PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP A CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS PRIMARY EDUCATION * Ravishekhar kushwahABSTRACTThe growth of the private sector and the emergence of a range of Basic Education PPPsboth have implications for the role of international organizations and NGOs, as well asfor private educational entrepreneurs. For the most part, education lending byinternational organizations such as the World Bank has mirrored the public sectordominance of Basic Education that exists in many countries. The expansion of PPPs hasalso highlighted a number of significant gaps in knowledge with respect to the privateinvolvement in education. These gaps are evident at many levels and suggest severalareas for future research. At a minimum, there is a need for much better data on the sizeand nature of the private Basic Education sector. Many developing countries lack eventhe most basic data on private Basic Education, including the number of schools, teachersand enrolments. In addition, not enough is known about the nature of private provisionand the socio-economic status of the communities served by private schools. Forexample, despite recent evidence of the important role played by low-fee private schoolsin serving poor communities (Tooley 2011; Andrei, Das and Khwaja 2012), a mythpersists that private schooling serves primarily (or only) elites. In many countries andjurisdictions, information on private schooling is either non-existent or is collected onlyin a haphazard fashion. This provides little basis upon which to assess the potentialeffects of either funding and regulatory policy changes or assessing the potential role forPPPs in Basic Education.* PURSUING MBA PROGRAMME GICTS COLLEGE GWALIOR JIWAJI UNIVERSTY
Introduction:Public–private partnership (PPP) describes a government service or private business venturewhich is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more sector companies.These schemes are sometimes referred to as PPP, P3 or P3.PPP involves a contract between a public sector authority and a private party, in which the private partyprovides a public service or project and assumes substantial financial, technical and operational risk inthe project. Public Private Partnership means an arrangement between a government / statutory entity /government owned entity on one side and a private sector entity on the other, for the provision of publicassets and/or public services, through investments being made and/or management being undertaken bythe private sector entity, for a specified period of time, where there is well defined allocation of riskbetween the private sector and the public entity and the private entity receives performance linkedpayments that conform (or are benchmarked) to specified and pre-determined performance standards,measurable by the public entity or its representative.Public private partnership (PPP) is an approach used by government to deliver quality services to itspopulation by using the expertise of the private sector. It is a contractual arrangement through which aprivate party performs part of the service delivery functions of the government while assumingassociated risks. In return, the private party receives a fee from the government according to pre-determined performance criteria. Such payment may come out of the user charges or through thegovernment budget or a combination of both.Broadly, PPP in school education can operate to provides,infrastructural services, support services andEducational services.PPP in IndiaThe Government of India defines a P3 as "a partnership between a public sector entity (sponsoringauthority) and a private sector entity (a legal entity in which 51% or more of equity is with the privatepartner/s) for the creation and/or management of infrastructure for public purpose for a specified period
of time (concession period) on commercial terms and in which the private partner has been procuredthrough a transparent and open procurement system."Public-Private Partnership or PPP in the context of the education sector is an instrument for improvingthe education of the population. PPP is to be seen in the context of viewing the whole education sectoras national asset with education promotion as goal of all education providers, private or public. ThePrivate and Non-profit sectors are also very much accountable to overall education systems and servicesof the country. Therefore, synergies where all the stakeholders feel they are part of the system and doeverything possible to strengthen national policies and program.The Government of India has planned to set up 6,000 model schools in the country. Of these, 2,500model schools are being set up under Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode. The Government isvisualizing that the enactment of the Right of children to Free and Compulsory Education Act-2009would entail an increase in the demand of education facilities at the school level. To meet this increaseddemand for education facilities, the Government is moving forward to set up 2500 mode schools underPPP. Presently children who do not have an access to elementary education are from disadvantagedsections of society. They are living mostly in remote and relatively inaccessible areas. They are servedpoorly by education and medical facilities.Basic primary education is generally viewed as a public sector‘s responsibility, which makes anyshared involvement of public and private sectors a highly sensitive issue. Transfer of user fees to privatesector providers is sensitive, especially in basic education. Even more sensitive is the management ofpublic education institutions by the private sector. PPPs can be used by unions