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Environmental Biotechnology
 

Environmental Biotechnology

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Biotechnology is an indigenous wave of innovation. This enhances the quality of the environment by protecting the natural resources. It plays key role for sustainable agriculture.

Biotechnology is an indigenous wave of innovation. This enhances the quality of the environment by protecting the natural resources. It plays key role for sustainable agriculture.

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    Environmental Biotechnology Environmental Biotechnology Presentation Transcript

    • “ ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY” AN INDIGENOUS WAVE OF INNOVATION Presented By RAVI DHANDE Lecturer Shri Shivaji Science College, Akot
    • Biosensors
      • Biological Recognition Elements
      • Catalytical groups - enzymes, microbes, plant & mammalian tissue
      • Non-catalytical groups (Affinity class)- antibodies, receptors and nucleic acids
      • Enzyme sensors
      • Glucose oxidase in glucose sensor with Pt. electrode
      • Urease in urea sensor with ammonia electrode
      • Penicillinase with pH probe electrode in penicillinase sensor
    • Microbial sensors
      • Immobilized bacterial cells- Advantage over Enzyme sensors, shows multienzyme complexes
      • Trichosporon brassicae (Yeast) with O2 electrode- for Acetic acid determination
      • Hansenula anomala (Yeast) with O2 electrode- based sensor for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, ethanol determination
      • Microbes involved in microbial sensors-
      • Brevibacterium, Lactofermentum, Pseudomonas
      • BOD sensor
      • To measure organic pollution
      • Immobilized Yeast- T. cutaneum attached with oxy. Probe Pt. electrode
    • Immunosensor
      • Constructed using- Antibodies / Antigens immobilized on optical electrodes.
      • Fabricating arrays of antibodies organized on disposable chip.
      • E.g. Creatine Kinase M (CK-M) antibodies for detection of cardio-specific co-enzymes.
      • Microchips and Bioreporter
      • To know global gene expression.
      • For microbial detection, identification & characterization in natural environment.
    • Biological waste gas purification system
      • Biofilters and Bioscrubber
      • -for gas contaminant consortia degradation
      • W ater contaminant consortia degradation
      • Anaerobic digestion –the most suitable option for the treatment of high strength organic effluents.
      • -Reduces the BOD
      • -Reduces the toxicity of industrial effluents
      • -It lowers the capital cost
      • -Controls odour
      • -Removes colors
      • Bioreactors
      • Fixed film bioreactor
      • Rotating bioreactor
      • Sequential bioreactor
    • Developing microbes for degradation of Xenobiotics
      •       -  Manipulation of a specific catabolic pathway.
      •         - DNA Shuffling
      •          - Altering protein activity.
      • In vitro recruitment of microbes shows biodegradation of PCP and dioxin like compd.
      • Methanotrophic bacteria -mono-oxygenase-degrades a variety of chlorinated HC.
      • P.Pituda PpG6 –alkane degradation
      • Pseudomonas Sp.- hydroxylase- aromatic HC. (Cyclohexane) degradation.
      • Pseudomonas fluorescence - Naphthalene & salicylate degradation
      • Achronobacter xylosoxidans -Toluene degradation
      • Phenerochaete chrysoporium -Lignine peroxidase-oxidation of phenols, amines, HC & ethers.
    • Biosorption-promising mechanism for accumulation of heavy metals
      • Fungi- Aspergillus niger & Rhizopus arrhizus
      • -for accumulation of Uranium and Thorium
      • Algae- Sargassum natans , Clorella Sp.
      • Bacteria-Pseudomonas and Bacillus subtilis
      • - Shows biosorptive capabilities
      • Phytoremediation
      • Lower cost method for soil remediation.
      • Genes for metal binding proteins are transferred to the plants for tolerance to heavy metals.
      • Toxic metal by only root uptake should not translocate to shoot
      • E.g., transgenic tobacco also shows some translocation of Cd.to shoot
      • Bioleaching – For extraction of metals
    • Lignolytic Enzymes
      • Cellulose degradation-cellulases- Trichoderma viridae, Fusarium solani
      • Cellulose degradation -Cellulosome-multi enzyme complexes- clostridium thermocellum .
      • Hemicellulose degradation – xylanases
      • Lignine degradation – ligninases, Lignine peroxidase, Mn. Peroxidase-white rot fungi
      • Other lignolytic fungi- Fusarium, chaetomium sp. xylaria, mycena, polaria, poria.
      • Directed evolution of enzyme catalysts and enzyme modification - Induction of mutation (without knowledge) and creation of library of mutated genes & its screening for specific characters
    • Making an eco-friendly environment
      • Biopolymers and Bioplastics
      • Non degradable plastic accumulation 25 million tones/year
      • Synthetic polymers-high molecular wt. Compounds
      • Biopolymers and Bioplastics –made from renewable raw material (corn starch)-i.e.Mater -Bi & polyactide are main resins in production of biodegradable plastics.
      • Biofuels(biodiesel)- Plants as a source of HCs.Euphorbia, milkweed(Asclepias), tropical tree-Capaifera.and algae like botryococcus
      • Biofertilizers and Biopesticides
      • Composting (Vermicomposting)
    • BIOTECHNOLOGY,
      • Only
      • The root
      • For the healthy
      • protection of environment.
      • SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT
      • SAVE THE LIVES
    • Thanking You