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Art  of india
 

Art of india

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    Art  of india Art of india Presentation Transcript

    • ART OF India
    • Incredible India
    • Getting to know India
    • Getting to know INDIA • located in Southeast Asia • the 7th largest country by geographical area • origin of the 4 world’s major religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism • annexed by the British East India Company from the early 18th century
    • Getting to know INDIA • colonized by the United Kingdom from the mid- 19th century • became an independent nation in 1947 marked by a non-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi • Known for • Taj Mahal • Sari • Bollywood • diamonds
    • Art of India
    • Art of INDIA AUDITORY Arts (Music) COMBINED Arts A. Dances B. Films VISUAL Arts A. Painting B. Sculpture C. Body Art D. Architecture
    • Music of India
    • Music of INDIA Classical music diverged into 2 main traditions from a common musical root since about the 13th century. 1. Hindustani music found predominantly in the peninsular regions influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions, historical Vedic philosophy and native Indian sounds enriched by the Persian performance practices of the Mughals the Sama Veda, a sacred text, was sung as Samagana and not chanted 2. Carnatic music means “soothing to ears” completely melodic, with improvised variations main emphasis is on vocal music
    • Music of INDIA Folk music 1. Bauls means “divinely inspired insanity” an order of musicians who play a form of Vaishnava music using a khamak, ektara and dotara. a group of mystic minstrels with a syncretic form of Vaishnavism influenced by Sufism and Buddhism are itinerant singer-poets whose music is earthy, and reflects on the infinite amid quotidian contexts of work and love 2. Bhangra lively form of music and dance that originated in the Punjab region to celebrate Vaisakhi, the festival of the Sikhs lyrics reflect the long and often tumultuous history of the Punjab 3. Dandiya a form of dance-oriented folk music that has also been adapted for pop music practised in (mainly) the state of Gujrat
    • Music of INDIA Folk music 4. Ganasangeet sung in chorus carrying some social message usually about Freedom, community strength, patriotism protest songs about anti-imperialism/pro-socialism due to British occupation in India 5. Uttarakhandi Music pure and blessed music having the feel and the touch of nature and subjects related to nature related to the various festivals, religious traditions, folk stories and simple life of the people of Uttarakhand 6. Haryanavi Music sung and played in the state of Haryana mainly string instruments are used 7. Lavani comes from the word Lavanya which means beauty usually sung by female artistes combination of traditional song and dance, which particularly
    • Music of INDIA Folk music 8. Filmi songs from Indian films makes up 72% of the music sales in India 9. Qawwali a Sufi form of devotional music based on the principles of classical music performed with one or two or many lead singers, several chorus singers, harmonium, tabla, and dholak 10. Rabindra Sangeet created a library of over 2,000 songs primarily influenced by Hindustani classical, sub-classicals, Karnatic, western, bauls, bhatiyali and different folk songs of India examples of which are the national anthems of India and Bangladesh
    • Music of INDIA Folk music 11. Rajasthan a soulful, full-throated music with Harmonious diversity haunting melody of Rajasthan evokes from a variety of delightfully primitive looking instruments creative symphony of string instruments, percussion instruments and wind instruments accompanied by melodious renditions of folk singers enjoys a respectable presence in Bollywood music as well Modern music 1 Indi-pop music  based on an amalgamation of Indian folk and classical music, and modern beats from different parts of the world  much of Indian Pop music comes from the Indian Film Industry  has taken an interesting turn with the "remixing" of songs from past Indian movie songs, new beats being added to them 2 Rock & metal music  its origins in 1960s and 70s when international stars such
    • Art of INDIA AUDITORY Arts (Music) COMBINED Arts A. Dances B. Films VISUAL Arts A. Painting B. Sculpture C. Body Art D. Architecture
    • Dances of India
    • Art of INDIA AUDITORY Arts (Music) COMBINED Arts A. Dances B. Films VISUAL Arts A. Painting B. Sculpture C. Body Art D. Architecture
    • Films of India
    • Film of INDIA Indian Art Cinema •known to film critics as "New Indian Cinema" or sometimes "the Indian New Wave" •Also called as "art films“ and “parallel cinemas” as opposed to mainstream commercial cinema. •usually government-aided cinema. •owed much more to foreign influences, such as Italian Neo- Realism or French New Wave, than they did to the genre conventions of commercial Indian cinema •In South India, art cinema or the
    • Film of INDIA Indian Commercial Cinema •the most popular form of cinema in India •Better known as “Bollywood” •made not only in Hindi but also in many other regional languages of East and South India •another important feature of commercial cinema in India is music •Songs are sung by professional play-back singers and lip-synched by dancing actors and actresses
    • Film of INDIA Regional Cinema India •Many of the larger languages support their own film industry. •Some of the popular regional film industries in India are Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Punjabi. •The Hindi/Urdu film industry, based in Mumbai, formerly Bombay, is called Bollywood. •Similar neologisms have been coined for the Tamil film industry Kollywood and the Telugu film industry. •Tollygunge is metonym for the Bengali film industry, long centered in the Tollygunge district of Kolkata.