and opposition as pretextto claim that government is abandoning its core task of providing public education.Provide primary education in rural area: After 73rd Amendment Act, Madhya Pradeshbecame the first state which enacted new panchayat raj system in the state and formed PRIs. Afterformation of PRIs, state government gave several powers and duties to PRIs and education Was one ofsuch areas? in rural areas all schools from Pre-primary to Higher Secondary Schools are managed andoperated through panchayat. The main functions of Panchayats are-management of schools, operation ofschools, construction and extension of school buildings, teaching aids in school, operation of non-formaleducation system, appointment of Shikshakarmies and implementation of promotion schemes. VillageEducation Committee (VEC) is also one of the significant aspects of community participation ineducation. Every village has a VEC. The VECs are formed instead of School Development Committees.The VECs are empowered to see the presence of teachers, operation, control and inspection of schools,enrolment campaigns, ensure the enrolment of each school going age child in school and control thetendency of dropout. Various models of PPP exist around the world. Public–private partnership: Public sector consortium forms a special company called a "specialpurpose vehicle" (SPV) to develop, build, maintain and operate the asset for the contracted period. Incases where the government has invested in the project, it is typically (but not always) allottedan equity share in the SPv. The consortium is usually made up of a building contractor, a maintenancecompany and bank lender(s). It is the SPV that signs the contract with the government and withsubcontractors to build the facility and then maintain it. In the infrastructure sector, complexarrangements and contracts that guarantee and secure the cash flows make PPP projects primecandidates for project financing. A typical PPP example would be a hospital building financed andconstructed by a private developer and then leased to the hospital authority. The private developer then
acts as landlord, providing housekeeping and other non-medical services while the hospital itselfprovides medical services.Public–private partnership in educationThe private sector in its broadest sense includes communities, non-governmental organizations(NGOs),faith-based organizations, trade unions, private companies, small-scale informal providers Andindividual practitioners; all may collaborate with Government in order to raise education quality.Though the public sector remains the dominant player in education, making high quality educationAccessible for all in a country requires innovative programmers and initiatives in addition to publicResources and leadership – or ‗vision‘. There are ways in which the public and private sectors can joinTogether to complement each other‘s strengths in providing education services, helping countries tomeet their education goals and to improve learning outcomes (Patrons et al. 2009). These Partnershipscan be tailored and targeted to meet the needs of specific communities. One form of PPP in education is private operation of publicly funded education. While evidenceis thin, a prominent recent study based uncross-country data suggests that private operation of schoolswith public funding raises student achievement levels, leading to efficiency gains. If it is accepted thatprimary education should always be publicly funded, and if the superior efficiency of this type of PPP ineducation is accepted or presumed, then some issues for policy are: whether to give public funds directly to schools (supply-side financing) or as Vouchers to parents (demand-side funding); to anticipate the potential equity effects of different ways of giving public funds For private operation; and To consider the feasibility of implementing educational PPPs in developing countries.To improve educational outcomes of children: Private schooling is growing in manydeveloping countries, including among the poor. Part of the reason for this seems to be that publicschools are performing poorly, with high teacher absence rates, lack of teaching activity and low pupilachievement levels. Yet, the spread of private schooling exacerbates social inequality since the poorare necessarily excluded when private schools are not publicly funded. If fee-charging private schoolsincreasingly attract households; it suggests that parents perceive them to be operating with somecompetitive advantages relative to public schools. The nature of these advantages suggests how theprivate sector can be utilized to improve educational outcomes of children. The main avowedadvantage of publicly funded but privately operated education is that it harnesses the expertise,energy and financial and management skills of the private sector to give better value for taxpayers’money. Proponents argue that PPPs provide a more flexible way of producing. Education remains theGovernment’s responsibility, but the provision of schooling needs not be Public. In fact, there areseveral ways that Government can ensure schooling, but not provide it. Publicly-financed, privately-provided education is one such option. Private management of public institutions is another. Inaddition, there are several mechanisms of private finance involvement in the education system.Contracting is used to deliver public services of many kinds in most countries. Public-privatepartnerships in education are often proposed in order to correct for inefficiencies in the publicdelivery, the issue is becoming clearer given the recent increase in impact evaluation studies. While theevidence base is small, it is nevertheless growing.
