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60950106 basis-latest-till-interview-questions

  1. 1. Parameters Table of Contents Table of Contents.............................................................................................................................................2List of Screenshots.............................................................................................................5List of Figures....................................................................................................................61. Introduction....................................................................................................................7 1.1 Operating System...................................................................................................7 1.2 Database Types......................................................................................................8 1.3 Basic Jobs: Two Types..........................................................................................8 1.4 High-Availability...................................................................................................9 1.5 Connectivity.........................................................................................................102. Advantages of SAP......................................................................................................113. Architecture of SAP.....................................................................................................13 3.1 Presentation Layer...............................................................................................13 3.2 Application Layer................................................................................................13 3.3 Database Layer:...................................................................................................13 3.4 Terminology.........................................................................................................144. Servers and Work process..........................................................................................15 4.1 SID: .................................................................................................................15 4.2 SM51: Shows only Active servers.......................................................................15 4.3 SM50: Work Process Overview...........................................................................18 4.4 T-Code Prefixes:..................................................................................................20 4.5 Menu Bar Buttons:...............................................................................................215. Profiles..........................................................................................................................226. System Bounce:............................................................................................................247. Market Place................................................................................................................27 7.1 Developer Key:....................................................................................................27 7.2 Developer Object:................................................................................................288. Installation....................................................................................................................29 8.1 Hardware Sizing:.................................................................................................29 8.2 Users:...................................................................................................................29 8.3 High Availability:................................................................................................30 8.4 Post installation activities:...................................................................................319. Installation Process......................................................................................................32 9.1 Central instance:...................................................................................................32 9.2 Database Instance:...............................................................................................33 9.3 Dialogue Instance:...............................................................................................34 9.4 Installation of GUI:..............................................................................................34 9.5 Checking Central Instances:................................................................................3510. Client Maintenance....................................................................................................37 10.1 SCC4..................................................................................................................37 10.3 SCCL:................................................................................................................44 10.5 Remote Client Copy:..........................................................................................50 10.6 RFC....................................................................................................................51 SAP BASIS 2
  2. 2. Parameters11. Spool Administration.................................................................................................53 11.1 Types of Access Methods:.................................................................................53 11.4 SPAD: Spool Administration.............................................................................55 11.5 SP01 – Output control........................................................................................62 SP12 – TemSe Management......................................................................................6412. Transport Management System...............................................................................69 12.1 Change Request management:...........................................................................71 12.3 Transport Directory:...........................................................................................75 12.4 Configuring STMS:...........................................................................................76 12.5 Defining Landscape:..........................................................................................7713. Support Packages.......................................................................................................78 13.1 Types of Support packages:...............................................................................78 13.2 Applying Support Patches:................................................................................79 13.3 Pre-requisites:....................................................................................................82 13.4 Support Packages Errors:...................................................................................83 13.5 Applying Add-ons:.............................................................................................84 13.6 Kernel Patches...................................................................................................8614. Update Mechanism....................................................................................................87 14.1 Advantages:............................................................................................................87 14.2 Types of Update Process:.......................................................................................88 14.3 Update Monitoring:................................................................................................88 14.4 Update Problems:...................................................................................................9115. ENQUE.......................................................................................................................92 15.1 Problems with Enque:............................................................................................9216. Data Transfer.............................................................................................................9317. Archiving....................................................................................................................94 17.1 Reason for Archiving:............................................................................................96 17.2 Advantages:............................................................................................................9618. System