    • Art of INDIA AUDITORY Arts (Music) COMBINED Arts A. Dances B. Films VISUAL Arts A. Painting B. Sculpture C. Body Art D. Architecture
    • Painting of India
    • Art of INDIA AUDITORY Arts (Music) COMBINED Arts A. Dances B. Films VISUAL Arts A. Painting B. Sculpture C. Body Art D. Architecture
    • Sculpture of India
    • Art of INDIA AUDITORY Arts (Music) COMBINED Arts A. Dances B. Films VISUAL Arts A. Painting B. Sculpture C. Body Art D. Architecture
    • Body Art of India
    • Art of INDIA AUDITORY Arts (Music) COMBINED Arts A. Dances B. Films VISUAL Arts A. Painting B. Sculpture C. Body Art D. Architecture
    • Architecture of India
    • Architecture of INDIA Colonial Architecture Like all other aspects, colonization of Indian also had an impact on architecture style. With colonization, a new chapter in Indian architecture began. The Dutch, Portuguese and the French made their presence felt through their buildings but it was the English who had a lasting impact on architecture. Indo Islamic Architecture The medieval period saw great developments in the field of architecture. With the coming of Muslims to India, many new features came to be introduced in buildings. The development of Muslim Style of Architecture of this period can be called the Indo-Islamic Architecture or the Indian Architecture influenced by Islamic Art. The Indo-Islamic style was neither strictly Islamic nor strictly Hindu. Ancient Architecture Indian architecture is as old as the history of the civilization. The earliest remains of recognizable building activity in the India dates back to the
    • Architecture of INDIA Cave Architecture The cave architecture in India is believed to have begun in the third century BC. These caves were used by Buddhist and Jain monks as places of worship and residence. Initially the caves were excavated in the western India. Some examples of this type of cave structure are Chaityas and Viharas of Buddhists. Rock Cut The Rock-cut structures present the most spectacular piece of ancient Indian art specimen. Most of the rock-cut structures were related to various religious communities. In the beginning, remarkable Buddhist and Jain monuments were produced in areas such as Bihar in the east and Maharashtra in the west. Temple Architecture In ancient India, temple architecture of high standard developed in almost all regions. The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial,
    • Architecture of INDIA •the civilization in India had flourished along the banks of her rivers, off the sea-shores & in semi arid regions. •wood, mud, bricks, tatches woven of palm & coconut leaves have been used—depending on the locale •huge stones had also been used to create archways, temples ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES and STYLES 1. Stambha 2. Stupa 3. Buddhist (Chaitya & Vihara) rock-cut structures 4. Jaina & Hindu rock-cut architecture 5. Hindu Temples a. Nagara (North Indian) Style b. Dravida (South Indian) Style c. Vesara (Western Indian & the Deccan) Style 6. Hoysala Architecture 7. Mughal Architecture 8. Mumbai Architecture 9. Sikh Architecture 10. Modern Architecture
    • Architecture of INDIA 1. Stambha • Stambhas (pillars) were set up in the Buddhist sacred places & along the highways. • Emperor Ashoka made a major contribution, setting up at least 30 such pillars. • functions as a bond, which joins the heaven (Svarga) and the earth (prithvi) In Indian architecture, different types of Stambhas have been mentioned and they serve different purpose, including the following: 1. Flagstaffs, called dhvaja stamnhas, are placed opposite the main shrine, on an axis with the main deity 2. The Kirttistambhas, erected to commemorate victories 3. Most well known stambhas of India are the ones erected during the reign of Ashoka the Great, and they bear different types of royal edicts.