Two types of PPPs combine private operation / public funding 1. direct aid to private schools (supply-side funding) 2. school vouchers to parents (demand-side funding)Benefits of private public partnership in primary educationPrivate providers are playing an increasingly important role in education: Private participation ineducation has increased dramatically over the last two decades across the world, serving all types ofcommunities—from high-income to low-income families. Although governments remain the mainfinanciers of education (at least of primary and secondary education), in many countries private agentsdeliver a sizable share of education (table 1). A number of governments contract with the private Sectorto provide some of the services involved in producing education, such as teacher training, management,or curriculum design. Other government‘s contract with a private organization to manage and operate apublic school, as is the case with charter and concession schools. Still other contracts require privateorganizations to provide education to a specific c group of students by means of a subsidy, a contract, oravouched.There are ways in which the public and private sectors can join together to complement each other‘sstrengths in providing education services, helping countries to meet their education goals and to improvelearning outcomes (Patrons et al. 2009). These Partnerships can be tailored and targeted to meet theneeds of specific communities like, Mid-day meal given on a daily basis (both in morning & afternoon shifts). Health check up held twice a year. We do maintain Health Charts for the children. All the major festivals and events in the Calendar are celebrated by our school throughout the year. Uniforms, books & stationeries, woolens, new clothes for puja, special treats etc. are provided to the children. Children are encouraged to participate in Inter School Art and Sports competitions. Private schooling growing rapidly If private schools attract HHs, they must operate with some competitive advantages It‘s the nature of these advantages that shapes views about how the private sector can be most effectively used Challenge for policy – how to harness the efficiency / accountability of private schools to create better outcomes PPPs are avowedly one way of doing that Efforts of government towards primary education Poor children are less likely to attend school…Low levels of enrollment and completion is concentrated not only in certain regions but also among certain segments of the population. In every country completion rates are lowest for children from poor households. In Western and Central Africa, the median grade completed by the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution is zero,
because less than half of poor children complete even the first year of school. The education income gap also exacerbates gender disparities. In India,Various types of pre primary schools are available in India and more children are now attending pre-school (NIPCCD, 2006) indicating an increase in demand for education at this stage. This overallincrease raises questions such as whether this demand has increased everywhere. Are all childrenattending pre-schools if they are available? Which types of preschools do children belonging to differentsocio-economic groups attend?.Pre-school Education and ExclusionResearch suggests that pre-primary education is very important for the development of young childrenbefore they enter formal school (Kaul, 2002). It helps in cognitive development of children at the earlygrades of primary education and it has strong bearing on attendance and participation of children oncethey enter primary school .Pre-primary education is considered to be very important for the child as it isthe first step towards entering the world of knowledge as wells a healthy and purposeful life. Pre-primary education helps children become more independent and confident as well as promotingthe all round development of the children (Ramachandranetal.,2003).Children who have been to pre-primary schools tend to learn more rapidly through inorganic edcurriculum, learning aids and byinteracting with other children. The main purpose of pre-primary education is to prepare childrenphysically, emotionally, socially and mentally for formal schooling and to prevent poor performance andearly drop out. It also helps older children, particularly girls, to attend their schools making them freefrom responsibility of sibling care.Pre primary education is necessary for all children: Thus it can be said that pre primaryeducation is necessary for all children of 3-6 years old irrespective of their socio-economic background(Covina and Bandyopadhyay, 2008). With increasing numbers of nuclear families and a lack of familysupport, pre primary school education is gaining importance Availability of quality pre primaryeducation will promote inclusive education and meaningful access to school education by increasingenrolment and reducing the vulnerability of children to failure and drop out at later stages of education.Children belonging to marginalized groups in society, particularly girls, depend on public preprimaryschools, whereas those belonging to higher socio-economic groups are more likely to attending privateschools. Since education of children between 3-6 years old is not fundamental right, it is not legallymandated. Because of this preschool education is suffering from inadequate coverage and poor qualitybenefiting very few children. However, it is an important constitutional.The evidence: The existing evidence from around the world shows that the correlation betweenprivate provision of education and indicators of education quality is positive, which suggests that theprivate sector can deliver high-quality education at a low cost. Using data from the OECD‘sprogrammed for International Student Assessment, Woessmann (2005) showed that publicly operatedschools deliver lower test scores than privately operated schools, but publicly funded private schools areassociated with higher academic achievement than publicly operated institutions. Therefore, partnerships
