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  • 1. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual SAP HANA Appliance Software SPS 04 Target Audience Consultants Administrators SAP Hardware Partner Others1 2012-05-09
  • 2. Copyright © Copyright 2012 SAP AG. All rights reserved SAP Library document classification: PUBLIC No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG. The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice. Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software components of other software vendors. Microsoft, Windows, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint, Silverlight, and Visual Studio are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. IBM, DB2, DB2 Universal Database, System i, System i5, System p, System p5, System x, System z, System z10, z10, z/VM, z/OS, OS/390, zEnterprise, PowerVM, Power Architecture, Power Systems, POWER7, POWER6+, POWER6, POWER, PowerHA, pureScale, PowerPC, BladeCenter, System Storage, Storwize, XIV, GPFS, HACMP, RETAIN, DB2 Connect, RACF, Redbooks, OS/2, AIX, Intelligent Miner, WebSphere, Tivoli, Informix, and Smarter Planet are trademarks or registered trademarks of IBM Corporation. Linux is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries. Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, PostScript, and Reader are trademarks or registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and other countries. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and its affiliates. UNIX, X/Open, OSF/1, and Motif are registered trademarks of the Open Group. Citrix, ICA, Program Neighborhood, MetaFrame, WinFrame, VideoFrame, and MultiWin are trademarks or registered trademarks of Citrix Systems Inc. HTML, XML, XHTML, and W3C are trademarks or registered trademarks of W3C®, World Wide Web Consortium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Apple, App Store, iBooks, iPad, iPhone, iPhoto, iPod, iTunes, Multi-Touch, Objective-C, Retina, Safari, Siri, and Xcode are trademarks or registered trademarks of Apple Inc. IOS is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems Inc. RIM, BlackBerry, BBM, BlackBerry Curve, BlackBerry Bold, BlackBerry Pearl, BlackBerry Torch, BlackBerry Storm, BlackBerry Storm2, BlackBerry PlayBook, and BlackBerry App World are trademarks or registered trademarks of Research2 2012-05-09
  • 3. in Motion Limited. Google App Engine, Google Apps, Google Checkout, Google Data API, Google Maps, Google Mobile Ads, Google Mobile Updater, Google Mobile, Google Store, Google Sync, Google Updater, Google Voice, Google Mail, Gmail, YouTube, Dalvik and Android are trademarks or registered trademarks of Google Inc. INTERMEC is a registered trademark of Intermec Technologies Corporation. Wi-Fi is a registered trademark of Wi-Fi Alliance. Bluetooth is a registered trademark of Bluetooth SIG Inc. Motorola is a registered trademark of Motorola Trademark Holdings LLC. Computop is a registered trademark of Computop Wirtschaftsinformatik GmbH. SAP, R/3, SAP NetWeaver, Duet, PartnerEdge, ByDesign, SAP BusinessObjects Explorer, StreamWork, SAP HANA, and other SAP products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and other countries. Business Objects and the Business Objects logo, BusinessObjects, Crystal Reports, Crystal Decisions, Web Intelligence, Xcelsius, and other Business Objects products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Business Objects Software Ltd. Business Objects is an SAP company. Sybase and Adaptive Server, iAnywhere, Sybase 365, SQL Anywhere, and other Sybase products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sybase Inc. Sybase is an SAP company. Crossgate, m@gic EDDY, B2B 360°, and B2B 360° Services are registered