2 lectures 16 17-informed search algorithms ch 4.3
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

2 lectures 16 17-informed search algorithms ch 4.3

on

  • 2,117 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,117
Views on SlideShare
2,117
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
68
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

2 lectures 16 17-informed search algorithms ch 4.3 2 lectures 16 17-informed search algorithms ch 4.3 Presentation Transcript

  • ICS-381 Principles of Artificial Intelligence Week 6 Informed Search Algorithms Chapter 4 Dr.Tarek Helmy El-BasunyDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 1
  • Last Time We discussed: Greedy Best-First Search Example (8-Puzzle) A* Searching algorithm Proofing the optimality of A* algorithm We are going to present Improving the performance of A* Iterative-Deepening A* (IDA*) Recursive Best-First Search (RBFS) Simplified Memory Bounded A* (SMA*)Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 2
  • Analyzing the Heuristic Function h(n) If h(n) = h*(n) for all n, Only nodes on optimal solution path are expanded No unnecessary work is performed If h(n) = 0 for all n, This heuristic is admissible, A* performs exactly as Uniform-Cost Search (UCS) The closer h is to h*, The fewer extra nodes that will be expanded If h1(n) <= h2(n) <= h*(n) for all n that arent goals then h2 dominates h1 h2 is a better heuristic than h1 A1* using h1 expands at least as many if not more nodes than using A2* with h2. A2* is said to be better informed than A1*Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 3 View slide
  • A* Search Major drawback of A* A* keeps all generated nodes in memory and usually runs out of space long before it runs out of time. It cannot venture down a single path unless it is almost continuously having success (i.e., h is decreasing). Any failure to decrease h will almost immediately cause the search to switch to another path. 3 3 4 5 3 Initial State 4 2 4 2 1 3 3 0 4 Goal 5 4 3 important factors influencing the efficiency of algorithm A* The cost (or length) of the path found The number of nodes expanded in finding the path The computational effort required to compute We can overcome A* space problem without sacrificing optimality or completeness, at a small cost in execution time.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 4 View slide
  • Improving A*: Memory-bounded Heuristic Search Iterative-Deepening A* (IDA*) Using f(g+h) as a cut off rather than the depth for the iteration. Cutoff value is the smallest f-cost of any node that exceeded the cutoff on the previous iteration; keep these nodes only. Space complexity O(bd) Recursive Best-First Search (RBFS) It replaces the f-value of each node along the path with the best f- value of its children. Space complexity O(bd) Simplified Memory Bounded A* (SMA*) Works like A* until memory is full Then SMA* drops the node in the fringe with the largest f value and “backs up” this value to its parent. When all children of a node n have been dropped, the smallest backed up value replaces f(n)Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 5
  • IDA* and ID first IDA* is similar to Iterative depth-first: d=1 A* f1 Depth- first d=2 f2 d=3 f3 d=4 f4 Expand by depth-layers Expands by f-contoursDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 6
  • Iterative deepening A* Depth-first Perform depth-first search in each f- LIMITED to some f-bound. contour f1 f2 If goal found: ok. Else: increase de f-bound and f3 restart. f4 How to establish the f-bounds? - initially: f(S) generate all successors record the minimal f(succ) > f(S) Continue with minimal f(succ) instead of f(S)Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 7
  • Iterative Deepening A* Search Algorithm OPEN: to keep track of the current fringe of the search. CLOSED: to record states already visited. start set threshold as h(s) put s in OPEN, compute f(s) yes Threshold = OPEN empty ? min( f(s) , threshold ) Remove the node of OPEN whose f(s) value is smallest and put it in CLOSE (call it n) n = goal yes Success ? Expand n. calculate f(s) of successor if f(suc) < threshold then Put successors to OPEN if pointers back to nDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 8
  • 8-Puzzle Example: Iterative Deepening A* Use f(n) = g(n) + h(n) with admissible and consistent h The cutoff used is the f-cost (g+h) rather than the depth we again perform depth-first search, but only nodes with f-cost less than or equal to smallest f-cost of nodes expanded at last iteration. f(n) = g(n) + h(n), with h(n) = number of misplaced tiles 4 Cutoff=4 Goal 6Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 9
