CARBON RECOVERY FROM SPONGE IRON PLANT DUST

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India is the world's largest Sponge Iron producer and mostly uses the Coal based process. The down-side of this industry is that it generates significant amounts of solid waste in the form of ESP Flyash and Bag House Filter Dust. Now as this Flyash contains considerable unburned carbon ( 10% and above), it cannot be utilized in cement manufacturing. Likewise the Bag Filter dust contains upto 25% unburned carbon and above 70% ash which again doesn't allow it to be reused viably as a fuel. Meanwhile, reducing the carbon content by the Carbon-burnout method is too expensive and polluting just to convert the wastes into usable Flyash.
As a result most of these wastes go into landfill, where they again contribute to ground and water pollution.
Surprisingly there are technologies which can not only effectively convert these wastes into usable items like recovered fuel and low carbon Flyash, but at the same time clean up the environment and save the companies great expenses. Its is called Carbon-Ash Separation and there are several ways of doing the same.

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CARBON RECOVERY FROM SPONGE IRON PLANT DUST

  1. 1. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.comUTILIZING CARBON-ASH SEPARATIONUTILIZING CARBON-ASH SEPARATIONMETHODS TO MANUFACTURE COAL PELLETSMETHODS TO MANUFACTURE COAL PELLETSAND CEMENT GRADE FLY-ASHAND CEMENT GRADE FLY-ASH
  2. 2. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.comIs a Direct Reduction Process of Iron Ore.Is a Direct Reduction Process of Iron Ore. Iron ore is reduced of Oxygen with high temp., & HIron ore is reduced of Oxygen with high temp., & H22+CO gases.+CO gases.Iron Ore is heated to 900° C in a Rotary Kiln.Iron Ore is heated to 900° C in a Rotary Kiln.Heating is accomplished either by burning Coal or Natural Gas.Heating is accomplished either by burning Coal or Natural Gas.Coal based process is more popular in India.Coal based process is more popular in India.First DRI plant became operational in 1952 in Sweden.First DRI plant became operational in 1952 in Sweden.India is the world’s largest producer of DRI.India is the world’s largest producer of DRI.The process generates large volumes of solid waste / Dust.The process generates large volumes of solid waste / Dust.Every Sponge Iron Plant incurs considerable expenses in wasteEvery Sponge Iron Plant incurs considerable expenses in wastecontainment & removal.containment & removal.
  3. 3. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.com Environmentally, Sponge Iron Industry is classified as Red Category.Environmentally, Sponge Iron Industry is classified as Red Category. A unit can produce 5-50 MT of solid waste / dust per day.A unit can produce 5-50 MT of solid waste / dust per day. Process requires several Bag Filters to contain the process dust.Process requires several Bag Filters to contain the process dust. ESPs are used to remove Dust & Fly Ash from Flue gases.ESPs are used to remove Dust & Fly Ash from Flue gases. The Industry generates three kinds of dust:The Industry generates three kinds of dust:i. Raw Material(RM) Dust: Metallic Fines & Coal Fines.i. Raw Material(RM) Dust: Metallic Fines & Coal Fines.ii. Process Dust: High Carbon Bag Filter Dust.ii. Process Dust: High Carbon Bag Filter Dust.iii. ESP Dust : High Carbon Fly Ash.iii. ESP Dust : High Carbon Fly Ash. RM dust are easily pelletized and consumed in the process.RM dust are easily pelletized and consumed in the process. However Bag Filter and ESP Fly Ash is very difficult to recycle.However Bag Filter and ESP Fly Ash is very difficult to recycle. Consequently waste management is a big headache to the industry.Consequently waste management is a big headache to the industry.
  4. 4. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.com Most Bag Filter Dust is mostly below 100 microns in size.Most Bag Filter Dust is mostly below 100 microns in size. Comprises of over 70% ash & up to 25% unburned carbon.Comprises of over 70% ash & up to 25% unburned carbon. It also contains a small percentage of Ferrous material.It also contains a small percentage of Ferrous material. Theoretically it can be re-used as PCC or Slurry Fuel.Theoretically it can be re-used as PCC or Slurry Fuel. Practically its high ash % and low calories makes it unviable.Practically its high ash % and low calories makes it unviable. ESP Fly Ash gets up to 10% unburned carbon, with traces of Iron.ESP Fly Ash gets up to 10% unburned carbon, with traces of Iron. High LOI ( Loss on Ignition) in Sponge ESP Fly ash renders itHigh LOI ( Loss on Ignition) in Sponge ESP Fly ash renders itunsuitable as raw material for the Cement Industry(max 5%).unsuitable as raw material for the Cement Industry(max 5%). Upgrading the Fly ash via Carbon-burnout is expensive.Upgrading the Fly ash via Carbon-burnout is expensive. Consequently most of the Solid Waste just goes into landfills.Consequently most of the Solid Waste just goes into landfills.
