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Interior design
 

Interior design

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interior design

interior design

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    Interior design Interior design Document Transcript

    • Interior designA Brief History of interior DesignCredit for the birth of interior design is most often given to the ancient Egyptians, who decorated theirhumble mud huts with simple furniture enhanced by animal skin or textiles, as well as murals, sculptures,and painted vases. Beautiful gold ornaments found in Egyptian tombs reveled the importance of morelavish decoration for wealthier and powerful Egyptians.The roman and Greek civilizations built upon the Egyptian art of interior decorating and accessorizing.Both cultures celebrated civic pride through their development of domed-roof public buildings. In thehome, elaborate Greek wooden furniture had ivory and silver ornamentation. The Romans placed specialemphasis on combing beauty and comfort and home interiors reflected wealth and status. Roman furnituremade of stone, wood, or bronze was accented by cushions and tapestries. Both the Romans and Greeksused vases, mosic floors, and wall paintings or frescoes to beautify interior spaces.From this period of splendor and ornamentation, there was a sudden movement to austerity, brought onby the constant wars of medieval Europe and the rise of the Christian church. The dark ages were a timeof somber wood paneling, minimal furniture, and stone-slab floors. Even the wealthier individuals of thetime, who added decorative touches like wall fabrics and stone carvings, stuck to muted colors and simpletextiles. Coming out of the dark ages, Europeans once again introduced color and ornamentation to theirhomes. In the 12th century, the creative gothic style was noted for its use of open interiors and windows tocapture natural light.In the 15th and 16th centuries, the French renaissance led to a renewed focus on art and beauty in interiordesign. Architects created spaces with elaborate decorative elements such as marble floors, inlaidwoodwork, paintings, and furniture made of the finest woods. The best examples of renaissance interiordesign are found in the royal places, villas, and chapels of Europe.Following the renaissance the ornate Italian baroque style became popular throughout Europe. Asexemplified in the France, baroque made use of such interior design elements as colored marble, stainedglass, painted ceilings, in the mid-18th century, European interior designers began favoring the rococostyle, showing particular appreciation for asian porcelain, flower designs, and furniture inlaid with elegantmaterials like mother-of-pearl and tortoise shell. The late classical design of ancient Rome, made heavyuse of ronze, silk, stain, and velvet.BY RAVINDRA Page 1
    • Interior designFrom the early 1800s on however, in Europe and America, a trends more freedom and eclecticism ininterior design. Over the next two centuries, a number of innovative and modern interior design styleswould come and go into fashion, including Art Deco, Art Nouveau, the minimalist look, and the industrialBauhaus style another 19th century trend was the popularization of interior design. While once reservedfor royal palaces or the homes of wealthy citizens, interior design in the 1800s began to reach the masses.By the 20th century, the near-universal presence of home appliances such as stoves, washing machines,television, and telephones produced a new challenge for interior designers, who had to plan spaces notonly for aesthetic purposes, but also for functionality. The field of interior design has come long wayfrom the mud and rick days of the ancient Egyptians. Designers today have access to both man-made andsynthetic materials, and they can draw upon the influences of past generations while also continuallystriving to create new design trendsInterior designInterior design is multi-faced profession in which creative and technical solutions are appliedwithin a structure to achieve a built interior environment and home enhancement.The interior design process follows a systematic and coordinated methodology, includingresearch analysis, and integration of knowledge into the creative process, whereby the needs andresource of the client are satisfied to produce an interior space that fulfils the project goals.Interior designers ‘job is to improve the function, safety and beauty of building’ interiors. Peoplein the industry might help design the interiors of homes, or they might work on offices, schools,airports or other public buildings. In the past, interior designers focused mainly on decoratinginterior spaces, but now many of them are involved in architectural details. Some designers evenhelp plan the layouts of buildings that are being revamped.Design firms, residential construction companies and other business employ interior designers,but more than a quarter of interior designers is self-employed. To succeed as an interior designer,BY RAVINDRA Page 2
    • Interior designyou need to have a strong sense of aesthetics. You also need business skills, strongcommunications abilities and time-management and problem-solving skills.In many locations, you must fulfill specific requirements to call yourself an interior designer,requirements typically include a certain number of year of education, hands-on experience andpassing a competency exam. The council for interior design accreditation publishes a list ofaccredited educational programs online. People in the industry also need to gain work experiencethrough a mentoring program or internship. After you’ve finished school and gotten some full-time experience, the national council for interior design qualification offers a certification exam.In addition, some states and provinces have licensing requirements.Working conditionsThere are a wide range of working conditions and employment opportunities within interiordesign. Large and tiny corporations often hire interior designers as employee on regular workinghours. Designers for smaller firms usually work on a content or per-job basis. Self-employeddesigners, which make up 26% of interior designers, usually work the most hours. Interiordesigners often work under stress to meet deadlines, say on budget, and meet clients needs. Insome cases, lincensed review and signature varies by locality, relevant legislation, and scope ofwork. Their work and sign it before submitting the design for approval by clients or constructionpermisonong. The need for licensed review and signature varies by locality, relevant legislation,however with technology development; the process of contacting clients and communicatingdesign alternatives has become easier and requires less travel. They also renovate a space tospecify taste for a client.EarningsInterior design earnings very based on employer, number of years with experience, and thereputation of the individuals. For residential projects, self-employed interior designers usuallyearn a per-hour fee plus a percentage of the total cost of furniture, lighting, artwork, and otherdesign elements. For commercial projects, they may charge per-hour fees, or a flat fee for theBY RAVINDRA Page 3