Monitoring:...................................................................................................97Memory...........................................................................................................................10019. Health Checks..........................................................................................................104Background Work Process...........................................................................................133Solving Max-Extents issues...........................................................................................149SAPDBA.........................................................................................................................159Client Transport............................................................................................................161 Client Export............................................................................................................161 Client Import............................................................................................................161Operation Modes...........................................................................................................163Database..........................................................................................................................164 DBA ARCHTECTURE...........................................................................................164 Directories................................................................................................................169 Database Startup......................................................................................................170 Database Shutdown..................................................................................................171 Storage Management...............................................................................................172 Creation of Table Space...........................................................................................172 Reorganization.........................................................................................................173 SAP BASIS 3
  3. 3. Parameters Process of reorganization:........................................................................................174 Backup restore and recovery:...................................................................................174 Types of backups:....................................................................................................175Users and Maintenance.................................................................................................183 Creation of Users.....................................................................................................184 Creating User...........................................................................................................184 Security....................................................................................................................186 Activity....................................................................................................................186 Role Creation:..........................................................................................................188 Defining a Derived Role:.........................................................................................188 User Comparison.....................................................................................................189 Missing Authorizations SU53..................................................................................189 Security Parameters.................................................................................................190 Central User Administration....................................................................................191 Types of users:.........................................................................................................193Logon Load Balancing..................................................................................................194 Advantages...............................................................................................................194 Defining Logon groups............................................................................................194 Mechanism of Logon on Load Balancing................................................................194SNOTE............................................................................................................................196 Applying SNOTE.....................................................................................................196 SCOT.......................................................................................................................199OS Directory...................................................................................................................200Important T Codes........................................................................................................201Programs........................................................................................................................204Parameters......................................................................................................................205Tables..............................................................................................................................207Top Ten Problems..........................................................................................................209Interview Questions.......................................................................................................210 SAP BASIS 4
  4. 4. Parameters List of ScreenshotsScreenshot 1: SM51 (Active Servers List).....................................................................16Screenshot 2: ...................................................................................................................17Screenshot 3: SM50 (Process Overview).......................................................................20Screenshot 4: SCC4 (Client Maintenance) 1.................................................................37Screenshot 5: SCC4 (Client Maintenance) 2.................................................................38Screenshot 6: SCC4, Client Creation 1..........................................................................39Screenshot 7: Client Creation 2......................................................................................40Screenshot 8: Client Roles...............................................................................................41Screenshot 9: SCCL (Local Client Copy)......................................................................44Screenshot 10: SCCL (Local Client Copy) 2.................................................................45Screenshot 11: SCC3 (Client Copy Log).......................................................................47Screenshot 12: Client Copy Log Analysis......................................................................48Screenshot 13: SPAD (Spool Administration)..............................................................56 SAP BASIS 5
  5. 5. Parameters List of FiguresFigure 1: SAP Architecture............................................................................................13Figure 2: SAP Market Place Shortcuts..........................................................................27Figure 3: Transport Routes............................................................................................69Figure 4: Health Checks................................................................................................104Figure 5: SAP Database Architecture..........................................................................164Figure 6: SAP Authorizations.......................................................................................183Figure 7: SAP OS Directory.........................................................................................200 SAP BASIS 6
  6. 6. Parameters SAP System Application Products for Data Processing1. IntroductionIt is developed in Germany.It is an ERP.Enterprise Resource Planning: Planning the resources in an Organization is called ERP.A Company having different modules like: 1. Sales 2. Financials 3. Purchasing 4. Production 5. Human ResourcesIntegration of all these modules is done by ERP1.1 Operating System 1. Windows 2. UNIX a. HP-UX b. Linux c. Solaris d. IBM AIXNote: We use HP-UX 11i SAP BASIS 7