  • 8-Puzzle Example: Iterative Deepening A* f(n) = g(n) + h(n), with h(n) = number of misplaced tiles 4 Cutoff=4 4 Goal 6 6Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 10
  • 8-Puzzle Example: Iterative Deepening A* f(n) = g(n) + h(n), with h(n) = number of misplaced tiles 4 Cutoff=4 4 5 Goal 6 6Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 11
  • 8-Puzzle Example: Iterative Deepening A* f(n) = g(n) + h(n), with h(n) = number of misplaced tiles 5 4 Cutoff=4 4 5 Goal 6 6Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 12
  • 8-Puzzle Example: Iterative Deepening A* f(n) = g(n) + h(n), with h(n) = number of misplaced tiles 6 5 4 Cutoff=4 4 5 Goal 6 6Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 13
  • 8-Puzzle Example: Iterative Deepening A* f(n) = g(n) + h(n), with h(n) = number of misplaced tiles 4 Cutoff=5 Goal 6Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 14
  • 8-Puzzle Example: Iterative Deepening A* f(n) = g(n) + h(n), with h(n) = number of misplaced tiles 4 Cutoff=5 4 Goal 6 6Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 15
  • 8-Puzzle Example: Iterative Deepening A* f(n) = g(n) + h(n), with h(n) = number of misplaced tiles 4 Cutoff=5 4 5 Goal 6 6Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 16
  • 8-Puzzle Example: Iterative Deepening A* f(n) = g(n) + h(n), with h(n) = number of misplaced tiles 4 Cutoff=5 4 5 7 Goal 6 6Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 17
  • 8-Puzzle Example: Iterative Deepening A* f(n) = g(n) + h(n), with h(n) = number of misplaced tiles 4 5 Cutoff=5 4 5 7 Goal 6 6Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 18
  • 8-Puzzle Example: Iterative Deepening A* f(n) = g(n) + h(n), with h(n) = number of misplaced tiles 4 5 5 Cutoff=5 4 5 7 Goal 6 6Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 19
  • 8-Puzzle Example: Iterative Deepening A* f(n) = g(n) + h(n), with h(n) = number of misplaced tiles 3 3 4 5 3 Initial State 4 2 4 2 1 3 3 0 4 Goal 5 4 With A * 16 nodes have been expanded 4 5 5 Cutoff=5 4 5 7 Goal 6 6 With IDA * Only 9 nodes expandedDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 20
  • Example 2: Iterative Deepening A* f-limited, f-bound = 100 f-new = 120 S f=100 A B C f=120 f=130 f=120 D G E F f=140 f=125 f=140 f=125Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 21
  • Example 2: Iterative Deepening A* f-limited, f-bound = 120 f-new = 125 S f=100 A B C f=120 f=130 f=120 D G E F f=140 f=125 f=140 f=125Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 22
  • Example 2: Iterative Deepening A* f-limited, f-bound = 125 S f=100 A B C f=120 f=130 f=120 D G E F f=140 f=125 f=140 f=125 SUCCESSDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 23
  • Recursive Best-First Search Keeps track of the f-value of the best-alternative path available. If current f-values exceeds this alternative f-value then backtrack to alternative path. Upon backtracking change f-value to best f-value of its children. It takes 2 arguments: a node an upper bound Upper bound= min (upper bound on it’s parent, current value of it’s lowest cost brother). It explores the sub-tree below the node as long as it contains child nodes whose costs do not exceed the upper bound. If the current node exceeds this limit, the recursion unwinds back to the alternative path. As the recursion unwinds, RBFS replaces the f-value of each node along the path with the best f-value of its children.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 24
  • RBFS: Example Path until Rumnicu Vilcea is already expanded Above node; f-limit for every recursive call is shown on top. Below node: f(n) The path is followed until Pitesti which has a f-value worse than the f-limit.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 25
  • RBFS: Example Unwind recursion and store best f-value for current best leaf Pitesti result, f [best] ← RBFS(problem, best, min(f_limit, alternative)) best is now Fagaras. Call RBFS for new best best value is now 450Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 26
  • RBFS: Example Unwind recursion and store best f-value for current best leaf Fagaras result, f [best] ← RBFS(problem, best, min(f_limit, alternative)) best is now Rimnicu Viclea (again). Call RBFS for new best Subtree is again expanded. Best alternative subtree is now through Timisoara. Solution is found since because 447 > 417.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 27
  • Simple Recursive Best-First Search (SRBFS) Implementation If one of successors of node n has the smallest f-value over all OPEN nodes, it is expanded in turn, and so on. When other OPEN node, n’, (not a successor of n) has the lowest value of f-value backtracks to the lowest common ancestor, node k kn: successor of node k on the path to n RBFS removes the sub-tree rooted at kn, from OPEN kn becomes an OPEN node with f-value value (its backed-up value) Search continues below that OPEN node with the lowest f-value.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 28