trademarks of Crossgate AG in Germany and other countries. Crossgate is an SAP company. All other product and service names mentioned are the trademarks of their respective companies. Data contained in this document serves informational purposes only. National product specifications may vary. These materials are subject to change without notice. These materials are provided by SAP AG and its affiliated companies ("SAP Group") for informational purposes only, without representation or warranty of any kind, and SAP Group shall not be liable for errors or omissions with respect to the materials. The only warranties for SAP Group products and services are those that are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services, if any. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty.3 2012-05-09
  • 4. Table of ContentTable of ContentTable of Content 4SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual 8 SQL Reference Ma nua l 9 Nota ti on 10 Introducti on 11 SQL 11 Supported Languages and Code Pages 11 Comment 11 Identifiers 11 Single Quotation Mark 11 Double Quotation Mark 11 SQL Reserved Words 12 Da ta Types 13 Classification of Data Types 13 Datetime Types 13 Date Formats 13 Time Formats 14 Timestamp Formats 14 Additional Formats 14 Supported Functions for Date/Time types 15 Numeric Types 15 Character String Types 16 Binary Types 17 Large Object (LOB) Types 17 Mapping between SQL Data Type and Column Store Data Type 18 Data Type Conversion 18 Typed Constant 20 Predi ca tes 22 Comparison Predicates 22 Range Predicate 22 In Predicate 22 Exists Predicate 22 LIKE Predicate 22 NULL Predicate 22 CONTAINS Predicate 23 Opera tors 25 Unary and Binary Operators 25 Operator Precedence 25 Arithmetic Operators 25 String Operators 26 Comparsion Operators 26 Logical Operators 26 Set Operators 26 Expres s i ons 28 Case Expressions 28 Function Expressions 28 Aggregate Expressions 28 Subqueries in Expressions 28 SQL Functi ons 30 Introduction 30 Data Type Conversion Functions 30 CAST 30 TO_ALPHANUM 30 TO_BIGINT 30 TO_BINARY 31 TO_BLOB 31 TO_CHAR 31 TO_CLOB 31 TO_DATE 32 TO_DATS 324 2012-05-09
  • 5. Table of Content TO_DECIMAL 32 TO_DOUBLE 33 TO_INT 33 TO_INTEGER 33 TO_NCHAR 33 TO_NCLOB 34 TO_NVARCHAR 34 TO_REAL 34 TO_SECONDDATE 34 TO_SMALLDECIMAL 35 TO_SMALLINT 35 TO_TIME 35 TO_TIMESTAMP 35 TO_TINYINT 36 TO_VARCHAR 36 DateTime Functions 36 ADD_DAYS 36 ADD_MONTHS 37 ADD_SECONDS 37 ADD_YEARS 37 CURRENT_DATE 37 CURRENT_TIME 38 CURRENT_TIMESTAMP 38 CURRENT_UTCDATE 38 CURRENT_UTCTIME 38 CURRENT_UTCTIMESTAMP 39 DAYNAME 39 DAYOFMONTH 39 DAYOFYEAR 39 DAYS_BETWEEN 40 EXTRACT 40 HOUR 40 ISOWEEK 40 LAST_DAY 41 LOCALTOUTC 41 MINUTE 41 MONTH 42 MONTHNAME 42 NEXT_DAY 42 NOW 42 QUARTER 43 SECOND 43 SECONDS_BETWEEN 43 UTCTOLOCAL 43 WEEK 44 WEEKDAY 44 YEAR 44 Number Functions 44 ABS 44 ACOS 45 ASIN 45 ATAN 45 ATAN2 46 BINTOHEX 46 BITAND 46 CEIL 46 COS 47 COSH 47 COT 47 EXP 47 FLOOR 48 GREATEST 48 HEXTOBIN 48 LEAST 48 LN 49 LOG 49 MOD 49 POWER 50 ROUND 50 SIGN 50 SIN 50 SINH 51 SQRT 51 TAN 51 TANH 51 UMINUS 525 2012-05-09
  • 6. Table of Content String Functions 52 ASCII 52 CHAR 52 CONCAT 53 LCASE 53 LEFT 53 LENGTH 53 LOCATE 54 LOWER 54 LPAD 54 LTRIM 55 NCHAR 55 REPLACE 55 RIGHT 55 RPAD 56 RTRIM 56 SUBSTR_AFTER 56 SUBSTR_BEFORE 57 SUBSTRING 57 TRIM 57 UCASE 58 UNICODE 58 UPPER 58 Miscellaneous Functions 59 COALESCE 59 CURRENT_CONNECTION 59 CURRENT_SCHEMA 59 CURRENT_USER 59 GROUPING_ID 60 IFNULL 61 MAP 61 NULLIF 62 SESSION_CONTEXT 62 SESSION_USER 63 SYSUUID 63 SQL Sta tements 64 Schema Definition and Manipulation Statements 64 ALTER AUDIT POLICY 64 ALTER FULLTEXT INDEX 65 ALTER INDEX 65 ALTER SEQUENCE 66 ALTER TABLE 67 CREATE AUDIT POLICY 70 CREATE CALCULATION SCENARIO 72 CREATE FULLTEXT INDEX 73 CREATE INDEX 73 CREATE SCHEMA 74 CREATE SEQUENCE 74 CREATE SYNONYM 75 CREATE TABLE 76 CREATE TRIGGER 80 CREATE VIEW 82 DROP AUDIT POLICY 82 DROP CALCULATION SCENARIO 83 DROP FULLTEXT INDEX 83 DROP INDEX 84 DROP SCHEMA 84 DROP SEQUENCE 84 DROP SYNONYM 85 DROP TABLE 85 DROP TRIGGER 86 DROP TYPE 86 DROP VIEW 86 RENAME COLUMN 87 RENAME INDEX 87 RENAME TABLE 87 ALTER TABLE ALTER TYPE 88 TRUNCATE TABLE 88 Data Manipulation Statements 89 DELETE 89 EXPLAIN PLAN 89 INSERT 92 LOAD 93 MERGE DELTA 93 REPLACE | UPSERT 936 2012-05-09