in which the private sector is the operator and the public sector is the financier have the potential toincrease enrollment while keeping the education budget in check.The public-private partnership continuum: The PPP continuum depicts the main forms ofpublicly funded and privately provided education across the world. It ranges from systems where allprovision is strictly public to systems where it is largely publicly funded and privately provided. Thisconceptual framework helps to identify the extent of a country‘s engagement in PPPs in education. Thecontinuum assumes that the responsibility for funding largely remains with the public sector.Public-private partnerships that bring alternative operators into the educationsystem: Involving private organizations in activities beyond providing education services has expandedthe education market and produced new forms of public-private engagement. Outsourcing education-related services is justified because private expertise and education innovations can add value to publiceducation, but there are two more advantages to contracting external providers to support differentaspects of the operation of public schools. First, competition between multiple providers can improvethe quality of the services that they provide and can reduce costs. Second, economies of scale can resultwhen contractors service multiple schools.Understanding Public-Private Partnerships In EducationThe main rationale for developing public private partnerships (PPPs) in education is to maximize thepotential for expanding equitable access to schooling and for improving education outcomes, especiallyfor marginalized groups. In this chapter, we show how different types of contracts can help meet thesetwo objectives in different socioeconomic and political contexts. Specifically, we examine how contractsare used to hold all partners accountable and how contracts are designed to produce measurableimprovements in education outcomes or performance. The analysis considers contracting as a distinctinstrument from any other education accountability mechanisms. We define contracting as the processwhereby a government procures education or education-related services of a defined quantity andquality at an agreed price from a specific provider. The agreement between the funder and the serviceprovider is recorded in a contract and is valid for a specified period of time (Taylor 2003; Wang 2000).Many forms of contracting are currently used in education around the world. A range of differentservices can be procured from the private sector in following table 1. Table 1 What governments contract for What governments buy School management (financial and Management, professional, support services human resources management) (input) Support services (meals and transportation) Professional services (teacher training, curriculum design, textbook delivery, quality assurance, and supplemental services) Operational services (process) The education of students, financial and human resources management, professional services, and building maintenance Education services (outputs) Student places in private schools (by contracting with schools to enroll specific students Facility availability (inputs) Infrastructure and building maintenance
Facility availability and education Infrastructure combined with services services (both inputs and outputs) (operational or educational outputs Source: Adapted from World Bank 2011Private providers are playing an increasingly important role in educationPrivate participation in education has increased dramatically over the last two decades across the world,serving all types of communities—from high-income to low income families. Although governmentsremain the main financiers of education (at least of primary and secondary education), in many countriesprivate agents deliver a sizable share of education. The role of private players is as follows, To build school infrastructure: Public-private partnerships are also being used to build school infrastructure. PPPs are a useful way to increase the funding available for constructing or upgrading school buildings and often yield better value for money than traditional public sector investments. In such partnerships, the government usually contracts a private company to build and/or maintain school buildings on a long-term basis, typically 25 to 30 years. As education provider: Some countries make a sharp distinction between the role of the public sector as education financier and that of the private sector as education provider. For instance, in the Netherlands, all education is publicly financed, including private schools, which enroll more than two thirds of all students. In other countries, the private sector plays an important role in providing education, But the government only subsidizes some of the students who attend private schools (for example, Chile). To provide supplemental academic services: The governments of many developed countries have found a range of different ways to leverage the capacity and expertise of the private sector to provide education. The number of private companies providing supplemental academic services (academic tutoring) increased by 90 percent in just one year, between 2003 and 2004. This sharp increase was partly driven by the 