  • SRBFS -The Algorithm SRBFS ( node: N ,bound B) IF f( N) > B RETURN f(n) IF N is a goal, EXIT algorithm IF N has no children, RETURN infinity FOR each child Ni of N, F[i] := f(Ni) sort Ni and F[i] in increasing order of F[i] IF only one child, F[2] = infinity WHILE (F[1] ≤ B and f[1] < infinity) F[1] := SRBFS (N1, MIN(B, F[2])) insert N1 and F[1] in sorted order RETURN F[1]Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 29
  • RBFS and IDA* Comparison RBFS is somewhat more efficient than IDA* But still suffers from excessive node regeneration. If h(n) is admissible, RBFS is optimal. Like A*, optimal if h(n) is admissible Space complexity is O(bd). IDA* keeps only one single number (the current f-cost limit) Time complexity difficult to characterize Depends on accuracy if h(n) and how often best path changes. Difficult to characterize Both IDA* and RBFS are subject to potential exponential increase in complexity associated with searching on Graph, because they cannot check for repeated states other than those on the current path. Thus, they may explore the same state many times.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 30
  • ICS-381 Principles of Artificial Intelligence Week 6.2 Informed Search Algorithms Chapter 4 Dr.Tarek Helmy El-BasunyDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 31
  • Major 1 Reminder Time: 5 – 7:00 PM, Date: Tomorrow (Sat., Nov. 3), Place: Building 24-121 Materials: Every thing we presented up to the last classDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 32
  • Simplified Memory-Bounded A* (SMA*) Idea Expand the best leaf (just like A* ) until memory is full When memory is full, drop the worst leaf node (the one with the highest f-value) to accommodate new node. If all leaf nodes have the same f-value, SMA* deletes the oldest worst leaf and expanding the newest best leaf. Avoids re-computation of already explored area Keeps information about the best path of a “forgotten” subtree in its ancestor. Complete if there is enough memory for the shortest solution path Often better than A* and IDA* Trade-off between time and space requirementsDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 33
  • Simplified Memory-bounded A* Optimizes A* to work within reduced memory. Key idea: 13 If memory is full and we need to (15) S generate an extra node (C): Remove the highest f-value leaf 15 13 from QUEUE (A). A B Remember the f-value of the best ‘forgotten’ child in each parent node (15 in S). 18 C memory of 3 nodes onlyDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 34
  • Generate Successor 1 by 1 13 When expanding a node (S), only S add its successor 1 at a time to QUEUE. we use left-to-right A B Avoids memory overflow and allows monitoring of whether we need to delete another node First add A, later BDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 35
  • Adjust f-values 15 13 If all children M of a node N have S been explored and for all M: f(S...M) > f(S...N) 15 24 A B Then reset: f(S…N) = min { f(S…M) | M child of N} better estimate for f(S) A path through N needs to go through 1 of its children !Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 36
  • Too long path: give up 13 If extending a node would produce S a path longer than memory: give 13 up on this path (C). B Set the f-value of the node (C) to ∞ ∞ 18 C (to remember that we can’t find a path here) D memory of 3 nodes onlyDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 37
  • SMA*: an example 0+12=12 10 S 8 10+5=15 8+5=13 A 8 B 10 16 10 20+5=25 C G1 20+0=20 D 16+2=18 G2 24+0=24 10 10 8 8 30+5=35 E G3 30+0=30 24+0=24 G4 F 24+5=29 13 (15) 12 12 12 13 12 S S S S A A B A 15 B 15 13 15 13 D 18 ∞Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 38
  • Example: continued 13 (15) 0+12=12 S 10 S 8 10+5=15 8+5=13 A 8 B 10 16 B 10 13 20+5=25 C G1 20+0=20 D 16+2=18 G2 24+0=24 10 10 8 8 D∞ 30+5=35 E G3 30+0=30 24+0=24G4 F 24+5=29 15 13 (15) 15 (15) 15 (24) 20 15 (24) 15 S S S S B 13 A B A B 20 A (∞)24 (∞) 15 (∞) 24 15 24 15 G2 G2D∞ 24 24 C 25 ∞ C∞ G1 20Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 39
  • SMA*: Properties: Complete: If available memory allows to store the shortest path. Optimal: If available memory allows to store the best path. Otherwise: returns the best path that fits in memory. Memory: Uses whatever memory available. Speed: If enough memory to store entire tree: same as A* Thrashing SMA* switches back and forth continually between a set of candidate solution paths, only a small subset of which can fit in memory. More computation for switching rather than searching.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 40