  5. 5. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.com Most Sponge Iron units don’Most Sponge Iron units don’t recycle their waste.t recycle their waste. So effort is primarily spent on collection & containment.So effort is primarily spent on collection & containment. Some blend Bag Filter Dust with Coal Dust & reuse it as Fuel.Some blend Bag Filter Dust with Coal Dust & reuse it as Fuel. Others make bricks out of ESP Fly ash/ Portland cement mixture.Others make bricks out of ESP Fly ash/ Portland cement mixture. These Bricks are of low strength & have high leaching potential.These Bricks are of low strength & have high leaching potential. This lack of waste utilization and recycling is causing a wide-This lack of waste utilization and recycling is causing a wide-spread ground, water and atmospheric environmental hazard.spread ground, water and atmospheric environmental hazard. This solid waste can in fact be easily and cheaply processedThis solid waste can in fact be easily and cheaply processedand turned into profit generating resourcesand turned into profit generating resources..
  6. 6. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.comThe key to proper recycling of Sponge Iron Solid wastes lies inThe key to proper recycling of Sponge Iron Solid wastes lies inCarbon-Ash Separation technologyCarbon-Ash Separation technology..There are several methods by which it can be accomplished.There are several methods by which it can be accomplished.This separation can produce upgraded Low-carbon Fly ash.This separation can produce upgraded Low-carbon Fly ash.It also generates an above 90% pure unburned Carbon.It also generates an above 90% pure unburned Carbon.Implementation of a Carbon-Ash Separation system convertsImplementation of a Carbon-Ash Separation system convertsa waste into useful saleable profit earning products.a waste into useful saleable profit earning products.It would take care of the expense of waste containment.It would take care of the expense of waste containment.This technology is utilized world-wide in the Coal miningThis technology is utilized world-wide in the Coal miningIndustry for upgrading Coal fines.Industry for upgrading Coal fines.Surprisingly this relatively simple process has not yet beenSurprisingly this relatively simple process has not yet beentried or implemented in any Sponge Iron plant.tried or implemented in any Sponge Iron plant.
  7. 7. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.com There are a number of processes for separating Carbon & Ash.There are a number of processes for separating Carbon & Ash. Different processes are adopted as per the dust grain size.Different processes are adopted as per the dust grain size. Only two techniques are suitable with sub 100 micron sizes.Only two techniques are suitable with sub 100 micron sizes. Wet systemWet system : Flotation with Froth Separation and Dewatering.: Flotation with Froth Separation and Dewatering. The Wet system is an effective but elaborate process involvingThe Wet system is an effective but elaborate process involvingseveral stages, manpower and heavy water use.several stages, manpower and heavy water use. Dry SystemDry System: Electrostatic Separation.: Electrostatic Separation. Electrostatic Separation or Triboelectrostatic process works onElectrostatic Separation or Triboelectrostatic process works onthe principle of static electricity differential.the principle of static electricity differential. It is a single stage automatic separator that effectivelyIt is a single stage automatic separator that effectivelyseparates Carbon from Ash or other mineral impurities.separates Carbon from Ash or other mineral impurities.
  8. 8. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.com Is a tried and tested method for Carbon-Ash separation.Is a tried and tested method for Carbon-Ash separation. Process first involves making a slurry from the fines/Fly ash.Process first involves making a slurry from the fines/Fly ash. Works by exploiting hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties.Works by exploiting hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. The flotation tank is agitated and aerated.The flotation tank is agitated and aerated. The ash and the mineral matter deposits at the bottom.The ash and the mineral matter deposits at the bottom. The unburned Carbon froths up and is removed from the top.The unburned Carbon froths up and is removed from the top. Process also requires agents like mineral oils.Process also requires agents like mineral oils. And foaming agents like Glycol to create a froth on top.And foaming agents like Glycol to create a froth on top. The recovered Carbon can be Dewatered and Pelletized.The recovered Carbon can be Dewatered and Pelletized. It can also be used as Coal-Water Slurry Fuel.It can also be used as Coal-Water Slurry Fuel. Process requires a considerable volume of Water.Process requires a considerable volume of Water.
