). </li></ul><ul><li>performing repair of all defects at the same time Vs repairing such defects in a separate setting at a later stage no studies </li></ul>
  13. 15. Conservative management <ul><li>The role of conservative measures for post-hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse is unclear. Grade C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelivic floor exercise- no evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesarry(ring/shelf)- change every 6–8 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interference with sexual intercourse </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ring pessaries tend to fail in women with deficient perineum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local estrogen can be used to improve atrophic changes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Surgical procedures <ul><li>Anterior and posterior repair along with obliteration of the enterocele sac are inadequate for posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse.-Grade C </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-does not support the vaginal vault </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-risks vaginal narrowing andshortening, and thus dyspareunia, especially when posterior repair is carried out </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Surgical procedures <ul><li>Abdominal sacrocolpopexy Vs sacrospinous fixation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sacrospinous fixation may have a higher failure rate but has lower postoperative morbidity </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Sacrospinous fixation <ul><li>Image is on </li></ul>
  17. 19. Sacrocolpopexy <ul><li>Image is on </li></ul>
  18. 20. more sexual dysfunction more intraoperative blood loss longer catheter use, more urinary tract infection and more urinary incontinence . a lower rate of recurrence combined rate of apical and anterior vaginal wall prolapse was significantly higher posterior vaginal wall prolapse following abdominal sacrocolpopexy. higher cost slower return to normal activity operating time and hospital stay were shorter significantly longer operating time Sacrospinous fixation Sacroxcolpopexy
  19. 21. Cochrane review Sacrospinous fixation Sacroxcolpopexy cheaper Quicker return to normal activities a lower rate of recurrence Shorter operation time less dyspareunia
  20. 22. continence surgery be performed at the time of sacrocolpopexy? <ul><li>It is not clear whether prophylactic continence surgery is beneficial in women who are urodynamically </li></ul><ul><li>continent and it should not be routinely recommended. </li></ul>
  21. 23. unilateral or bilateral sacrospinous fixation? <ul><li>There is no evidence to recommend bilateral or unilateral sacrospinous fixation. </li></ul>
  22. 24. iliococcygeus fixation <ul><li>Iliococcygeus fixation does not reduce the incidence of anterior vaginal wall prolapse associated with vaginal sacrospinous fixation and should not be routinely recommended. </li></ul>
  23. 25. iliococcygeus fixation…. <ul><li>It involves bilateral fixation of the vaginal vault to the iliococcygeus fascia </li></ul><ul><li>Iliococcygeus fixation is done </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce the exaggerated retroversion of the vagina, and thus the subsequent increase in anterior vaginal wall prolapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to avoid the risk of injury to pudendal and sacral nerves and vessels associated with sacrospinous fixation </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. vaginal uterosacral ligament suspension <ul><li>Caution is advised with vaginal uterosacral ligament suspension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>risk of ureteric injury( 10.9%) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. laparoscopic procedures <ul><li>Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy appears to be as effective as open sacrocolpopexy (B) </li></ul><ul><li>The ureters are particularly at risk during laparoscopic uterosacral ligament suspension.(B) </li></ul><ul><li>There is insufficient evidence to judge the value of other laparoscopic techniques.(C) </li></ul>
  26. 28. Sacrocolpopexy-Open Vs Laparoscopy requires skill, training and longer operating time, although operating time shortens with greater experience. shorter stay reduced postoperative morbidity less scarring an enhanced view of the pelvis, which facilitates a more anatomical repair laparoscopy open
  27. 29. Colpocleisis <ul><li>closure of the vagina </li></ul><ul><li>is a safe and effective procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Success rates of 97% and above </li></ul><ul><li>considered for those women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frail women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can also be performed under local anaesthesia, which suits frail women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>who do not wish to retain sexual function. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Sling procedures <ul><li>should not be used without adequate patient counselling and special provisions for audit and research.(B) </li></ul><ul><li>short operating time </li></ul><ul><li>can be done in those considered unfit for major surgery </li></ul>
  29. 31. total mesh reconstruction <ul><li>There is insufficient evidence to judge the safety and effectiveness of total mesh reconstruction </li></ul>
  30. 32. Vault suspension to the anterior abdominal wall <ul><li>Vault suspension to the anterior abdominal wall can be a simple measure. However, there are not enough studies assessing this technique to judge its value.(B) </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>My web </li></ul>