  7. 7. Parameters1.2 Database Types 1. Oracle 2. SQL Server 3. DB2 4. SYBASE 5. Informix 6. MaxDB ( SAP DB)Note: We use Oracle 9i. 9.2 (9.2.0.4)1.3 Basic Jobs: Two TypesOn-site: • Here we can see all hardware. • Here we are working with client, so we can see all the servers.Off-shore: • Servers are located in USA, UK or some other remote locations • We will be in India and work on it.Data centre: It is a Server Room where your entire data is stored in an Organization 8 Bits = 1 Byte 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilo Bytes 1024 KB = 1 Mega Bytes 1024 MB = 1 Giga Bytes 1024 GB = 1 Tera Bytes 1024 TB = 1 Pico Bytes SAP BASIS 8
  8. 8. Parameters1.4 High-Availability 1. Mirroring: If one of the Hard disk fails another Hard disk will take care. It is a technique in which data is written to two duplicate disks simultaneously. In this way if any one of the disks fails, the system will switch to another disk with out analysis of data or service. 2. RAID: Redundant Array of Independent Disks Storing same data in different places on multiple hard disks. If any of the Hard disks fails, the data will store automatically in a disk called HOT SPARE. 3. SAN: Storage Area Network. If we have five applications, for each application we require one server so we need five servers. Maintaining five servers is tough. So SAN is coming into scenario, where we will store all data in common place. 4. Clustering: In case if overload. When the load is more on CI automatically it will transfer with transaction to DB directly. In other words connecting two or more computers together will behave like single computer is called clustering. It is used fir parallel processing If any one of the servers fails, another server will take care of the user. SAP BASIS 9
  9. 9. Parameters 5. Stand-by Servers: In case of disorder/disaster recovery. Different R/3, different locations, each transaction is replicated in all servers. In case of any disorders or calamities like Tsunami or Earthquakes, there will be a chance for not working of server. If one server is not working another server will take responsibility and provide service to the users.1.5 Connectivity 1. HUB: In a network all the systems are connected to each other via HUB 2. SWITCH: All companies use switches for communication between systems. Provides network connectivity between various systems and networks. 3. ROUTER: Connectivity between one network to another network. It provides secure network connectivity between network and outside world.Note 1: To communicate from India to another country we need VPN, Dial-Up or ISP VPN : Virtual Private Network. ISP : Internet Service Provider.Note 2: We use VPN normally. In case of VPN failure we switch to Dial-Up. SAP BASIS 10
  10. 10. Parameters2. Advantages of SAP 1. Rich set of modules 2. Data integrity 3. Easy administration 4. only one database 5. SAP supports all Databases and operating systems 6. Global Support 7 x 24 x 365 7. SAP supports Multi Languages I.e.; almost all the languages available using UNICODE 8. One GUI for all R/3 systems 9. SAP supports JAVA 10. easy add-ons ( to add functionality to existing systems) 11. High security 12. User friendly 13. Common Programming Language which supports OOPs and ABAP.UNICODE:It is R/3 software; provide access to almost all languages in the world. It uses two bytesNON UNICODE:It is a version of R/3 which supports only few languages in the world using technologyMDMP – Multi Display Multi Program. It is used for providing support for otherlanguages. SAP BASIS 11
  11. 11. ParametersSAP:SAP R/3 => SAP Release ThreeVersions:  4.5 B  4.6 C  4.7 R/3 Enterprise EditionLatest Releases are:  ECC 5.0  ECC 6.0 SAP BASIS 12
  12. 12. Parameters3. Architecture of SAP Presentation Application Database Layer Layer LayerFigure 1: SAP Architecture3.1 Presentation LayerIdentifying the server which is least loaded from the GUI (Graphical User Interface) withthe help of message servers. During GUI logon following files are evaluated. 1. SAPLOGON.INI 2. SAPMSG.INI 3. SAPROUTE.INI 4. SAPDOCCD.INI3.2 Application Layer 1. Database Client to communicate with Database Server 2. Kernel executables 3. Dispatcher 4. Configure Work Process 5. Buffer areas can be maintained, buffers in memory 6. It has message server in Central Instance 7. Run Time Executables 8. CPU and Process3.3 Database Layer: 1. Predefined Tables SAP BASIS 13
  13. 13. Parameters 2. Own memory and buffer 3. Own security 4. Own process to handle request from Application Layer3.4 TerminologyWork Process:An application server contains work process, which are components that can runapplications. Each work process is linked to memory area.Instance:This is nothing but group of process and their memory. Basically it is an applicationserver.Central InstanceThis is the application server where message server and ENQUE server are installedalong with other work processes. During installation central instance needs to be installedfirst.Database Instance:This is the instance where exactly Database is installed.Dialogue Instance:This is an additional application server which is installed to provide more number ofwork processes to gather more number of users.DispatchThis is nothing but, which allocates the work process. Application server is nothing butthe Dispatcher. Is also called as an Instance. SAP BASIS 14
  14. 14. Parameters4. Servers and Work process4.1 SID:It’s a three digit number. It is alphanumeric but never starts with a number.Examples: Right Way Wrong Way N6A 2N6 BLD 2ND BLQ 2LQ BLP 2NP N62 262 NA6 2A2sid => bld <SID> => BLD b1c B1C4.2 SM51: Shows only Active serversNote: • Server Name Syntax: <Host name>_<SID>_<Instance Number> Bdhp4431_N6P_00 • Instance Number: Ranges from 00-99 (Two Digit) • There will be only one Database Server and only one central instance. • Remaining all are Dialogue Instances • Central Instances can be identified where ENQUE is installed. • Database server Name is same as central instance name. SAP BASIS 15
  15. 15. ParametersScreenshot 1: SM51 (Active Servers List) SAP BASIS 16
  16. 16. Parametersservers.Screenshot 2: SAP BASIS 17
  17. 17. Parameters4.3 SM50: Work Process OverviewTypes of Work Process: D Dialogue V Update E Enque B Background / Batch M Message Server G Gateway S SpoolDialogue: [D]This process is used to communicate with system interactively. This process is used toselect data from the database, update the database, print from the database. This is theonly process where users will be communicated with their request.Update: [V]This process is used to update the database; user never uses this process directly. But userin turn send request through dialogue process to update the database. Dialogue processesare used to update temporary tables. Update process reads from the temporary tables andupload the database.Enque:[E]In order to have transaction consistency the records have to be locked while updating thedatabase. There will be only one ENQUE work process by the R/3 system.Background/ Batch:[B] SAP BASIS 18
  18. 18. ParametersThis process is used to run the long running jobs in the background mode. This process isused to run without any user interaction and also scheduled at predefined intervals.Message Server:[M]It controls dispatches, provides a log from ENQUE to work process. Message Server alsodecides least loaded server during user logon.Gateway:[G]Gateway is used to communicate between the systems (R/3 Systems).Spool: [S]Spool process is used to print the document to the user. User cannot print the documentdirectly but prints to the temporary sequential tables spool process reads the sequentialfiles and sends the output request to the output device or any print server. Servers System wide Per Instance Dialogue >=2 >=2 Update >=1 >=0 Enque 1 0/1 Batch >=1 >=1 Message Server 1 0/1 Gateway >=1 1 Spool >=0 >=0 SAP BASIS 19
  19. 19. ParametersScreenshot 3: SM50 (Process Overview)4.4 T-Code Prefixes: n -- Next screen o – Open new session / screen nex -- Exit Whole session.E.g.:1}/nsm502}/osm503}/nex SAP BASIS 20
  20. 20. Parameters4.5 Menu Bar Buttons:Back F3Search Ctrl + FFirst PagePrevious PageNext PageLast PageAscending OrderDescending OrderRefreshExecute F8SaveSelect All Edit – Select All / Deselect AllSpreadsheet: Saving values in Excel %PC – Spreadsheet - Location SAP BASIS 21
  21. 21. Parameters5. ProfilesThere are three types of profiles: 1. Start up Profile 2. Default Profile 3. Instance ProfileStartup Profile: start_DVEBMGS00_<hostname>Start DatabaseStart Message Server All the three consistently called as Central InstanceStart DispatcherDefault Profile:Changes effect globally across all the systemsLogon/systemclientLogon/system_languageDatabase hostInstance Profile:<SID>_DVEBMGS00_<hostname>Applicable only to application serversrdisp/wp_no_btcrdisp/wp_no_diardisp/wp_no_upd SAP BASIS 22
  22. 22. Parametersrdisp/wp_no_spoolMemory parameterBuffer ParameterNote: If there are three application servers there will be three startup profiles, threeinstance profiles and only one default profileExample:App. servers Profiles 1 3 2 5 3 7ns + ni + 1d {s-startup, i-instance, d-default}2n+1 SAP BASIS 23