  • Performance Measure Performance How search algorithm focus on goal rather than walk off in irrelevant directions. P=L/T L : depth of goal T : Total number of node expanded Effective Branching Factor (B) B + B2 + B3 + ..... + BL = TDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 41
  • Partial Searching The searches covered so far are characterized as partial searches. Why? Partial Searching: Means, it looks through a set of nodes for shortest path to the goal state using a heuristic function. The heuristic function is an estimate, based on domain-specific information, of how close we are to a goal. Nodes: state descriptions, partial solutions Edges: action that changes state for some cost Solution: sequence of actions that change from the start to the goal state BFS, IDS, UCS, Greedy, A*, etc. Ok for small search spaces that are often "toy world" problems Not ok for Hard problems requiring exponential time to find the optimal solution, i.e. Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP)Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 42
  • Local Search and Optimization Previous searches: keep paths in memory, and remember alternatives so search can backtrack. Solution is a path to a goal. Path may be irrelevant, if the final configuration only is needed (8- queens, IC design, network optimization, …) Local Search: Use a single current state and move only to neighbors. Use little space Can find reasonable solutions in large or infinite (continuous) state spaces for which the other algorithms are not suitable Optimization: Local search is often suitable for optimization problems. Search for best state by optimizing an objective function.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 43
  • Another Approach: Complete Searching Typically used for problems where finding a goal state is more important than finding the shortest path to it. Examples: airline scheduling, VLSI layout. A problem is called NP (nondeterministic polynomial time) class if it is solvable in polynomial time. How can hard NP problems be solved in a reasonable (i.e. polynomial) time? by using either: Approximate model: find an exact solution to a simpler version of the problem Approximate solution: find a non-optimal solution of the original hard problem Next well explore means to search through complete solution space for a solution that is near optimal. Complete Searching Look through solution space for better solution Nodes: complete solution Edge: operator changes to another solution Can stop at any time and have a solution Technique suited for: Optimization problems Hard problems, e.g. Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP):Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 44
  • Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP) A salesman wants to visit a list of cities 5 Cities TSP Stopping in each city only once Returning to the first city A 5 8 Traveling the shortest distance Nodes are cities B 6 C Arcs are labeled with distances between cities 9 7 5 2 5 3 A B C D E D E 4 A 0 5 8 9 7 B 5 0 6 5 5 C 8 6 0 2 3 D 9 5 2 0 4 E 7 5 3 4 0Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 45
  • Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP) A solution is a permutation of cities, called a tour e.g. A – B – C – D – E – A Length 24 How many solutions exist? 5 City TSP (n-1)!/2 where n = # of cities n = 5 results in 12 tours n = 10 results in 181440 tours A n = 20 results in ~6*1016 tours 5 8 6 A B C D E B C A 0 5 8 9 7 9 7 B 5 0 6 5 5 5 2 5 3 C 8 6 0 2 3 D 9 5 2 0 4 D E E 7 5 3 4 0 4Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 46
  • Another Approach: Complete Searching An operator is needed to transform one solution to another. What operators work for TSP? Two-swap (common) Take two cities and swap their location in the tour e.g. A-B-C-D-E swap(A,D) yields D-B-C-A-E Two-interchange Reverse the path between two cities e.g. A-B-C-D-E interchange (A,D) yields D-C-B-A-E. Both work since graph is fully connected Solutions that can be reached with one application of an operator are in the current solutions neighborhood . Local searches only consider solutions in the neighborhood. In general, the neighborhood should be much smaller than the size of the search space. Hill-Climbing Beam Search Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithms, other An evaluation function f(n) is used to map each solution to a number corresponding to the quality of that solution.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 47
