Pragsmatics
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Pragsmatics

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Pragsmatics Pragsmatics Presentation Transcript

  • PragmaticsJESSICA ELAINE CAVAZOS BABCOCK
  • Over the past years OVER THE PAST 30 YEARS OR SO PRAGMATICSHAS GROWN INTO A WELL ESTABLISHED SECURE DISCIPLINE IN INSTITUTIONAL TERMS.PRAGMATICS IS THE SCIENCE OF THE RELATIONOF SIGNS TO THEIR INTERPRETERS. PRAGMATICS IS CONCERNED NOT WITH LANGUAGE AS A SYSTEM OR PRODUCT , BUT RATHER WITH THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE FORM, MESSAGES AND LANGUAGE USERS.
  • Pragmatic meaningIT IS OFTEN ASSUMED THAT THE TASK OFSEMANTICS IS TO DESCRIBE AND EXPLAIN LINGUISTIC MEANING WHEREAS`PRAGMATICS` IS CONCERNED WITH THE STUDY OF MEANING THAT LINGUISTIC EXPRESSIONS RECEIVE IN USE.
  • Assigning reference in context A LISTENER NEED TO ASSIGN REFERENCE TO THE WORDS THAT A SPEAKER USES, AND SINCE THERE IS NO DIRECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENTITIES AND WORDS, THE LISTENER TYPICALLY HAST TO MAKE INTERFERENCES AS TO WHAT THE SPEAKER INTENDS TO IDENTIFY.
  • Assigning sense in context OBSERVATIONS SHOW THAT CONTEXTUALMEANING IS NOT FULLY DETERMINED BY THE WORDS THAT ARE USED ; THERE IS A GAPBETWEEN THE MEANING OF THE WORDS THAT ARE USED BY THE SPEAKER AND THE THOUGHT THAT THE SPEAKER INTEND TO EXPRESS BY USING THOSE WORDS ON A PARTICULAR OCCASION.
  • Working out implicated meaningTHE MAIN FACT EASILY LIE NOT WITH THETHOUGHT EXPRESSED BY THE UTTERANCE BUT RATHER WITH THE THOUGHT THAT THE HEARER ASSUMES THE SPEAKER INTENDS TO SUGGEST.
  • Explaining the impact on social factors GRICES (1989) THEORY OF CONVERSATION, AND IN PARTICULAR HIS VIEW THAT CONVERSATION IS GOVERNED BY A SET OF NORMS. LEECH (1983)MAINTAINS THAT THE POLITENESS PRINCIPLE IS A NECESSARY SUPPLEMENT TO GRICES CO- OPERATIVE PRINCIPLE ARGUING THAT PEOPLE OFTEN BREAK THE CO- OPERATIVE PRINCIPLE FOR POLITENESS REASONS, IN OTHER WORDS TO MAINTAIN SOCIAL EQUILIBRIUM AND THE FRIENDLY REASONS. LEECH (1983) ALSO SUGGESTS THAT LANGUAGE USE INVOLVES A PRAGMALINGUISTIC PERSPECTIVE AND A SOCIOPRAGMATIC PERSPECTIVE. THE PRAGMALINGUISTIC PERSPECTIVE FOCUSES ON THE LINGUISTIC STRATEGIES THAT ARE USED TO CONVEY A GIVEN PRAGMATIC. A SOCIOPRAGMATIC PERSPECTIVE FOCUSES ON THE SOCIAL JUDGMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH SUCH SCENARIO. ONE OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL MODELS THAT TRY TO EXPLAIN THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL FACTOR ON PEOPLE USE OF LANGUAGE IS BROWN AND LEVINSONS (1978 /1987) FACE MODEL OF POLITENESS. BROWN AND LEVINSON ARGUE THAT SPEAKERS TAKE THREE MAIN VARIABLES INTO ACCOUNT WHEN DECIDING HOW TO WORD A FACE- THREATENING UTTERANCE SUCH AS A REQUEST OR A CHALLENGE: * THE POWER DIFFERENTIAL BETWEEN THE HEARER AND THE SPEAKER *THE DISTANCE - CLOSENESS BETWEEN THEM *THE DEGREE OF IMPOSITION OF THE CONTENT OF THE UTTERANCE
  • CONVERSATIONALPATTERNS AND STRUCTURE THIS IS AN APPROACH THAT STARTS FROM THE COMMONSENSE OBSERVATION THAT PEOPLE TAKE TURNS IN CONVERSATION , AND THAT RELIES ON DESCRIPTIONS OF NATURALLY OCCURRING DATA TO DISCOVER THE RULES INVOLVED IN THE PATTERNING OF CONVERSATIONAL EXCHANGES.
  • THE ROLE OF CONTEXT CONTEXTS PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN COMMUNICATION PROCESS AND SO ANIMPORTANT TASK FOR PRAGMATIC THEORY IS TO ELUCIDATE THIS PROCESS. ONE OF THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF PRAGMATICS IS TO EXPLAIN THE CONSTANT UPDATING OFCONTEXTUAL ASSUMPTIONS MIN THE COURSE OF A COMMUNICATIVE EXCHANGE.
  • The importance of context CONTEXT IS A CRUCIAL FACTOR IN PRAGMATIC ANALYSIS IT INFLUENCESWHAT PEOPLE SAY, HOW THEY SAY IT ANDHOW OTHER INTERPRET WHAT THEY SAY.
  • The impact of speech act theory HAS HAD A CRUCIAL IMPACT ON FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING, AS IT IS PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE IN THE EMERGENCE OF THE FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING.
  • Peoples sensitivities to facePRAGMATIC INSIGHTS FROM FACE TO FACEAND POLITENESS THEORY CAN BE OF GREAT PRACTICAL RELEVANCE TO TEACHERS ESPECIALLY IN TERMS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL INTERACTION.