  23. 23. Parameters6. System Bounce: # ps –ef|grep dw # ps –ef|grep ora-In order to shutdown the system we need to stop the application servers first and then thedatabase serverThe commands used are # stopsap r3 - Application server shutdown # stopsap - Database server ShutdownIn order to start the system the database server has to be started first and then applicationservers. The commands used are: # startsap - database server startup # startsap r3 - application server startupIn order to check the status of the application server and database server at OS level wecheck by using the following commands #ps –ef|grep dw - Application server shutdown #ps –ef|grep ora - Database server Shutdown SAP BASIS 24
  24. 24. ParametersIf there are six application servers first we log into each six servers by using hostnames atOS level.Then first stop application servers and then check them again and stop the databaseserver.For restarting we use Vice VersaNote:In order to differentiate between database server and application servers in the system wemark them in two different colors.When we logon at SAP level, go to SM51 in order to check the number of server. We canalso check through RZ03, where it shows whether the server is active or inactive.If it is not active log on to the hostname of server which is not active and then execute thecommand# startsap r3Then come back to the RZ03 screen and click the refresh button to check if the server isactive /inactiveInterview Question:If the system could not start what might be the reasonAnswer: 1. Check all the services 2. check all the environment variables 3. Check alert Log 4. check Achieve Struck 5. Changes in profile parameters 6. Table space overflow 7. Check network connectivity 8. Kernel executables may be corrupted SAP BASIS 25
  25. 25. ParametersReasons for Shut Down and Start-up: 1. Maintenance 2. Backup 3. Patches 4. Upgrades[ Hardware, Software, Kernel] 5. Parameter Changes 6. Mass transports. SAP BASIS 26
  26. 26. Parameters7. Market PlaceSAP service Market PlaceService LinkDeveloper Key / Object sscrProblem Management MessageNotes Database NotesAdministration of service connections Service connectionsRegistration of naming environments NamespacesRequesting License Key License keyRequesting Migration Key Migration KeyDownloading support packages patchesUser Administration User_adminExample : www.service.sap.com/sscrFigure 2: SAP Market Place Shortcuts7.1 Developer Key:Log into the system specified and then go to system menu and then click on status buttonNote down the installation number Example: 123456789534 (10-20 Digits)Go to www.service.sap.com/sscr Give OSS ID and Password Market Place Id is called as OSS ID Example: S0001234567 S0007654321Click on registered developersSpecify the user ID or Object BA9823 Company User Id of Person who generated the TICKET SAP BASIS 27
  27. 27. ParametersHere we will get a list of installation numbers, click on the appropriate installationnumberAt the bottom click a register and finally gives Developer Key7.2 Developer Object:Log into the required system and system status (Copy installation number)Log into www.service.sap.com by OSS IDClick on register objectThen on screen specify the BASIS Release Program ID Type Object NameClick on Installation Number and click on registerA registration Key is generated SAP BASIS 28
  28. 28. Parameters8. Installation8.1 Hardware Sizing:To analyze the business requirement and allocating the memory. Steps involved ongetting size of the hardware based on the business requirement given by the client 1. Contact SAP 2. get OSS ID 3. go to www.service.sap.com/sizing 4. go to Quick Size tool 5. Enter the project name / customer number 6. Create Project 7. Number of Users: (Low/ medium/ High) 8. Amount of legacy data 9. Number of Modules 10. Select Operating System 11. Select Database version 12. Select Peak Load Time 13. High Availability 14. data Security(Mirror / RAID / Cluster) 15. Save the details 16. calculate the result8.2 Users:Low Activity: Occasional Users 400-480 Transactions per week 40 Hours per weekMedium Activity: Transactional Users 400-4800 transactions per WeekHigh Activity: Power Users 4800 and above transactions per week SAP BASIS 29
  29. 29. Parameters8.3 High Availability:Availability of systems 24 x 7 x 365 without any interruption so that customer can do hisoperation without any stoppages.Pre-requisites for Installation 1. verify SAP software 2. Internet connections to search for Run Time Errors(SAP Market Place: www.service.sap.com) 3. Download Install guide (SAP Market Place: www.service.sap.com – Install guide) 4. Document all the steps 5. Install Java Runtime Environment 6. Set virtual memory to Three times of physical memory + 500 MB 7. set environmental variables for JAVA JAVA_HOME=c:jdk1.4JREbin 8. Specify an entry in: C:windowssystem32driversetchost To 192.168.0.1 <hostname> SAPTRANSHOST 9. Enable file sharing for Networks to maximum. Go to LAN Icon  Right Click  Properties  Select Files and Printers. 10. Install Oracle/SQL Server RDBMS software. 11. Check for Oracle Environmental variables. 12. Dump all necessary media into Hard disk a. SAP Inst b. SAP Kernel c. Export DVDs (1 to 7) NOTE: There should not be any spaces or special characters while creating directories SAP BASIS 30
  30. 30. Parameters8.4 Post installation activities: 1. Go to SICK / SM28  Installation check 2. Go to SE06  CTS Initialization 3. Go to SE03  System Settings 4. Go to RZ10  Import profiles of active servers 5. Go to STMS  6. Go to SLIC  License Management 7. Go to SR13  Library configuration 8. client creation 9. Local client copy 10. Remote client copy 11. SU25  Initiate Profile generator. 12. Setting up work process, memory and buffer parameters. 13. Support packages and kernel package 14. Register system in SAP. 15. establish remote connectivity to SAP 16. SGEN 17. Define backup of the system 18. Create users in SU01 and assign roles 19. Establish remote connectivity to BI, PI, CRM, SRM and other systems. 20. Define operation modes, logon load balancing 21. Configuring users GUIs 22. Configuring CCMS (RZ20, RZ21) 23. Allow the system for configuration and development. 24. Schedule for standard background jobs SAP BASIS 31
  31. 31. Parameters9. Installation ProcessInstallation is done in three phases: 1. Central Instance (CI) 2. Database Instance (DbI) 3. Dialogue Instance (DI)9.1 Central instance:Which is located centrally applicable to all the dialogue instances and database instances 1. Go to Dump double check on SAPINST NT/I386/SAPINST.EXE Select central Instance 2. Specify SID and instance number 3. Specify host name 4. Specify Oracle_Home Path. 5. Assign 60% of memory for CI (Remaining 40% for DbI) Example: 1 GB RAM – 600 MB 512 MB RAM – 330 MB 6. Specify path for user directory C: ; D: 7. Specify passwords for <SID>ADM, SAPSERVICE<SID>. <SID>ADM : 8. R/3 system administration which is used to start R/3 systems and this administrative privileges 9. SAPSERVICE<SID>: This is a service user which is used to run all the SAP services like SAPSOL. 10. Specify Kernel Patches 11. Specify the dispatcher / gateway / Message Server: Port Number. By default: (32_ _ / 33 _ _ / 36_ _). _ _  Instance Number. SAP BASIS 32
  32. 32. Parameters 12. Continue installation.9.2 Database Instance: 1. Select DbI 2. Specify SID, hostname and instance number 3. Specify the installation on New Database or use the existing Database. 4. Specify the database, schema ID Xxx SAP xxx Schema ID: It is the owner of Database. ----------------- 5. Select 40% of physical memory 6. Specify the log files location: a. Mirror log a, ORIGNAL log B  1 Device b. Original log b, Mirror log B  1 Disk 7. Specify the kernel directory. Kernel Directory is used to extract database executables into RUN directory. 8. Specify the path for SAP directory: a. sapreorg b. sapcheck c. saptrace d. sapbackup e. saparch 9. Specify the path to Data Dictionary (sapdata1, sapdata2, sapdata3, … .. sapdatan) 10. Specify export DVD Dump: SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD1EXPORT1 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD2EXPORT2 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD3EXPORT3 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD4EXPORT4 SAP BASIS 33