  9. 9. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.com
  10. 10. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.comAsh / Dust Silo Water TankFlotation TankAir SupplyDecarbonizedAsh StorageWet CarbonDewateringPelletizerCoal-WaterSlurry FuelProcess
  11. 11. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.comElectrostatic Carbon removal is a commercially provenElectrostatic Carbon removal is a commercially proventechnology.technology.Works on the principle of Electrostatic Potential difference.Works on the principle of Electrostatic Potential difference.Though similar, it is not to be confused with ESPs.Though similar, it is not to be confused with ESPs.Separation is a two stage process.Separation is a two stage process.i.i. Creates a Static electricity potential difference in materialsCreates a Static electricity potential difference in materialsthrough Triboelectrostatic friction.through Triboelectrostatic friction.ii.ii. +ve & -ve charged materials are separated by high voltage+ve & -ve charged materials are separated by high voltageelectrodes.electrodes.Positive Carbon gets separated from negativelyPositive Carbon gets separated from negativelycharged Ash.charged Ash.It is a fully automatic process.It is a fully automatic process.Requires little electricity and no water.Requires little electricity and no water.Recovered Carbon can be pelletized or used as PCCRecovered Carbon can be pelletized or used as PCC
  12. 12. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.com
  13. 13. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.comAsh / Dust SiloMagnetic SeparatorVibrating ScreenTriboelectrostaticSeparatorCarbon FinesPelletizerDecarbonizedAsh StorageProcessMetallic Fines
  14. 14. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.com Solid Wastes generated by a Sponge Iron unit are a total liability.Solid Wastes generated by a Sponge Iron unit are a total liability. But 2.5T Carbon & 7T Ash is recoverable 10 TPD Bag Filter dust.But 2.5T Carbon & 7T Ash is recoverable 10 TPD Bag Filter dust. Monetarily it translates into 230 USD & 324 USD per day. *Monetarily it translates into 230 USD & 324 USD per day. * Or 7905 USD or INR 3,72,870 per month.**Or 7905 USD or INR 3,72,870 per month.** While 5 TPD ESP Fly ash contains about .5T Carbon & 4.4T Ash.While 5 TPD ESP Fly ash contains about .5T Carbon & 4.4T Ash. Or 46 USD & 203 USD in Carbon & Fly ash costs daily.Or 46 USD & 203 USD in Carbon & Fly ash costs daily. Carbon can be re-burned as Fuel and Fly ash sold in the market.Carbon can be re-burned as Fuel and Fly ash sold in the market. Installing a Carbon-Ash separating unit has a quick ROI.Installing a Carbon-Ash separating unit has a quick ROI. Simultaneously reduces pollution and waste disposal expenses.Simultaneously reduces pollution and waste disposal expenses.*Calculated at Coal cost @ Rs.5000 MT & Fly ash cost @ Rs 2500 MT.*Calculated at Coal cost @ Rs.5000 MT & Fly ash cost @ Rs 2500 MT.** 1 USD = Rs. 54/-** 1 USD = Rs. 54/-
  15. 15. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.com• Techno-Commercial Feasibility Study.Techno-Commercial Feasibility Study.• Preparation of Complete Project Report.Preparation of Complete Project Report.• Government Liaison.Government Liaison.• Machinery selection.Machinery selection.• Vendor selection.Vendor selection.• Complete Technical Assistance till commissioning.Complete Technical Assistance till commissioning.• Help in preparing Press releases & Publicity material.Help in preparing Press releases & Publicity material.• Market Development.Market Development.• Undertake Turnkey Consultancy Project.Undertake Turnkey Consultancy Project.
  16. 16. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.com• This Presentation is a Technology showcase.This Presentation is a Technology showcase.• We have not installed or commissioned any such unit as yet.We have not installed or commissioned any such unit as yet.• We have the know-how for designing such units.We have the know-how for designing such units.• We are currently developing a lab model.We are currently developing a lab model.• We need Co-developers and Sponsors from the DRI industry.We need Co-developers and Sponsors from the DRI industry.• We are thankful for the enthusiasm received from the Industry.We are thankful for the enthusiasm received from the Industry.• But “No” we are not able to visit any plant at our cost.But “No” we are not able to visit any plant at our cost.• Any serious proposal and interest would be considered.Any serious proposal and interest would be considered.
  17. 17. © R.A.D.E INITIATIVE 2013 | rade.initiative@gmail.comWe Specialize in:We Specialize in:•Fuel Handling & PlanningFuel Handling & Planning•Fuel EmulsificationFuel Emulsification•Diesel SavingDiesel Saving•Coal & Biomass GasCoal & Biomass Gas•Other Energy Related ServicesOther Energy Related ServicesRA.D.E INITIATIVE, GOA, INDIARA.D.E INITIATIVE, GOA, INDIAContact: RAVI DEKAContact: RAVI DEKAMobile No: +91-9822910300Mobile No: +91-9822910300Email :Email : rade.initiative@gmail.comrade.initiative@gmail.comwww.rade.co.inwww.rade.co.in

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