45percent. By Financing Either School Inputs: In several developing countries, governments subsidize private schools, mostly operated by faith-based nonprofit organizations, by financing either school inputs, such as teacher salaries and textbooks, or per pupil grants. Although schools managed by faith-based organizations and local communities are often not considered to be strictly private. To delivering education to low-income families: Private education providers are also playing an increasingly important role in delivering education to low-income families. They include a range of school operators including faith-based organizations, local communities, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and private for-profit and not-for-profit schools. To provide education quality and efficiency: In low-income countries that are making progress, some key principles appear to have guided education policymakers in defining strategies and choosing interventions of Public-Private Partnerships.Public private partnership has shown a tremendous growth in literacy throughout the nation. Here followingdata related to literacy rate before and after introduction of PPP in basic education sector are presented inTable no.2. Table-2
PPPs can create competition in the education market: The private sector can compete for studentswith the public sector. In turn, the public sector has an incentive to react to this competition byincreasing the quality of the education that it provides.PPP contracts can be more flexible than most public sector arrangements: Generally,The public sector has less autonomy in hiring teachers and organizing schools than the private sectordoes. Public-private contracts can be a better fit between the supply of and demand for education.Flexibility in teacher contracting is one of the primary motivations for PPPs.Governments can choose private providers in PPP contracts: The contracts often include measurableoutcomes and clauses that specify the condition to deliver a certain quality of education, and thecontractor with the best or lowest cost proposal is then chosen. This one characteristic of the contractalone can raise the quality of education.To improve Basic education pattern: the private sector‘s role in education can have several potentialadvantages over the traditional public delivery of education. Whether these benefits are actually realizeddepends greatly on how well designed the partnership between the public and private sector is, on theregulatory framework of the country, and on the capacity of the government to oversee and enforce itscontracts and partnerships with the private sector.The arguments against public-private partnershipsTo reduce the government’s control: PPPs will lead to the privatization of education and thus willreduce the government‘s control over a public service.Increase socioeconomic segregation: Increasing the educational choices available to students and theirfamilies may increase socioeconomic segregation I better prepared students end up self selecting intohigh-quality schools, thus further improving their outcomes.Will lose the support of more educated parents: PPPs will lead to poorer students being left behind inthe deteriorating public schools that lose the support of more educated parents.Suggestions to Improve Primary EducationPrimary education is the first stage of mandated school attendance. We often refer to this periods theelementary or grammar school years, from grades one to five. Students develop writing and numbersskills during this time, and theyre introduced to basic sciences and humanities. Primary education is thefoundation for lifelong learning. Educators can take deliberate steps to improve this base, with the goalof enhancing student achievement.There are some suggestions to improve the primary education:-Plan Effectively: Planning is critical to masterful learning. Effective planning includes clearlydefined objectives and expected outcomes. Instruction is delivered in a logical and sequentialmanner. Plus, all materials required to complete assignments are readily available.
Engage Students: there are various learning styles in each classroom, and teachers can engage studentsby designing activities that appeal to individual strengths.Manage Behavior: When teachers have to stop and redirect students for misbehavior, qualityinstructional time is wasted. This can be minimized by establishing high expectations for classroomoperation. Also, implementing a reward program is a good idea to reinforce desirable behavior.Research suggests that students are more likely to follow rules they help create. Teachers should serveas models of desired behavior and assist students in resolving conflict.Include Parents: Experts believe that collaboration between home and school can result in improvedstudent academic performance and communication with parents. Schools can foster this relationship byshowing parents how to supplement school work at home. Parents feel empowered when they can helpplan the academic curriculum, and volunteer at the school in meaningful and interesting ways.Be Intentional: Intentional teachers understand child development, so they create materials and aclassroom environment thats age appropriate. They also take into account the various learning styles 0fstudents and differentiate instruction accordingly.Provide new technologyas technology is embraced by more people; educators are exploring different ways to use it in theirclassrooms. If you teach in a primary school, there are several ways that you can incorporate technologyinto your lesson plans. When introducing technology in an assignment for the first time, be sure toprepare in advance.There are some new technologies.