  33. 33. Parameters SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD5EXPORT5 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD6EXPORT6 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD7EXPORT7 11. Specify the passwords for <SID>adm, sapservice<SID>. 12. Number of parallel processes to expedite the installation process. 13. Select MNLS( MN Log Support) Yes / No  No 14. Specify password for System, SYS, DBS, NMP and ANPLN. 15. Continue.9.3 Dialogue Instance: 1. select dialogue instance 2. Specify the CI host name 3. specify the DB Host name 4. Specify Instance name and number. D01, D02 D  Dialogue. 01, 02  Instance Number 5. Specify the kernel path 6. Specify passwords and continue9.4 Installation of GUI: 1. If users are minimal (10-15), go to user desktop and install 2. If we have more number of users, copy the GUI installation CD into a File server, share the folder to every one Inform the users to install GUI from the below location: fileserverSAPGUI 3. Write a logon script and host it in active directory service or give the logon script to network system administrator to trigger the user logon. 4. Using a third party tool like Microsoft Monitoring Server, where all user desktop are monitored centrally. SAP BASIS 34
  34. 34. Parameters NOTE: To uninstall old version go to SAPSWEEP.exe  then install SAPINST.exe9.5 Checking Central Instances: 1. Check the service: a. saposcol b. sap<SID>_00 c. ORATNSLISTNER d. Oracleservice<SID>SAPOSCOL: it is SAP OS collector, there is only one SAPOSCOL in the system.SAP<SID>_00 : It is an instance service which is used to start the SAP instanceORATNSLISTNER: this is a listener service when the oracle database is started. If thelistener could not be started Go to command Prompt and Type > lsnrctl - Listener Control Lsnrctl> status ---------- ---------- > help start stop statusORACLESERVICE<SID>: This is an oracle service user <SID>, which is used to startoracleUSERS: <SID>adm sapservice<SID> SAP BASIS 35
  35. 35. Parameters SAP<SID> OP$<SID>adm OP$SAPsercice<SID>OP$: Operating system users <<SID>adm and SAPservice<SID> are also created indatabase prefixing with OP$. This mechanism provides logon to the database byoperating system users without prompting a password.LOGS: • SYSLOG in MMC Microsoft Management Console in WINDOWS • Application_syslogs in event viewer (WINDOWS) • SAPINST_LOG • Alert_<SID>.log in SAPTRACE directory.Interview Question: * Cd orac;e<SID>saptracebackground * Developer traces in work directory Dev_wp, dev_disp, dev_ms SAP BASIS 36
  36. 36. Parameters10. Client MaintenanceClient can be created with T-Code ‘SCC4’.10.1 SCC4Screenshot 4: SCC4 (Client Maintenance) 1 SAP BASIS 37
  37. 37. ParametersScreenshot 5: SCC4 (Client Maintenance) 2 SAP BASIS 38
  38. 38. ParametersScreenshot 6: SCC4, Client Creation 1 SAP BASIS 39
  39. 39. ParametersScreenshot 7: Client Creation 2In SCC4 we can see this list of all the clients present in the systemThere will be always 000, 001 and 066 present in the system and the remaining will bethe business clients.We can see settings of business clients by double clicking on client (line).In order to create a new client, click on the TAB  New Entries. Here we need tospecify: 1. Specify the description 2. Specify the location 3. Specify the currency 4. Specify the logical system.As a client is three digited we can’t identify and distinguish between the clients in thelandscape. Logical system names are defined in SALE / BD64 T-codes. SAP BASIS 40
  40. 40. ParametersThe naming convention for the logical system: Letter should be in Capitals <SID>CLNT<clientnumber> Example: A7BCLNT430 A7B430 Normal UsageGo to SALE / BD64; click on new entries; a pop up box prompts saying that it is aCROSS CLIENT, i.e.; the entry created in this table is visible to all clients.Define the logical system name and save the entries.Come back to the client creation screen SCC4:Enter the logical system name 5. Specify the client roles:Screenshot 8: Client RolesDifferent types of client roles are: a. Customizing Client: this is the only client where changes are initiated in entire landscape. This is also called as Golden / Master Client. SAP BASIS 41
  41. 41. Parameters Note: The customizing client is only allowed for changing cross client objects and repository. It is represented by CUST/CUSTOMIZING. The setting for this client will be i. Automatic recording of changes ii. Changes to repository and cross client objects alone iii. Protection Level should be zero, i.e.; No restriction b. Sandbox Client: It is called as SAND client where changes are allowed but not carried forward. Note: All the additional clients except customizing client are not allowed for any changes in repository and cross client objects. c. Testing Client: this client is used for UNIT TESTING. No changes are allowed in this client, only it is allowed to test the objects. d. Quality Testing Clients: the changes which are made in customizing clients developed in system and are transported into this client by using STMS. The integration between modules, Stress Testing, Load Testing etc is performed in this client. Note: in SAND client and testing client we are copying client specified objects. e. Training Client: All the approved changes in quality testing clients are copied into this client. This client is used for end users of the company which they are going to perform on production box. f. Production Client: Most of the environment there will be only one Client in the production box. This is the client where real time business applications are performed. Most of the activities are tied with financial implications. The changes which are approved in quality are transported to the system.2. Changes and transports for client specific objects: a. Changes without automatic recording b. Automatic recording of changes c. No changes allowed SAP BASIS 42
  42. 42. Parameters d. Changes without auto recording, No transports allowed 3. Cross-client object changes: a. Changes to repository and cross client customizing allowed b. No changes to cross client c. No changes to repository d. No changes to both cross client and repository 4. Protection: a. Protection level 0 (Zero) – No restriction b. Protection level 1 – No overwriting c. Protection level 2 – No overwriting. No external availability 5. CATT and eCATT a. CATT – Computer Aided Testing Tool b. eCATT – Extended Computer Aided Testing Tool NOTE: For Production – eCATT & CATT not allowed 6. SAVE the entriesNOTE: If the client role is production then the settings should be as follows: i. No changes allowed ii. No changes to repository and cross client iii. Protection level -1 – No overwriting iv. eCATT & CATT Not AllowedT000 – Table stores all the list of created clients. SAP BASIS 43
  43. 43. Parameters10.2 Client copies:There are three types of client copies: 1. Local Client Copy – SCCL 2. Remote Client Copy – SCC9 3. Client Transport – SCC7 (Import), SCC8 (Export)10.3 SCCL: Example: A5B400 – Source A5B900 – TargetCopying the client from one client to another client with in the same system.Screenshot 9: SCCL (Local Client Copy) SAP BASIS 44
  44. 44. ParametersScreenshot 10: SCCL (Local Client Copy) 2Procedure: 1. Log into the target client. Example: 900 - A5B With User ID : sap* Password : pass 2. Go to T-code: SCCL 3. Specify the - source client Ex: 400 - Profile Types of Profiles: Ex: SAP_ALL a. SAP_ALL – All clients specified data b. SAP_APPL – Customizing and application data c. SAP_CUST – Customizing SAP BASIS 45
  45. 45. Parameters d. SAP_USER – User Master Record and Authentication Profiles. e. SAP_UCUS – Customizing and User master Records.2. Schedule in Background3. Schedule Job4. Click on Immediate and SAVE5. Click on continue6. Popup box prompts saying client copy can be monitored in SCC3 NOTE: i. Local client copy takes around 4 Hours. ii. There will be around 13000 tables. SAP BASIS 46
  46. 46. Parameters10.4 SCC3:Screenshot 11: SCC3 (Client Copy Log) SAP BASIS 47
  47. 47. ParametersScreenshot 12: Client Copy Log AnalysisTarget clientSource clientCopy TypeProfileStatus Processing, Successfully Completed, Failed.User sap*…...Number of Tables __ of __ SAP BASIS 48
  48. 48. ParametersPrerequisites of client copy: 1. Check the target client number [ should be existing or create it] 2. There should be at least two background files available free. 3. No users should be logged into the Target and Source Clients [ Locked] 4. There should be enough Table Space. 5. /usr/sap/trans should have enough space while performing client export and client import [ only for Transports] 6. Monitor the client copy progress in SCC3, SM37 and SM50. 7. Check the RFC connection (Remote Function Call) 8. Check the size of the client using RS Table Size / RS Check (SE38) 9. Version Should be same [ For Remote Client Copy]Errors while performing Client Copy: 1. Not enough space in the Disk / Table Space 2. Objects are locked 3. Memory restrictions. SAP BASIS 49