  • Hill-Climbing Search “Continuously moves in the direction of increasing value” It terminates when a peak is reached. Looks one step ahead to determine if any successor is better than the current state; if there is, move to the best successor. If there exists a successor s for the current state n such that h(s) < h(n) h(s) <= h(t) for all the successors t of n, Then move from n to s. Otherwise, halt at n. Similar to Greedy search in that it uses h, but does not allow backtracking or jumping to an alternative path since it doesn’t “remember” where it has been. Not complete since the search will terminate at "local minima," "plateaus," and "ridges."Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 48
  • Hill Climbing: Example-1 S Perform depth-first, BUT: instead of left-to-right selection, FIRST select the child with the A 10.4 D 8.9 best heuristic value 1. Pick a random point in the search A 10.4 6.9 E space 2. Consider all the neighbors of the current state 6.7 B F 3.0 3. Choose the neighbor with the best quality and move to that state G 4. Repeat 2 thru 4 until all the neighboring states are of lower quality 5. Return the current state as the solution stateDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 49
  • Hill Climbing Search: Implementation1. QUEUE <-- path only containing the root;2. WHILE QUEUE is not empty AND goal is not reached DO remove the first path from the QUEUE; create new paths (to all children); reject the new paths with loops; sort new paths (HEURISTIC) ; add the new paths to front of QUEUE;3. IF goal reached THEN success; ELSE failure;function HILL-CLIMBING( problem) return a state that is a local maximum input: problem, a problem local variables: current, a node. neighbor, a node. current ← MAKE-NODE(INITIAL-STATE[problem]) loop do neighbor ← a highest valued successor of current if VALUE [neighbor] ≤ VALUE[current] then return STATE[current] current ← neighborDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 50
  • Hill Climbing: Example-2 3 start state (candidate solution)Neighbor solutions These numbers measure 6 4 value, not path length 2 7 12 Optimal goal (this 4 5 might not be reached) Suboptimal goal 8 10 8Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 51
  • 8 Queens Example: Hill Climbing Move the queen Move the queen Done! in this column in this column 2 3 2 3 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 0NNNYNNNY NNNNNYNY NNNNNNNN Conflicts Conflicts Conflicts The numbers give the number of conflicts. Choose a move with the lowest number of conflicts. Randomly break ties. Hill descending.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 52
  • Example-3: Hill Climbing 2 8 3 1 2 3 start 1 6 4 h=4 goal 8 4 h=0 7 5 7 6 5 5 5 2 2 8 3 1 2 3 1 4 h=3 8 4 h=1 7 6 5 7 6 5 3 4 2 3 2 3 1 8 4 1 8 4 h=2 7 6 5 7 6 5 h=3 4 f(n) = (number of tiles out of place)Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 53
  • Example-3: Hill Climbing 1 2 3 h(n)We can use heuristics 4 7 8 6 5 5to guide “hill climbing”search. 1 4 2 8 3 1 4 2 8 3 5 7 6 5 6 7 6 4In this example, the 1 2 3Manhattan Distance 4 8 5 3 7 6heuristic helps usquickly find a solution 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 8 5 4 4 5 2to the 8-puzzle. 7 6 7 8 6 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 3 4 5 1 4 5 3 4 2 5 3 7 8 6 7 8 6 7 8 6 1 2 3 1 2 4 5 6 4 5 3 7 8 0 7 8 6 2 Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 54
  • Drawbacks of Hill Climbing Problems: Local Maxima: peaks that aren’t the highest point in the space: No progress Plateaus: the space has a broad flat region that gives the search algorithm no direction (random selection to solve) Ridges: flat like a plateau, but with drop-offs to the sides; Search may oscillate from side to side, making little progress Remedy: Introduce randomness Global MaximumDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 55
  • Problems of Hill Climbing 1 2 3 h(n)In this example, 4 5 8 6hill climbing does 6 7not work!All the nodes on 1 2 3 1 2 3the fringe are 4 5 8 4 5 5 7taking a step 6 7 6 7 8“backwards”(local minima) 1 2 3 1 2 4 5 6 4 5 3 6 6 7 8 6 7 8Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 56
  • Local Beam Search The idea is that you just keep around those states that are relatively good, and just forget the rest. Local beam search: somewhat similar to Hill Climbing: Start from N initial states. Expand all N states and keep k best successors. This can avoid some local optima, but not always. It is most useful when the search space is big and the local optima arent too common. Local Beam Search Algorithm Keep track of k states instead of one Initially: k random states Next: determine all successors of k states Extend all paths one step Reject all paths with loops Sort all paths in queue by estimated distance to goal If any of successors is goal → finished Else select k best from successors and repeat.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 57