    • Architecture of INDIA 1. Stambha • consists of a circular column or shaft slightly tapering towards the summit (monolithic). • On top of this shaft is the Persepolitan bell or the inverted lotus shaped base. • Above this is the abacus on top of which rests the crowning sculpture. These three portions were carved out of a single stone (monolithic).
    • Architecture of INDIA 1. Stambha • erected during various periods have shown a development in style & structure. • Some fine examles are the Basarh Bakhira (with lion capital), Laurya Nandangarh in Champaran district of Nepal (with a seated lion capital on an inverted lotus & carved abacus). • The famous iron pillar from the Gupta period is a fine specimen, withstanding exposure to rain & storm, yet remaining smooth and unrusted bearing testimony to the mastery of Indian metal-casting. The Saranath stambha with its four lions seated back to back as its crowning sculpture is a fine specimen. Following the Buddhists, the Hindus & the Jains also had columns. (Garuda pillar at Besnagar).
    • Architecture of INDIA 1. Stambha Vijay Stambha or “Tower of Victory” • an imposing structure located in Chittorgarh fort in Rajasthan, India • constructed by Mewar king Rana Kumbha between 1442 AD and 1449 AD to commemorate his victory over the combined armies of Malwa and Gujarat led by Mahmud Khilji • Dedicated to Vishnu • 37.19 m high and 9 storied tower is one of the most remarkable in India • built partly of red sand stone and partly of white marble • enriched by numerous images of Hindu gods and goddesses with inscriptions at bottom of each • took 10 years to be complete • stands on a pedestal 10 feet high. • Each of the nine stories are distinctly marked with openings and balconies • The interior staircase winds alternately through the central chamber and surrounding gallery. • entire tower is covered with architectural ornaments and inscribed images of gods and goddesses, seasons, weapons, musical instruments etc • portraits of the architect of this tower Jaita and his 3 sons, Napa, Puja and Poma are carved on the 5th floor of the tower • 157 narrow steps leading to the terrace from where one can have a beautiful view of Chittorgarh town and the fort • The uppermost floor has been sealed off and is no longer accessible to visitors.