  49. 49. Parameters10.5 Remote Client Copy:Remote client copy is done from a client in one system to another system.Example : N6P 600 A5P 700Procedure: 1. Log into the target client with User ID : sap* Password : pass 2. Check the RFC connection between two systems in SM59 If the connection exists it shows in green Color If there is no connection we establish RFC connection at SM59 [Create…] 3. If the client exists we delete the client data by using SCC5. [ For low error rate] 4. Then go to SCC9, here we specify the profile, source client, source SID. 5. Schedule as Background, schedule job, Immediate, SAVE and Continue. 6. Popup box prompts saying “Monitoring can be done in SCC3”NOTE: i. Creation of RFC is checked by Authorization Team ii. If the RFC is created by us, we need to delete the RFC once client copy is done. iii. Unlock the users at both source and target systems after client copy. iv. Remote client copy all together takes around 6-8 Hours [ delete(3) + copy(4)] SAP BASIS 50
  50. 50. Parameters10.6 RFCRemote Function CallDifferent Type of RFC: 1. Synchronous – SRFC – SM59 – We Use it ***** 2. Asynchronous – ARFC – SM59 3. Transactional – TRFC – SM58 4. Queued – QRFC – SMQ1, SMQ2NOTE: To establish connection between two systems we need to configure i. TMS Configuration ii. Configuring CUA iii. Communication between R/3.Create RFC: 1. Go to SM59 2. Click on R/3 Connection 3. Click on CREATE 4. a. Name the RFC: <SID>CLNTNO N6P400 b. Type of Connection: R/3, R/2, TCP/IP, etc c. Description about RFC Client Copy to System xxx / Data Transfer / Etc d. In technical setting TAB, we specify GATEWAY HOST / IP ADDRESS SAP BASIS 51
  51. 51. Parameters e. In Logon Security TAB we specify Client No: <Source> User ID Password Language f. Save the Connection 2. Test the connection 3. Test authorizationNOTE: Prerequisites: i. Version should be same ii. RFC connection should be existing iii. Source and target system should be available. SAP BASIS 52
  52. 52. Parameters11. Spool AdministrationSPAD, SP12, SP01Different types of servers which provide SPOOL process 1. Real Spool Server 2. Logical Spool ServerReal Spool Server:These are those which are configured with spool process. Spool process can be definedbased on the available resources, using parameter RDISP/WP_no.spoReal spool server is a server which physically exists.Logical Spool Server:These servers are defined to handle the load balancing and fail over of spool servers.11.1 Types of Access Methods:Access methods define a type of printing there are three types of access methods. 1. Local access method 2. Remote access method 3. Front end access methodLocal access methodSpool server transfer the data directly to host the host printer or print manager this is thefastest printing. Local method L and C are used to configure local access method. SAP BASIS 53
  53. 53. ParametersRemote access methodThe output process and spool process will be in two different places. Protocols S and Uare used to configure remote access method.Front end access methodUser can print from request printer directory. Front end printing has the followingdisadvantages; a. Printer is dedicated to one user b. If more number of front end printers are configured , spool conjunction occurs, so restrict spool process for Front end printing by RDISP/max_fro_wp_no_sp0=211.2 Various types of spool request: (STATUS) 1. Printing: Printing the job 2. Completed: Job completed 3. Problem: Printed with errors 4. Error: Could not print 5. Waiting: Spool processing 6. In Processing: Spool process is converted into output request.11.3 Various Problems in SPOOL: 1. Network issues 2. device not reached 3. Driver 4. There is a long queue at the printer 5. Cartridges 6. Change in the structure of the program. SAP BASIS 54
  54. 54. Parameters 7. Print job is deleted 8. The user is not having the authorization to print. 9. Out of paper 10. page formatNOTE: No two output devices should be addressed with the same IP address.HOUSEKEEPING JOBSRSPO0040RSPO1041RSPO004311.4 SPAD: Spool AdministrationSPAD is used to define the printer or it is used to check the properties of the existingoutput device. SAP BASIS 55
  55. 55. ParametersScreenshot 13: SPAD (Spool Administration) SAP BASIS 56
  56. 56. ParametersSAP BASIS 57
  57. 57. ParametersSAP BASIS 58
  58. 58. ParametersSAP BASIS 59
  59. 59. ParametersProcess to setup Printer in SPAD: 1. Go to SPAD 2. Give the output device name PR04 or HP08 (case sensitive) 3. Click on output device 4. Here we get the message as “ No output device is defined” 5. then click on display (change)(Pencil Icon) and click on create button 6. here we need to define primarily two TABs a. Device Attributes b. Access Methods Device Attributes: 1. Device Type 2. Spool server SAP BASIS 60
  60. 60. Parameters 3. Device class 4. Model 5. Location 6. Message Access Methods: 1. Host spool access methods [ L U F] C S 2. Host printer 3. Host nameSpecify short name = output device nameClick save SAP BASIS 61
  61. 61. Parameters11.5 SP01 – Output control SAP BASIS 62
  62. 62. ParametersThis is used to check the status of the spool request once the test print is given:go to SP01Give spool request numberclick on execute 4. Here we need to check the status of the spool request. Initially it will be in “In Processing”. We need to check on Refresh to check the status of Test. SAP BASIS 63
  63. 63. ParametersSP12 – TemSe Management SAP BASIS 64
  64. 64. Parameters1. Go to SP122. Click on TemSe data Storage  Consistency Check  Delete All This deletes all Temporary Sequential files that are present.Printers are defined at both SAP level and OS level. SAP BASIS 65
  65. 65. ParametersWhen we log into the OS level give the command # printers To check the various options for the printerThe various options are as follows: 1. Remote Administration 2. Add a Printer 3. Remove a Printer 4. Enable / Disable a Printer  5. Cancel Print Request 6. Check Printer Status  7. Start / Stop the Print Spooler 8. Quit SAP BASIS 66
  66. 66. ParametersSAP BASIS 67
  67. 67. ParametersNOTE: i. Maximum number of spool requests is 32,000. ii. Printer can be licked in SPAD by checking the option “Change  Lock Printer in SAP System” Located at bottom of page. iii. Page Format / Printer Format can be changes in T-code ‘SE73‘. SAP BASIS 68
  68. 68. Parameters12. Transport Management SystemIt specifies transport of objects from one system to another. There are two types of routes 1. Consolidation route 2. Delivery route Integration Consolidation Delivery Development Quality Production Consolidation Route Delivery RouteFigure 3: Transport RoutesThe route between integration/development and consolidation/quality is calledConsolidation route.The route between consolidation/quality and delivery/Production is called Delivery routeTransport Layer:It specifies the path for moving objects. By default SAP is a transport layer for standardobjects. SAP BASIS 69
  69. 69. ParametersTransport Groups:The objects which share common transport directoryDevelopment Class:It is the collection of repository objects. When ever we define a repository object we needto assign the development classWe need to define development class in SE80, while defining development class we needto define and assign to transport layer.Repository Objects:Programs, reports, transactions, functional modules.Repository objects will be stored in Data Dictionary objects.Data Dictionary:Tables (Domain, data elements), structures and viewsTarget group:A group of systems and clients where the change request has to be moved.Transport Protocol: TPTp is an executable; TP.EXE is stored in RUN directoryWhich reads the change request and taskCopy the Contents from database and move them to transport directory when changerequest is releasedWhen TP is not functioning execute SAP BASIS 70
  70. 70. Parameters # R3trans –dWhich generates a log file in the current directory. TP not only uses R3trans but also usesRDDI* jobs which are scheduled step by step. The job sequence and schedule aredocumented in the table TRBAT and TRJOB.TP can be executed or imported at OS level. The commands used are as follows:Log into target system # sesu – # sesu –sisadm Ex: # sesu –f3padm # cd /usr/sap/trans/bin # tp addtobuffer <TPNO> <SID> Ex: # tp addtobuffer F3AK912345 F3P # tp import <TPNO> <SID> client<no> & # tp import <TPNO> <SID> client<no> u1 Ex: # tp import F3AK912345 F3P client400 u1U1 is UModeUMODES are used if we get errors. U1, u2, u126 are used.It overrides the previous commands. The error occurred in the last transaction isoverwritten.12.1 Change Request management:When ever the objects are created or modified in the customizing clients of developmentsystem. The changes will be recorded to change requirements. The client is set forautomatic recording of changes. SAP BASIS 71