    • Interior designwhole project. The median annual earning for wage and salary interior designers, in the year2006, was $42,260. The middle 50% earned between $31830 and $57230. The lowest 10 percentearned less than $24270, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $78760. For example, if aperson opens a business and decides to specialize in furniture design and flooring, they will getonly clients focusing on these topics rather than a variety of every type of issue that comes withdesigning a home.Interior stylesA style, or theme, is a consistent idea used throughout a room to create a feeling oscompleteness. Styles are nit to be confused with design concepts, or the higher-level party, whichinvolve a deeper understanding of the architectural context, the socio-cultural and theprogrammatic requirements of the client. These themes often follow period styles. Examples ofthis are Louis XV, Louis XVI, Victorian, Islamic, Fengshui, international, mid-century modern,minimalist, English Georgian, gothic, Indian mughal, Art deco. And many more.The evolution of interior decoration themes has now grown to include themes not necessarilyconsistent with a specific period style allowing the mixing of pieces from different periods. Eachelement should contribute to from, function, or both and maintain a consistent standard of qualityand combine to create the desired design. A designer develops a home architecture and interiordesign for a customer that has a style and theme that the prospective owner likes and mentallyconnects to. For the last 10 years, decorators, designers, and architects have been re-discoveringthe unique furniture that was developed post-war of the 1950s and the 1960s from new materialthat were developed for military applications. Some of the trendsetters include Charles and rayEames, knoll and Herman miller. Themes in home design are usually not overused, but serve asguideline for designing.Excerpt from interior design services industry profileBY RAVINDRA Page 4
    • Interior designThe US interior industry include about 10000 companies with combined annual revenue of about$8billion. Major companies include units of architecture and design firms such as gensler, HOK,and perkins+will. The industry is highly fragmented: the 50 largest firms account for about 10percent of revenue.Competitive landscapeConstructing and renovating residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional building drivedemand for interior design services. The profitability of individual companies depends onaccurate bidding, timely delivery, and steady volume of projects. Large companies haveadvantage in marketing, developing partnerships, building a large client referral list, and gettingpriority services, specializing, and using unique or custom product sources.Competitors include suppliers and consumers. Suppliers compete by expanding their services toinclude interior design; consumers compete by establishing their own independent businesses,typically a home-based operation focusing on interior decorating.Products, operations and technologyMajor services of interior designers are selling products as part of an integrated design service,providing fee-based consulting services, and managing subcontractors. Full services interiordesign services account for about 75 percent of industry revenue; resale of merchandise,15percent.Homeowners, businesses, and government entities engage interior designers to plan, design, andsupervise physical and aesthetic projects for interiors of buildings. Clients may hire interiordecorators, who are part of this industry, to consult solely on the aesthetics of interior spaces,not….BY RAVINDRA Page 5
    • Interior designJob outlookEmployment of interior designers is expected to grow about as fast as average for all occupationsthrough 2014. Economy expansion, growing homeowner wealth, and an increased interest ininterior design will increase demand for designers. However, interior designers are expected toface keen completion for available positions because many talented individuals are attracted tothis profession. Individuals with little or no formal training in interior design, as well as thoselacking creativity and perseverance, will find it very difficult to establish and maintain a career inthis occupation. As the economy grows, more private businesses and consumers will request theservices of interior designers. However, design services are considered a luxury expenses andmay be subject to fluctuations in the economy. For example, decreases in consumer and businessincome and spending caused by a slow economy can have a detrimental effect in employment ofinterior designers.Nevertheless, demand from the health care industry is expected to e especially high because ofan anticipated increase in demand for facilities that will accommodate the aging population.Designers will e needed to make these facilities as homelike as possible for patients. Demandfrom business in the hospitality industry, hotels, resorts, and restaurants also is expected to behigh because of an expected increase in tourism. Recent increases in homeowner wealth and thegrowth popularity of home improvement television programs have increased demand forresidential design services. Homeowners increasingly have been using the equity in their homesto finance new additions, remodel aging kitchens and bathrooms, and update the general dAcorof the home. Many homeowners also have requested design help in adding year-round outdoorliving spaces. Growth in home improvement television programs and discount furniture storeshas spurred a trend in do-it-yourself design, which could hamper employment growth ofdesigners. However, some clients will still hire designers for a few initial consultations, but thenwill purchase and install the design elements themselves.Some interior designers are choosing to specialize in one design element in order to create a niche forthemselves in an increasingly competitive market. The demand for kitchen and bath design is growing inresponse to the increasing demand for remodeling. Designing utilizing the latest technology, such asBY RAVINDRA Page 6