  • Local Beam Search Concentrates on promising pathsDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 58
  • Local Beam Search Depth 1) S Assume a pre-fixed WIDTH i.e. 2 10.4 8.9 Perform breadth-first, A D BUT: Only keep the WIDTH Depth 2) best new nodes S depending on heuristic A D at each new level. 6.7 8.9 10.4 6.9 B D A E X X ignore ignoreDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 59
  • Local Beam Search: Example 2Depth 3) S A D Ignore leafs that are not B D A E4.0 C E 6.9 X X 6.7 B F 3.0 goal nodes _ Xend ignoreDepth 4) S A D B D A E C _ E X X B F X 10.4 0.0 A C G _ Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 60
  • Genetic Algorithms: Basic Terminology1. Chromosomes: Chromosome means a candidate solution to a problem and is encoded as a string of bits.2. Genes: a chromosome can be divided into functional blocks of DNA, genes, which encode traits, such as eye color. A different settings for a trait (blue, green, brown, etc.) are called alleles. Each gene is located at a particular position, called a locus, on the chromosome. Genes are single bits or short blocks of adjacent bits.3. Genome: the complete collection of chromosomes is called the organism’s genome. Population: A set of Chromosomes (Collection of Solutions)1. Genotype: a set of genes contained in a genome.2. Crossover (or recombination): occurs when two chromosomes bump into one another exchanging chunks of genetic information, resulting in an offspring.3. Mutation: offspring is subject to mutation, in which elementary bits of DNA are changed from parent to offspring. In GAs, crossover and mutation are the two most widely used operators.4. Fitness/Evaluation Function: the probability that the sates will live to reproduce.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 61
  • Definitions 0100101010011011 0100101010011011 0100101010011011 0100101010011011 0100101010011011 0100101010011011 0100101010011011 0100101010011011 Population Chromosome: 0100101010011011 Gene: 1Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 62
  • Crossover Merging 2 chromosomes to create new chromosomes 0100101010011011 0100101010011011Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 63
  • Mutation Random changing of a gene in a chromosome 0100101010011011 1 Mutation can help for escaping from Local Maximums in our state space.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 64
  • Genetic Algorithms: CrossoverReproduction Parent state A + Parent state B +(Crossover) log sin cos 5 pow tan / x y - x y y x Child of A and B + Parent state A cos sin 10011101 / tan 10011000 11101000 x y - Child of A and B Parent state B y xDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 65
  • Genetic Algorithms: Mutation Parent state A Child of A + + cos 5 tan 5 Mutation / / x y x y Parent state A Parent state A A C E F D B A 10011101 10011111 Child of A A C E D F B A Child of A MutationDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 66
  • GA Operators A genetic algorithm maintains a population of candidate solutions for the problem at hand, and makes Parent 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 it evolve by iteratively applying a set of stochastic operators: Selection replicates the most Parent 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 successful solutions found in a population at a rate proportional to their relative quality. Crossover: decomposes two distinct solutions and then Child 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 randomly mixes their parts to form novel solutions. Mutation: Randomly converts Child 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 Mutation some of the bits in a chromosome. For example, if mutation occurs at the second bit in chromosome 11000001, the result is 10000001.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 67
  • A simple Genetic AlgorithmThe outline of a simple genetic algorithm is the following:1. Start with the randomly generated population of “n” j-bit chromosomes.2. Evaluate the fitness of each chromosome.3. Repeat the following steps until n offspring have been created: a. Select a pair of parent chromosomes from the current population based on their fitness. b. With the probability pc, called the crossover rate, crossover the pair at a randomly chosen point to form two offspring. c. If no crossover occurs, the two offspring are exact copies of their respective parents. d. Mutate the two offspring at each locus with probability pm, called the mutation rate, and place the resulting chromosomes in the new population. e. If n is odd, one member of the new population is discarded at random.4. Replace the current population with the new population.5. Go to step 2.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 68