  71. 71. ParametersChange request: change request consists of changes made by the developer/functionalconsultants.Change Requests are created in SE01, each change request consists of one or more tasks.Project leader is the owner of change request.Tasks are assigned by developer or functional consultants.Tasks can be released only by the owner of the task. If the owner is not available as abasis administrator we can change the ownership of the task and release the task.Change request Release:In order to release the Change request all the tasks should be released first when changerequest is released 1. Cofiles are populated with K912345. <SID> 2. Datafiles are populated with R912345.<SID> 3. the name of the developer is added to name of SAP directory.Change Request Mechanism:When ever a change request is not released Transport Protocol gets initiated. TransportProtocol reads the content from the database based on change request. Transport Protocolin turn cause R3trans to copy the objects from database to OS format.Datafile CofileRO KO Client Specific ObjectsRX KX Client Specific Text in anyRT KT Cross Client SAP BASIS 72
  72. 72. ParametersMass transport:# tp import ALL <SID> client<no># pf = /usr/sap/trans/bin/tp_domain_<SID>pflNOTE: When TP is finished successfully it shows with a return code ‘0’When TP is returned with 4 – Completed 8- ErrorTransport directory can also be found in STMS12.2 Types of Change Request: 1. Customizing 2. Workbench 3. Transport Copies 4. Relocation of objectsCustomizing CR:Changes related to customer, client specific are recorded to CCR. CCR will be created inSE01. there are performed mostly by functional consultants. These requests can bereleased in SE01/ SE09/ SE10. And these are called as transport organizers. Ex: sales organization, tax settings, creating a company code ( comp code)Workbench CR:Changes related to cross clients customizing are recorded as WBCR. These are created inSE01 and released in SE01 / SE09 / SE10. Ex: All the programs, transactions and time settings etc.Transport of copies:It is used to transport objects such as programs, tables, etc and record them to CR. It isdone through SE01. SAP BASIS 73
  73. 73. ParametersReallocation of Objects:This is used to move the objects with or without development class; can be performed inSE01. SAP BASIS 74
  74. 74. Parameters12.3 Transport Directory: This is the directory where modifying the objects are stored. This consists of subdirectories.BIN: it stores the domain configuration information when a domain is created ormodified.DOMAIN CONF: contains transport domain controller (TDC) information # tp.doamin_<SID>.pfl It is a profile which is used to store the transport tool TP parameters.Changing TP parameters: # no_impoer_ALL=1 We have “0 / 1” Ideally we use 1.This parameter prevents mass transportation.Buffer:This consists of the entries when ever a change request is exported pointing to quality orproduction system. When ever the landscape is established the development objects willflow in the direction of transport rules. This addressing is documented in this directory.COFILE: * * * * *These are control/command files which describes about the changes and R/3 version.DATAFILE: * * * * *This consists of data which needs to be imported into the target system. SAP BASIS 75
  75. 75. ParametersEPS – Electronic Parcel Service.This is used for applying support patches ( .ATT & .PAT files.)Log Files: * * * * *These files give the information about imports. 1. ALOG: gives the information about transport request. 2. SLOG: gives the step by step information of the imports. 3. ULOG: gives the detailed steps of the imports.SAPNAMES:This specifies the name of the developers along with the change.IMP: this is used to view the details about jobs. This is also used to copy the old databasefiles.12.4 Configuring STMS:STMS is used to configure domain controller, system landscapes, establish the routebetween systems.Configuring Domain Controller:Domain controller manages all the systems which are configured to the domain. As a postinstallation activity domain controller has to be configured 1. Log into ‘000’ client with user ID like sap* 2. Go to STMS 3. A pop up box will be prompted to configure domain 4. Domain name will be like domain_<SID> by default 5. SaveInclude systems in domain: SAP BASIS 76
  76. 76. ParametersIf the domain controller is already created we need to include systems in domain.Including systems in domain comprises of two phases:Phase I: a. Log into ‘000’ client with user sap* b. Go to STMS c. Popup will be prompted to configure domain d. Select icon ‘Include systems in domain’. e. Specify the host name, instance number and domain controller name. f. Save g. A request from the system is sent to domain controller to approve inclusion.Phase II: a. Log into the TDC- transport Domain Controller in ‘000’ client b. Go to Option  System c. Select ‘Approve’  select ‘Activate & Distribute’. d. Now domain controller contribution file is uploaded in /usr/sap/trans/bin.12.5 Defining Landscape:In order to define landscape a. Go to STMS b. Go to Transport Routes (Shift + F7) c. Select thee system landscape d. Specify name of system e. Specify name if the landscape f. Save g. Activate and distribute the configuration across the system in the landscape. SAP BASIS 77
  77. 77. Parameters13. Support PackagesAlso called as support patchesSupport packages are used to enhance the functionality or used to bug fixes in theprograms.Support packages are applied through SPAM13.1 Types of Support packages: 1. BASIS Support Packages(SAP_BASIS) It is in the form of: SAP<kernel version><patch number> SAPKB62001 2. ABAP Support Packages(SAP_ABAP) SAPKA62001 3. Application Support Packages(SAP_APPL) SAPKH47001 4. H.R. Support Packages(SAP_HR) SAPKE47001 5. Finally Plug-in patches ( also called Add-ons)Note: BASIS & ABAP support packages follows the WebAS Version, where as APPL &HR follow the R/3 version. SAP BASIS 78
  78. 78. Parameters13.2 Applying Support Patches: 1. Go to www.service.sap.com/patches a. Select support packages and patches b. Search support packages and patches c. Entry by application component d. My application component. 2. Copy the support packages into /usr/sap/trans/sapmnt/trans 3. Uncar the files using the command # sapcar –xvf KB62001.car That is applied if the file is greater than 10 MB If less than 10MB apply through front-end. 4. Define the sequence of support packages/ 5. Apply the support packages through application servers. 6. Define the Queue. 7. Import the Queue. 8. SPDD phase occurs if the data dictionary objects are changed by applying NOTES. Example: Changing EMPID. 9. SPAU phase occurs if the repository objects are referred in customer programs. 10. Finally prompts to confirm the queue. 11. Confirm the Queue. SAP BASIS 79
  79. 79. ParametersSAP BASIS 80
  80. 80. ParametersNOTE: i. If a note is already applied to fix the bug or enhance the program thought ‘snote’, SPAU phase will trigger whole applying support patches. ii. If the notes are applied manually by data dictionary changes, SPDD will trigger for applying support patches. SAP BASIS 81
  81. 81. Parameters13.3 Pre-requisites: 1. There should be valid backup 2. SPAM/SAINT should be in latest version. There should not be any aborted package which was applied earlier. 3. There should be at least two background work process available. 4. There should be enough space in EPS directory. /usr/sap/trans/EPS/IN 5. Always log into the client ‘000” with user Id: DDIC. 6. There should be enough table space below its threshold value 7. Ensure TP is connected to database R3trans -d 8. Apply support patches in sequence of numbers 9. Apply support patches in sequence of components. a. BASIS b. ABAP c. APPL d. HR 10. The sequence in applying support patches should be in Development, Quality and Production. 11. If the support packages is more than 10MB Uncar the file in the application server and apply through application server. Apply this file into ‘trans’ directory [copy it]. Uncar the file by using command # sapcar –xvf <kernelversion no.car> 12. .ATT, .PAT files are occurred into EPS/ IN directory. SAP BASIS 82
  82. 82. Parameters13.4 Support Packages Errors: 1. TP could not get connected to database. Resolution: a. Execute ‘R3trans –d’ which generates Trans Log b. STMS configuration consistency c. Check tp profile is readable [ check permission] d. Check environmental variables e. tp and R3trans outdated or corrupted. f. Execute report RTPTEST which will give you the details. 2. Max Extents reached with error ora1631 / 1632 Resolution: Add extents using SAPDBA tool or SE14. 3. Table Space overflow: with error ora1653/1654. Resolution Add data file for the table space by using SAPDBA tool. 4. SPAM/SAINT is outdated Resolution Import latest SPAM 5. RDDI* jobs are not scheduled Resolution Log into ‘000’ client with user id: DDIC and schedule the report RDDNEWPP. 6. Background job is stagnated with memory issues: Resolution Configure the memory parameters 7. Patch sequence is not followed. SAP BASIS 83