    • Architecture of INDIA • basically funeral mounds - low circular mounds ringed by boulders • mostly a Buddhist art, though Jains also seemed to have built stupas • was to enshrine body relics in the form of small pieces of calcinated bone of the Buddhist monks & teachers. • consists of a solid hemispherical dome on which stands a kind of kiosk • railing surrounds this (vedika) and even when the construction was of stone, it continued to resemble wooden railings of the past in design. 2. Stupa
    • Architecture of INDIA 2. Stupa The Great Sanchi Stupa • located in Madhya Pradesh • the best specimen of stupa • dome shaped building • the panels are inscribed with many drawings that depict the life of Buddha • Brahmi script carved at different places in the stupa • construction of the Stupa was approved by Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century • built to house the relics of Buddha The Great Amaravathi Stupa • located in Amaravati, Amdrah Pradesh • large Buddhist monument • centre for religious activity and worship for hundreds of years • great dome about 18 m high with 2 lions facing each other placed by the gateway • Dome and railings were made of pale green limestone painted with bright colors • upper part of the dome was probably decorated with plaster garlands--made of real vines and flowers were used to decorate buildings for festivals and special occasions
    • Architecture of INDIA • practice of creating a structure by carving it out of solid natural rock • rock-cut structures that were hewn out for Buddhist and Jain monks • Chaityas were places of worship • Viharas were residence of monks • The Buddhist and Jain monks usually stayed away from the towns therefore they developed Chaityas and Viharas in the hillside • most were constructed in western India • the most remarkable aspect of the rock cut architecture at Karle and other such sites is its close similarity to wood construction • Some of the prominent places having 3. Buddhist (Chaitya & Vihara) rock-cut structures
    • Architecture of INDIA 3. Buddhist (Chaitya and Vihara) rock-cut structures Bhaje Cave • more ancient than the Karle cave • carved out somewhere in the 2nd century BC • houses 2 Chaityas, 13 viharas and a couple of dining halls. Karle Cave • regarded as the largest and the best example of the Heenyan Cave Complexes • contain 1 Chiatya • 1 of the 2 lion pillars(saranath) at the entrance of the caves--only one has survived the shocks of time. • have 2 additional entrances on both sides of the main entrance where Buddhist monks wash their feet before they came in for meditation or prayer • huge prayer halls are one of the main characteristics of the caves in Buddhist style • This hall is 124 ft long and 46.5 ft wide has 31 beams made up of teak wood--symmetrically perfect structure of 31 pillars on both sides • At the back of the prayer hall, the holy shrine (chaitya) has been carved out. Most of the viharas in the Karle caves are two storied and the place where Buddhist monks stayed for meditation • near the entrance of the Karle Caves you see the beautiful temple of Goddess Ekveera.
    • Architecture of INDIA 4. Jaina & Hindu rock-cut architecture • can be seen mainly at Badami, Aihole, Ellora, Elephanta, Aurangabad & Mamallapuram • The Rashtrakutas produced the Brahmanical Kailasa temple at Ellora-- 17 Brahmanical caves & 6 Jaina caves • Aihole has 2 rock-cut temples—1 Jaina & 1 Brahmanical • Badami has 4 cave temples executed at various levels of the sand stone hill • in the South, it is intiated by the Pallavas (dynasty) of KanchiLaksitayatna Trimurti cave temple • a Hindu temple located in Mandagapattu • its early pallava style has bulky pillars, not too many embellishments either in the form of relief sculptures, door guardians are not too bold in their depiction • carved at the edge of another hillock, overlooking boulders Jain cave temple • a Jaina temple located in Ellora caves • characterized by intricate detailing and rich paintings in the ceilings
    • Architecture of INDIA 5. Hindu Temples • earliest temples were constructed of perishable materials like timber & clay • Next came the cave rock-cut structures • Elaborate structural temples with ornate architecture & sculpture came into existence much later • 3 basic styles according to Silpasastras (standards for religious Hindu iconography and rules of Hindu architecture) 1. Nagara – (North India) the tower is beehive shaped 2. Dravida – (South India) the tower consists of progressively smaller storeys of pavilions