  • Example 1: Genetic AlgorithmAssume the following: Length of each chromosome = 8, Fitness function f(x) = the number of ones in the bit string, Population size n = 4, Crossover rate pc = 0.7, Mutation rate pm = 0.001The initial, randomly generated, population is the following: Chromosome label Chromosome string Fitness A 00000110 2 B 11101110 6 C 00100000 1 D 00110100 3Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 69
  • Example 1: Step 3a We will use a fitness-proportionate selection, where the number of times an individual is selected for reproduction is equal to its fitness divided by the average of the finesses in the population, which is (2 + 6 + 1 + 3) / 4=3 For chromosome A, this number is 2 / 3 = 0.667 For chromosome B, this number is 6 / 3 = 2 Fitness Functions For chromosome C, this number is 1 / 3 = 0.333 For chromosome D, this number is 3 / 3 = 1 (0.667 + 2 + 0.333 + 1 = 4)Step 3b Apply the crossover operator on the selected parents: Given that B and D are selected as parents, assume they crossover after the first locus with probability pc to form two offspring: E = 10110100 and F = 01101110. Assume that B and C do not crossover thus forming two offspring which are exact copies of B and C.Step 3c: Apply the mutation operator on the selected parents: Each offspring is subject to mutation at each locus with probability pm. Let E is mutated after the sixth locus to form E’ = 10110000, and offspring B is mutated after the first locus to form B’ = 01101110.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 70
  • Example 1: Steps 3b and 3cThe new population now becomes: Chromosome label Chromosome string Fitness E’ 10110000 3 F 01101110 5 C 00100000 1 B’ 01101110 5 Note that the best string, B, with fitness 6 was lost, but the average fitness of the population increased to (3 + 5 + 1 + 5) / 4= 3.5. Iterating this process will eventually result in a string with all ones.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 71
  • Example 2: Genetic Algorithms Fitness function: number of non-attacking pairs of queens (min = 0, max = 8 × 7/2 = 28) 24/(24+23+20+11) = 31% 23/(24+23+20+11) = 29% etcDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 72
  • Discussion of Genetic Algorithms• Genetic Algorithms require many parameters... (population size, fraction of the population generated by crossover; mutation rate, etc... )• How do we set these?• Genetic Algorithms are really just a kind of hill-climbing search, but seem to have less problems with local maximums…• Genetic Algorithms are very easy to parallelize...• Applications: Protein Folding, Circuit Design, Job-Scheduling Problem, Timetabling, designing wings for aircraft, ….Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 73
  • Simulated Annealing Motivated by the physical annealing process Annealing: harden metals and glass by heating them to a high temperature and then gradually cooling them At the start, make lots of moves and then gradually slow down More formally… Instead of picking the best move (as in Hill Climbing), Generate a random new neighbor from current state, If it’s better take it, If it’s worse then take it with some probability proportional to the temperature and the delta between the new and old states, Probability gets smaller as time passes and by the amount of “badness” of the move, Compared to hill climbing the main difference is that SA allows downwards steps; (moves to higher cost successors). Simulated annealing also differs from hill climbing in that a move is selected at random and then decides whether to accept it.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 74
  • Simulated AnnealingFunction simulated-annealing (problem) returns a solution state current = start state For time = 1 to forever do T = schedule[time] If T = 0 return current next = a randomly chosen successor of current ∆ = value(next) – value(current) If ∆ > 0 then current = next else current = next with probability e∆/T End for This version usually (but not always) makes uphill moves.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 75
  • Intuition behind simulated annealing The probability of making a downhill move decreases with time (length of the exploration path from a start state). The choice of probability distribution for allowing downhill moves is derived from the physical process of annealing metals (cooling molten metal to solid minimal- energy state). During the annealing process in metals, there is a probability p that a transition to a higher energy state (which is sub-optimal) occurs. Higher energy implies lower value. The probability of going to a higher energy state is e∆/T where ∆ = (energy of next state) – (energy of current state) T is the temperature of the metal. p is higher when T is higher, and movement to higher energy states become less likely as the temperature cools down. For both real and simulated annealing, the rate at which a system is cooled is called the annealing schedule, or just the “schedule.”Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 76