  83. 83. ParametersDifference between support package and plug in:Support packages provide additional functionality for the existing components, these areapplied through SPAM.Add-on Installation Tool (Plug-In):These are additional components which provide functionality like insurance, banking,etc. other than core objects.These are applied through SAINT.13.5 Applying Add-ons: 1. Log into ‘000’ client with user id DDIC 2. Go to SAINT  Installation Packages  Load Packages  Front End It will be displayed on the screen. Select the package and continue to apply. 3. Plug in request a Password along with Note Number. 4. Go to Market Place and download the Note. www.service.sap.com.note 5. Read the note completely to understand the implication of plug-in as the system. 6. If there is a conflict problem with add-on and current support packages. CRT (Conflict resolution Transport) which needs to be applied 7. Key the password and continue. NOTE: We can’t work simultaneously on SPAM / SAINT. Only we have one support package / Add-on can be applied. 8. Confirm the queue There are standard core packages a. PI – Plug-in b. PI_BASIS plug-in c. SI_PI (solution Tool Plug In) d. BI_CONT ( BI_content) SAP BASIS 84
  84. 84. ParametersNote: For Support Packages the process takes around 30-45 minutes For Kernel Patches it takes 5-10 minutes. SAP BASIS 85
  85. 85. Parameters13.6 Kernel Patches 1. Go to SAP market place, download the latest kernel executables 2. Kernel executables are OS and database independent 3. Stop application servers by command # stopsap r3 4. Uncar the downloaded files using # sapcar –xvf 5. The files evaluated are sapexe  OS sapexe_db<no>.car  database. 6. Create a folder ‘runold’ and copy the existing ‘run’ directory into this newly created folder. 7. Copy the downloaded files into existing run directory 8. # startsap r3 and check the kernel version.NOTE: i. Kernel executables are stored in ‘run’ directory ii. /usr/sap/sid/sys/exe/runiii. Kernel version can be checked by command # disp+workiv. If the system could not start with new kernel executables. Then, go back to with old kernel executables v. This process takes around 10 minutes.vi. Check the kernel version before the process and also after the process, where we can see the difference in the patch numbers. # sesu – # sesu – # sesu –sidadm # sesu –sidadm # disp+work # Retrans –d Patch number: 1985 (0000) (0012) SAP BASIS 86
  86. 86. Parameters14. Update MechanismUpdate Mechanism: When ever a user wants to update or create a transaction logs intothe system using dialogue process. 1. User logs in to the database. 2. User request is received by the dispatcher and kept in the queue. 3. When ever a free Work Process is available, dispatcher assigned it to the queue. 4. Work Process rolls the user request and the user related information from user contest to task handler. 5. As the request is related to update, it communicates with Enque process to issue lock to update the records (Time= 1 ms). 6. If the request is from a dialogue instance, dialogue work process communicates with Message Server in the central instance. Message Server in turn communicates with Enque process to issue the lock. The entire process should be completed with in 100ms. 7. User updates the records in Temporary tables; the temporary tables are VBHDR (VB Header), VBMOD (VB Module), VBDATA, VBERR. 8. If the transaction is committed the update process will initiate to update the Database. If the transaction is rolled back nothing is updates in Database.14.1 Advantages: 1. Database consistency 2. User is not waiting for the status of update in database. 3. User updates i.e.; dialogue updates temporary tables asynchronously. 4. Update process reads data from Temporary tables and updates the database synchronously. SAP BASIS 87
  87. 87. Parameters14.2 Types of Update Process:There are two types of updates: V1 & V2.V1: Update is time critical update. Ex: Order Entry, Invoice. V1 has high priority than V2. V1 work process are defined by parameter rdisp/wp.no.vb V1 is also used to handle V2 updates if there is no V1 process defined.V2 Updates are non critical Ex: Updating the monitoring information, static information, etc. We need to define at least 25% of the dialogue work process as update process, as V2 updates are not critical, defining at least one V2 update per instance is enough. V2 update will be defined by the parameter rdisp/wp.no.vb214.3 Update Monitoring:Updates are monitored in transaction SM13. • Go to SM13 • Select Terminated Updates and execute. • The update will have following status o ‘init’ – Update is initialized and waiting for update process. o ‘auto’ – Updates which are running during a shutdown will have a status auto after restart. o ‘run’ - Update is running o ‘err’ – Update is thrown into error. o V1 & V2 – Waiting for V1 to update. SAP BASIS 88
  88. 88. ParametersSAP BASIS 89
  89. 89. ParametersSM14: It is used to identify whether the update is active or inactive.Update process will be deactivated when there is a problem with update mechanism. It isbetter to use this mechanism to avoid inconsistencies in the database.Set the parameter rdisp/vb_stop.active=1And also set rdisp/vbmail So that email notification will be sent in case of deactivation.When it is deactivated, an error message is logged in SM21. Evaluate the log and resolvethe error before activating the update. SAP BASIS 90
  90. 90. Parameters14.4 Update Problems: 1. Less number of Work processes is configured. 2. The update queue increases and more updates are in its state. Resolution: Try to find out the status of the other Background jobs, which are updating the database. The update is consuming more time to update the database, the update queue increases. If it is a generic problem try to resolve it. If it is a regular problem consider increasing update process based on the availability of resources. 3. Check if the update mechanism is deactivated (SM14). Go to SM14, check the status of the update mechanism, and if it is deactivated click the system log in SM21. NOTE: Update can be deactivated / activated manually in SM14. 4. Programmatic Errors 5. Table space overflow. SAP BASIS 91
  91. 91. Parameters15. ENQUEEnque process is used to provide locks in SAP system to obtain the transactionconsistency.Enque locks are related to only SAP application server.Enque process is configured by parameter rdisp/wpo.no.enqueEnque process locks and unlocks SAP objects / SAP transactions.Enque table is stored in the main memory of the central instance.Enque locks are displayed in SM12.15.1 Problems with Enque: 1. Transaction could not be updated due to Enque table overflow. If more number of locks are issued and not released then Enque overflow occurs. Try to consider increasing the size of Enque table 2. Enque time increases: if the work process from the dialogue instance requests a lock, Enque time should not be more than 200ms. If it is central instance it should not be more than 1 ms. 3. Deleting the Locks: user could not get the lock to update the transaction log in SU01, change user DDIC User raises a ticket then go to SM12. Identify the transaction which is locked.Identify the user who has locked the transaction write a mail to him explaining theurgency of releasing the lock. It is better to advise the business users to write to theirsuperiors. Try to communicate with the user and get verbal approval to release thelock. Write a mail to IT manager and the User saying as per the verbalcommunication the lock is released. 4. Go to SM12. Select the Lock Argument and release the lock. SAP BASIS 92
  92. 92. Parameters16. Data TransferThere are various technologies from SAP transferring data from the legacy system to R/3system and SAP system to other system. 1. LSMW (Legacy system Migration Workbench) 2. DI (Direct Input Method) 3. Batch input method (SM35) – Recording will be done.The following are the technologies used to transfer data: 1. ALE (Application Link Enabling). 2. EDI ( Electronic Data Interchange) 3. BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface) 4. RFC (Remote Function Call)ALE: ALE is used when you want to transfer data between clients in R/3 system Ex: CUA (Central User Administration), data is transferred among clients.EDI: It is used to transfer from one R/3 system to other R/3 system or non R/3 system. Ex: CPIC – Common Programming Interface for Communication. It is a SAP defined program to transfer data between systems.BAPI: It is an API to communicate with the systems and to transfer the data. It can beprogrammed in VB or JAVA or any other Programming Language. SAP BASIS 93

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