    • Architecture of INDIA NAGARA • beehive shape • square at the centre, but there are projections on the outside leading to cruciform shape • originated during the Gupta period (320 -650 AD) • found mostly in North and Central India specifically in Orissa, Rajasthan and Gujarat • consists of 2 buildings, the main shrine taller and an adjoining shorter mandapa • main difference between the two is the shape of the Sikhara • Some temples of this style are : • The Parasurameswara temple at Bhuvaneshwar • Brahmesvara temple in Bhuvaneshwar • Lingaraja temple Anantha Vasudeva temple • Rajarani temple • Sun temple at Konarak • Jagannath temple at Puri Jagannath Temple • famous Hindu temple dedicated to Jagannath (Krishna) • located in the coastal town of Puri in the state of Orissa, India. • The name Jagannath means Lord of the Universe • Every year there is a festival called Ratha Yatra , in which the three main temple deities are hauled on huge and elaborately decorated chariots
    • Architecture of INDIA DRAVIDA • pyramid shape • consisting of several progressively smaller storeys • Vimanam and the Gopurams are the distictive characteristics of the Southern style • stands on a square base • majority of the existing buildings are located in the Southern Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Karnataka • Some temples of this style are : • The Rathas in Mahabalipuram-Tamilnadu • Srivilliputtur Andal Temple • Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, Karnataka • Kailash temple in Ellora Meenakshi Amman Temple • a historic Hindu temple located in the holy city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu • Dedicated to Lord Shiva - who is known here as Sundareswarar or Beautiful Lord- and his consort, Parvati who is known as Meenakshi • houses 14 magnificent Gopurams or towers including 2 golden Gopurams for the main deities, that are elaborately sculptured and painted
    • Architecture of INDIA VESARA • emerged lately as the existence of two basic temple styles: Nagara and Dravida • Dervied from the word vishra meaning an area to take a long walk • prevalent in Deccan and Western part of India and central parts of South Asia • coloured sandstone (pink, buff colour or pale yellow) or granite stones are used to construct these temples • Early temples of this style are: • Lakshmana temple at Sirpur • Vaidyanatha Mahadeva temple at Baijnath • Sikara temple at Baroli • Kesavanarayana temple at Amarkantak • Viratesvara temple at sohagpur Lakshmana Temple • dedicated to Lord Vishnu • located in Khajuraho, India • the name Jagannath means Lord of the Universe • one of the most exquistely decorated, covered almost completely with images of over 600 gods in the Hindu Pantheon • famous for the explicitly sexual carvings on the southern side of the temple
    • Architecture of INDIA 6. Hoysala Architecture • considered an intermediate between the Indo- Aryan and Dravidian traditions • temples have a star shaped base with the main structure standing on a raised platform • 3 shrines structured around a central pillared hall, each with a tower • Pillars with horizontal mouldings, produced by a mechanical process • there are intricate grille windows, an abundance of sculptural details • sikharas unlike the northern style (parabolic) are constructed in well defined horizontal tiers • constructed out of a very fine grained soap stone (chloritic schist)—great quality of the stone is its softness when first quarried but turning very hard on exposure to air • Some of the temples of this style • Chennakesava temple, Belur • Hoysaleswara temple, Halebid • Kesava temple, Somnathapura
    • Architecture of INDIA 6. Mughal Architecture • earliest temples were constructed of perishable materials like timber & clay • Next came the cave rock-cut structures • Elaborate structural temples with ornate architecture & sculpture came into existence much later • 3 basic styles according to Silpasastras (standards for religious Hindu iconography and rules of Hindu architecture) 1. Nagara – (North India) the tower is beehive shaped 2. Dravida – (South India) the tower consists of progressively smaller storeys of pavilions
    • Architecture of INDIA 6. Mumbai Architecture • distinctive style developed by the Mughals in the 16th and 17th centuries • symmetrical and decorative in style • All the early Mughal Rulers except Aurangzeb were great bui1ders • the Mughals constructed excellent mausoleums, mosques, forts, gardens and cities. • main features are: • bulbous domes • slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners • large halls • massive vaulted gateways • delicate ornamentation
    • Architecture of INDIA 6. Modern Architecture • earliest temples were constructed of perishable materials like timber & clay • Next came the cave rock-cut structures • Elaborate structural temples with ornate architecture & sculpture came into existence much later • 3 basic styles according to Silpasastras (standards for religious Hindu iconography and rules of Hindu architecture) 1. Nagara – (North India) the tower is beehive shaped 2. Dravida – (South India) the tower consists of progressively smaller storeys of pavilions
    • Art of INDIA AUDITORY Arts (Music) COMBINED Arts A. Dances B. Films VISUAL Arts A. Painting B. Sculpture C. Body Art D. Architecture
    • Getting to know INDIA