  • The effect of varying ∆ for fixed T=10 A negative value for ∆ ∆ e ∆/10 implies a downhill step. The lower the value of ∆, the -43 0.01 bigger the step would be downhill, and the -13 0.27 lower the probability of taking this downhill move. 0 1.00Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 77
  • The effect of varying T for fixed ∆ = -13 T e -13/T The greater the value of T, the 1 0.000002 smaller the relative importance of ∆ and the higher the 50 0.56 probability of choosing a downhill move. 1010 0.9999…Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 78
  • Logistic (sigmoid) function for Simulated AnnealingAlternatively we could select any move (uphill or downhill)with probability 1/(1+e –∆/T). This is the logistic function,also called the sigmoid function. If we use this function, thealgorithm is called a stochastic hill climber.The logistic function: p T near 0 1.0 T very high 0.5 -20 20 Δ 0Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 79
  • Example e−∆/ T ≅ 0 Uphill 1 Δ=13; T=1: Pr obability = − ∆/T ≅1 1+ e 1 Δ=13; T=1010: e −∆ / T ≅1 Pr obability = − ∆/T ≅ 0.5 1+ e Downhill Δ=-13; T=1: e−∆ / T ≅ 0 Pr obability = 1 ≅0 − ∆/T 1+ e 1 Δ=-13; T=1010: e −∆ / T ≅0 Pr obability = ≅ 0.5 1 + e −∆/TDr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 80
  • Summary Best-first search = general search, where the minimum-cost nodes (according to some measure) are expanded first. Greedy search = best-first with the estimated cost to reach the goal as a heuristic measure. - Generally faster than uninformed search - Not optimal, Not complete. A* search = best-first with measure = path cost so far + estimated path cost to goal. - Combines advantages of uniform-cost and greedy searches - Complete, optimal and optimally efficient - Space complexity still exponential Time complexity of heuristic algorithms depend on quality of heuristic function. Good heuristics can sometimes be constructed by examining the problem definition or by generalizing from experience with the problem class. Iterative improvement algorithms keep only a single state in memory. Can get stuck in local extreme; simulated annealing provides a way to escape local extreme, and is complete and optimal given a slow enough cooling schedule.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 81
  • SummaryWhat if we follow some small number of paths?• Hill Climbing 1. Moves in the direction of increasing value. 2. Terminates when it reaches a “peak”. 3. Does not look beyond immediate neighbors• Local beam search: 1. Start with k randomly generated nodes. 2. Generate k successors of each. 3. Keep the best k out of the them.• Simulated Annealing 1. Generate a random new neighbor from current state. 2. If it’s better take it. 3. If it’s worse then take it with some probability proportional• Genetic algorithms: 1. Start with k randomly generated nodes called the population. 2. Generate successors by combining pairs of nodes. 3. Allow mutations.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 82
  • Announcement Term Projects progress Time: During the Class Date: (Mon. & Wed., Nov. 17, 24), Each group will present/demonstrate the progress of their project within 10 minutes.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 83
  • Projects Proposal Presentation Schedule-071Team Members Time Project Title224236 Noor Al-Sheala 8:00, Sat.214539 Ali Al-Ribh Pebble Picking Game235213 Husain Al-Saleh222628 Sawd Al-Sadoun 8:10, Sat.235091 Abdulaziz Al-Jraifni Speech Recognition235865 Ibrahim Al-Hawwas224792 Maitham Al-Zayer223132 Mahmoud Al-Saba 8:20: Sat. 4*4 game222974 Reda Al-Ahmed234383 Husain Al-Jaafar 8:30: Sat.226574 Yousf Al-Alag Smart Registrar224510 Abdullah Al-Safwan224328 Khalid Al-Sufyany 8:40, Sat. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX215789 Yousef Al-Numan234681 Nader Al-Marhoun 8:00, Mon.234165 Ali Aoun Fingerprint recognition226246 Abdullah Al-Mubearik Intelligent Adviser 8:10, Mon.230417 Nawaf Al-Surahi234681 Saeed Al-Marhoon XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 8:20, Mon.215027 Mohamed Habib XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX207091 Mohamed Al-Shakhs 8:30, Mon.Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 84
  • The End!! Thank you Any Questions?Dr. Tarek Helmy, ICS-KFUPM 85