    • Interior designhome theaters, state-of-the-art conference facilities, and security systems are expected to be especiallypopular. In addition, demand for homes spas, indoor gardens, and green designs are expected to be indemand. Ergonomic design has gained in popularity with the growth in the quality and the growingnumber of individuals with allergies and asthma are expected to increase the demand or green design.Job NatureInterior designers draw upon many disciplines to enhance the function, safety, and aesthetics of interiorspaces. Interior designers are concerned with how different colors, textures, furniture, lighting, and spaceswork together to meet the needs of buildings occupants. Designers are involved in planning the interiorspaces of almost all buildings, offices, airport terminals, theaters, shopping malls, restaurants, hotels,schools, hospitals, and private residences. Designers help to improve these spaces in order to boost officeproductivity, increase sales, attract a more affluent clientele, provide a more relaxing hospital stay, orincrease the building’s market value. Traditionally, must interior designers focused on decoratingchoosing a style and color palette and then selecting appropriate furniture, floor and window coverings,artwork, and lighting. However, an increasing number of designers are becoming more involved indesigning architectural detailing, such as crown molding and uilt-in bookshelves, or planning layouts ofbuildings undergoing renovation, including helping to determine the location of windows, stairways,escalators, and walkways.Interior designers must be able to read blueprints, understand building and fire codes, and know hoe tomake the space accessible to the disabled. Designers frequently collaborate with architects, electricians,and building contractors to ensure that their designs are safe and meet construction requirements. Despitethe varied building spaces interior designers work with, almost all projects follow the same designprocess. The fist step in developing a new design is to meet face to face with the client in order to find outhow the spaces will be used and to get an idea of the clients design preferences and budget. For example,the designers might inquire about a family’s cooking habits if the family is remodeling a kitchen or askabout a store or restaurant’s target customer in order to pick an appropriate design. The designer also willvisit the spaces and take inventory of the exisisting furniture and equipment as well as identify the anypotential design problems and the positive attributes of the space.Following the initial meeting with the clients, the designers will formulate a design plan and estimate thecosts on the basis of the clients goal and budget. Today, designs often are created with use of computer-BY RAVINDRA Page 7
    • Interior designaided design (CAD), which provides a more detailed layout and also allows for easier correction thansketches made by hand. Once the designers has completed the proposed design, he or she will present it tothe client and make revision on the basis of client’s input.Following the initial meeting with client, the designer will begin specifying the materials, finishes, andfurnishing required, such as furniture, lighting, flooring, wall covering, and artwork. In addition,depending on the complexity of the project, the designers will need to prepare drawings and submit themfor architectural review and approval by a construction inspector to ensure that the design meets allapplicable building codes. If a project requires any structural work, the designer will need to work with anarchitect or engineer for the part of the project.Most designs also will require the hiring of contractors to do such technical work as lighting, plumbing,or electrical wiring. When necessary, the designer will choose qualified contractors and write up workcontracts. Finally, the designers will develop a timeline for the project and ensure that it is completed ontime, including coordinating the work schedules of contractors if necessary corrections.Designers who work as in-store designers for future or home and garden stores offer their design servicesin addition to selling the store’s merchandise. In-store designers provide services similar to those offeredby other interior designers, such as selecting a style and color scheme that fits the client’s needsor findingsuitable accessories and lighting. However, in-store designers rarely visit their clients’ spaces and arelimited in using only a particular store’s products. Interior designers sometimes supervise assistants whocarry out their creations and perform administrative tasks, such as reviewing catalogues and orderingsamples. Designers who run their own business also may devote a considerable amount of time meetingwith clients and contractors, developing new business contracts, examining equipment and space needs,and attending to business matters. Although most interior designers do many kinds of projects, somespecialize in one area of interior design.Some specialize in the type of building space, usually residential or commercial, while others specializein a certain design elements or type of clients, such as health care facilities. The most common specialtiesof this kind are lighting, kitchen and bath, and closet designs. However, designers can specialize in almostany area of design, including acoustics and noise abatement, security, electronics and home theaters,home, home spas, and indoor gardens. Three areas of design that are becoming increasingly popular areergonomic design, elder design, and environmental or green, design. Ergonomics design involvesdesigning work spaces and furniture that emphasize good posture and minimize muscles strain on theBY RAVINDRA Page 8
    • Interior designbody. Elder design involves planning interior space to aid in the movement of the elderly and disabled,such as widening passageways to communicate wheelchairs. Green design involves selecting furnitureand carpets that are free of chemicals and hypo allergic and selecting construction materials that areenergy efficient or are made from renewable resources.BY RAVINDRA Page 9