ROLE OF CARBON CAPTURE
TECHNOLOGIES IN GLOBAL
WHAT IS CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE?
• CCS is a technology that will attempt to
prevent large quantities of CO2 from being
released into the atmosphere from the use of
fossil fuels in power generation and other
• It is often regarded as a means of mitigating
the contribution of fossil fuel emissions to
• There are essentially three ways to capture
the carbon dioxide from a power plant:
• Before the fuel is burned (precombustion),
• After the fuel is burned (postcombustion), or
• By burning the fuel in more oxygen and
storing all the gases produced as a result
In precombustion, the aim is to
remove the carbon from coal
fuel before it's burned. The coal is
reacted with oxygen to
make syngas (synthesis gas), a
mixture of carbon monoxide and
hydrogen gases. The hydrogen
can be removed and either
burned directly as fuel or
compressed and stored for use
in fuel-cell cars. Water is added to
the carbon monoxide to make
carbon dioxide (which is stored)
and additional hydrogen, which is
added to the hydrogen previously
• In postcombustion, we're
trying to remove carbon
dioxide from a power
station's output after a fuel
has been burned. That
means waste gases have to
be captured and scrubbed
clean of their CO2 before
they travel up smokestacks.
The scrubbing is done by
passing the gases through
ammonia, which is then
blasted clean with steam,
releasing the CO2 for
• Power plants don't produce pure CO2: because
there's often not enough oxygen for complete
combustion they produce other pollutant gases
• One way to purify the exhaust is to blow extra
oxygen into the furnace so the fuel burns
completely producing relatively pure steam and
• Once the steam is removed (by cooling and
condensing it to make water), the CO2 can be
• After capture, the CO2 would have to be
transported to suitable storage sites.
• This is done by pipeline, which is generally
the cheapest form of transport.
• A conveyor belt system or ship could also be
utilized for transport.
• Storing carbon dioxide under Earth's surface is
called geo-sequestration and uses things like
worked out oil fields, aquifers, or other rock
formations deep underground.
• Oil companies already pump CO2 into
underground rocks to flush oil to the surface.
• Storing CO2 in the oceans.
• Storing CO2 by reacting it with
minerals, though that requires a lot more
MAJOR STORAGE SITES IN THE WORLD
• Sleipner, Norwegian
• Altmark, Germany
• Weyburn, Canada
• In Salah, Algeria
• Miranga, Brazil
• Hontomin, Spain
• Hastings, Texas, USA
• CCS applied to a modern conventional power
plant could reduce CO2 emissions to the
atmosphere by 80-90 % compared to a plant
• the solvents used to capture CO2 from the
flue gases will remove some nitrogen oxides
and sulphur oxides.
• Increase significantly the emissions of acid gas
• Capturing and compressing C02 requires much
energy and would increase the fuel needs of a
coal-fired plant with CCS by 25-40%.
• These and other system costs are estimated to
increase the cost of energy from a new power
plant with CCS by 21-90 %.
• Water consumption, however, may be an issue
for carbon capture systems which rely on
solvents to remove CO2 from flue gases.
• This increase in water consumption may make
these systems less suited to dry regions.
CARBON CAPTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL
• In ocean storage carbon dioxide reacts with
water to form acid, so the oceans could
become significantly more acidic .
• Another difficulty is that the CO2 would also
eventually return to the atmosphere.
• In addition to the global climate change
impact of CO2 returning to the atmosphere,
leakages pose local risks to health and
• For storage sites under water, there are
concerns about chronic exposure of marine
ecosystems to raised CO2 levels, such as might
occur near injection sites.
• For CO2 storage sites on land, there are
concerns that large scale leakage could harm
people and wildlife in the immediate vicinity.
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demonstration programme for rapid CCS deployment. Energy Policy.
• Tzimas, T., Mercier, A., Cormos, C. and Petevas, S.D. (2007). Trade-off in emissions of acid gas
pollutants and of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture. Energy
Policy. 35 (8):3991-3998.
• Bickle, M., Chadwick, A., Huppert, H. E., et al. (2007). Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation
at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage. Earth and Planetary Science.
• Johansson, M., Mattisson, T., Lyngfelt, A. et al. (2008). Using continuous and pulse
experiments to compare two promising nickelbased oxygen carriers for use in
chemicallooping technologies. Fuel. 87 :988-1001.
• Race, J.M., Seevam, P. N., Downie, M.J. (2007). Challenges for offshore transport of
anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Proceedings of OMEA2007, 10-15 June, 2007, San