• Congenital syphilis is syphilis present in utero and at birth,
and occurs when a child is born to a mother with secondary
• If a pregnant mother is identified as being infected with
syphilis, treatment can effectively prevent congenital syphilis
from developing in the unborn child, especially if she is
treated before the sixteenth week of pregnancy
• Result in Still birth / congenital syphilis / normal child
• A woman in the secondary stage of syphilis decreases her
child's risk of developing congenital syphilis by 98% if she
receives treatment before the last month of pregnancy.
• An affected child can be treated using antibiotics much like an
adult; however, any developmental symptoms are likely to be
Recurrent Aphthous stomatitis
• also termed canker sores, recurrent aphthous
stomatitis, RAS, recurring oral aphthae and recurrent
• repeated formation of ulcers in the mouth
• The cause is not entirely clear, but is thought
to be multifactorial
• Multiple research studies have attempted to
identify a causative organism
• Genetic History
• Iron, Vitamin B, Folic Acid deficiency
• Recurrent Aphthous minor
• Recurrent Aphthous major
• Recurrent Herpetiform ulceration
• Associated with Behcet’s syndrome
Clinical Features , Mikulicz ulcers
• They occur mainly in persons 10-40 years of age.
• They often cause pain and inability to eat .
• They are small round or ovoid ulcers 2-4 mm in diameter
• Ulcer floor that is yellowish but assumes a gray hue.
• Surrounded by an erythematous halo and some edema.
• They are found mainly on the nonkeratinized mobile mucosa.
• They occur in groups of only a few ulcers (ie, 1-6) at a time.
• They heal in 7-10 days.
• They leave little or no evidence of scarring.
• They are larger, of longer duration, of more frequent
recurrence, and often more painful.
• They are round or ovoid like MiAUs but are larger
• They reach a large size, usually about 1 cm or more
• They are found on any area of the oral mucosa
• They occur in groups of only a few ulcers (ie, 1-6)
• They heal slowly over 10-40 days.
• They recur extremely frequently.
• They may heal with scarring.
Herpetiform ulceration (HU)
• They are found in a slightly older age group, in females
• They begins with vesiculation that passes rapidly into
multiple, minute, pinhead-sized, discrete ulcers.
• They involve any oral site, including the keratinized
mucosa, increase in size, and coalesce to leave large
round ragged ulcers.
• They heal in 10 days or longer.
• They are often extremely painful.
• They recur so frequently that ulceration may be
• Turkish dermatologist Hulusi Behçet, 1937
• a syndrome of recurrent aphthous ulcers, genital ulcerations,
and uveitis leading to blindness.
• Etiology is proposed to be an infectious trigger, with
inflammatory mediators and immune deregulation
• HLA B 51
• Environmental Factors
• In 1990, the International Study Group (ISG) for Behçet's
Disease clarified criteria for the diagnosis of Behçet disease
• Recurrent painful genital ulcers that heal with scarring
• Ophthalmic lesions, including anterior or posterior uveitis,
hypopyon, or retinal vasculitis
• Skin lesions, including erythema nodosum–like lesions,
pseudofolliculitis, or papulopustular or acneiform lesions
• Painful oral lesions
• (aphthous or herpetiform)
• high recurrence rate
• multiple lesions or crops
• commonly found in
• keratinized areas
• lesions often occur in the genital region of
• In males, scrotal, penile shaft.
• In females, the labial area, vagina and on the
• Acneiform papulopustular lesions
• anterior or posterior uveitis, hypopyon
• Symptoms commonly include blurred vision,
periorbital pain, photophobia, and excessive
• Highly recurrent posterior uveitis can lead to
• Leukocytosis with eosinophilia
• CRP, C9, C3 and C4 may be elevated
• No specific treatment
• May spontaneously resolve or lead to death
• characterized by a triad of balanitis, urethritis,
and conjunctivitis, and by lesions of the skin
and mucosal surfaces.
• Infectious origin ??
• Mimics Gonorrhea
• Considered to be an immunodysregulated
• HLA B27
• Urethritis is a common condition of Reiter's.
This involves inflammation of the urethra
• Arthritis - experience swelling and tenderness
• conjunctivitis may develop.
• Skin lesions appear as small, painless sores
on the head of the penis, roof of the mouth or