Classroom Chores: Primary school students are often eager to help in the classroom. You can usetechnology to help organize the chores your students complete and to help ensure that every student getshis turn at both the "good" chores and the "bad" chores. Develop a class web page--you can use a wiki--on which you create a table.Grading and Attendance: You can also use technology to help organize daily tasks such as attendanceand grading. Use spreadsheet software. Create a new spreadsheet with a new page for each subject thatyoure teaching. Put students names in the first column and the name of the test/quiz in the first row. Asyour students complete each exam, put the grade in the corresponding cell.Blogs: On a blog, the administrator (teacher) posts an entry to which users (students) respond in thecomment field. A blog is a great platform to use for question-and-answer assignments and for foreignlanguage assignments. For example, you can post chapter questions about a book the class is reading.Students are responsible for responding to both your question and to each others comments.Collaborative Writing in Wiki: Collaborative writing assignments at the primary level are a great wayfor students to learn how to work cooperatively, divide work, peer edit and complete a task--as a team--on time. Wiki web sites can make this collaborative writing process much more interesting. A wiki is aweb site that users can edit without knowing any sophisticated programming language.Online Videos: The National Teacher Training Institute asserts that video can be an efficient tool to usein the classroom. Videos help students retain more information and understand difficult concept in lesstime. There are several ways you can use video. If youre teaching a social studies class, youll find awealth of video segments on the PBS web site that have been pre-selected to align with state standardsand curricula.ConclusionsThis report has undertaken a review of the international experience with PPPs at the Basic Educationlevel. These examples have been drawn from a wide range of both developed and developing countries.Several forms of PPP have been highlighted, including private philanthropic initiatives, private sectormanagement initiatives, and private School funding programs,(e.g. subsidies and vouchers), adopt-a-school programs and school infrastructure partnerships. Private participation in education – andparticularly Basic Education – remains controversial in many countries. Despite this, the number (anddiversity) of PPPs at the Basic Education level is growing. ‗Traditional‘ private philanthropic PPPscontinue to play a significant role in financing education in many countries. More recently, manycountries have introduced more sophisticated funding-based PPPs that involve government finance, butprivate sector delivery, of education services.The efforts of private schools to improve the quality of their education should be supported, andgovernments should therefore consider adding capacity building components to voucher programs.Some private schools may lack the capacity to improve education quality because of unqualifiedteachers, a shortage of resources to enhance materials and textbooks, and inadequate knowledge ofeffective teaching techniques and management processes. Some of the support that has been given toprivate schools to overcome this problem includes facilitating their access to capital and arrangingpreferential loans to improve infrastructure and buy other critical inputs, as in the case of Mauritius.Theory suggests that PPPs can increase access and improve quality in education in a number of ways: By allowing school choice by putting competitive pressure on private schools to remain in the market,
by making school operations more fl edible, by setting quality-driven output specific cations,and By ensuring an optimal level of risk sharing between the public and private sector.Proponents of PPPs in education often claim cost-effectiveness, equity, superior performance and costsavings. To date, the record on impact is relatively scarce. Worldwide attention to the issue is increasingand we are getting more results. While ideology continues to play a role in the various debates, the issueis becoming clearer given the recent increase in impact evaluation studies. While the evidence base issmall, it is nevertheless growing. While there are different types of PPPs, or contracting arrangements,in education; few have been subject to rigorous evaluation. In the case of Latin America, the onlyinnovative PPP experience with a randomized experiment is the case of secondary school vouchers inColombia. In that case the randomization was the result of oversubscription to the program, forcing theadministrators of the program to use a lottery to assign limited places. In this paper, it has been shownthat due to various policy and programmed interventions has made great strides in enrolment of childrenin school. Unfortunately, the efforts made so far, have not been able, and do not appear capable, toenroll ALL school-aged children. A complementary education programmed appears able to supplementefforts made through the formal school system. For such a system to be adopted, however will requirestrong government commitment, backed by a strategic vision and policy framework for the educationsector that has the support of other key ministries like Finance, Local Government, and Women andChildren‘s Affairs. It also calls for the establishment of inclusive, effective partnerships, domestic andinternational, which will help to build a strong constituency for education. Expansion of complementaryeducation calls for reallocation of existing resources or mobilization of additional resources.References Allcott, H. and D.E. Ortega. 2006. ―The Performance of Decentralized School Systems: Evidence from Fe y Algeria in Venezuela.‖ Angrist, J., E. Bettinger, E. Bloom, E. King, and M. Kremer. 2002. ―Vouchers for Private Schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment.‖ Ahlin, A. (2003) ‗Does School Competition Matter? Effects of a Large-scale School Choice Reform On Student Performance. Akabayashi, H. and Arabia, H. (2011) ‗Do Education Vouchers Prevent Dropout at Private High Schools? Evidence from Japanese Policy Changes‘, Journal of the Japanese and International Economies (forthcoming).
Andersen, S.C. (2005) Selection and competition effects in a large-scale school voucher system.University of Durham, UK.Angrist, J.D. and Imbens, G.W. (1995) ‗Two-Stage Least Squares Estimation of Average CausalEffects in Models with Variable Treatment Intensity‘, Journal of the American StatisticalAssociationAngrist, J.D., Dynarski, S.M., Kane, T.J., Pathak, P.A. and Walters, C.R. (2010) ‗Inputs andImpacts in Charter Schools: KIPP Lynn.‘ American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings100(2): 1–5.Angrist, J.D., Bettinger, E., Bloom, E., King, E. and Kremer, M. (2002) ‗Vouchers for PrivateSchooling in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment‘, American EconomicReview