  • 7. Table of Content SELECT 94 UNLOAD 101 UPDATE 101 System Management Statements 102 SET SYSTEM LICENSE 102 ALTER SYSTEM ALTER CONFIGURATION 102 ALTER SYSTEM ALTER SESSION SET 103 ALTER SYSTEM CANCEL [WORK IN] SESSION 104 ALTER SYSTEM CLEAR SQL PLAN CACHE 104 ALTER SYSTEM CLEAR TRACES 104 ALTER SYSTEM DELETE ALL HANDLED EVENTS 105 ALTER SYSTEM DELETE HANDLED EVENT 105 ALTER SYSTEM DISCONNECT SESSION 105 ALTER SYSTEM LOGGING 105 ALTER SYSTEM RECLAIM DATAVOLUME 106 ALTER SYSTEM RECLAIM LOG 106 ALTER SYSTEM RECLAIM VERSION SPACE 106 ALTER SYSTEM RECONFIGURE SERVICE 107 ALTER SYSTEM REMOVE TRACES 107 ALTER SYSTEM RESET MONITORING VIEW 107 ALTER SYSTEM SAVE PERFTRACE 107 ALTER SYSTEM SAVEPOINT 108 ALTER SYSTEM SET EVENT HANDLED 108 ALTER SYSTEM START PERFTRACE 108 ALTER SYSTEM STOP PERFTRACE 108 ALTER SYSTEM STOP SERVICE 108 UNSET SYSTEM LICENSE ALL 109 Session Management Statements 109 CONNECT 109 SET HISTORY SESSION 109 SET SCHEMA 110 SET [SESSION] 110 UNSET [SESSION] 110 Transaction Management Statements 111 COMMIT 111 LOCK TABLE 111 ROLLBACK 111 SET TRANSACTION 112 Access Control Statements 112 ALTER SAML PROVIDER 112 ALTER USER 113 CREATE ROLE 115 CREATE SAML PROVIDER 115 CREATE USER 116 DROP ROLE 117 DROP SAML PROVIDER 117 DROP USER 118 GRANT 118 REVOKE 123 Data Import Export Statements 124 EXPORT 124 IMPORT 125 IMPORT FROM 1267 2012-05-09
  • 8. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualSAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualThis guide describes SQL language supported by SAP HANA DB.8 2012-05-09
  • 9. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualSQL Reference Manual9 2012-05-09
  • 10. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualNotationThis reference use BNF (Backus Naur Form) which is the notation technique used to define programminglanguages, to describe SQL. BNF describes the syntax of a grammar using a set of production rules using a setof symbols.Symbols used in BNF Symbol Description Angl e bra ckets a re us ed to s urround the na me of a s ynta cti c el ement (BNF nontermi na l ) of the SQL <> l a ngua ge. The defi ni ti on opera tor i s us ed to provi de defi ni ti ons of the el ement a ppea red on the l eft s i de of ::= the opera tor i n a producti on rul e. Squa re bra ckets a re us ed to i ndi ca te opti ona l el ements i n a formul a . Opti ona l el ements ma y be [] s peci fi ed or omi tted. Bra ces group el ements i n a formul a . Repeti ti ve el ements (zero or more el ements ) ca n be s peci fi ed {} wi thi n bra ce s ymbol s . The a l terna ti ve opera tor i ndi ca tes tha t the porti on of the formul a fol l owi ng the ba r i s a n | a l terna ti ve to the porti on precedi ng the ba r. The el l i ps i s i ndi ca tes tha t the el ement ma y be repea ted a ny number of ti mes . If el l i ps i s a ppea rs ... a fter grouped el ements s peci fyi ng tha t the grouped el ements encl os ed wi th bra ces a re repea ted. If el l i ps i s a ppea rs a fter a s i ngl e el ement, onl y tha t el ement i s repea ted. Introduces norma l Engl i s h text. Thi s i s us ed when the defi ni ti on of a s ynta cti c el ement i s not !! expres s ed i n BNF.10 2012-05-09
  • 11. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualIntroductionThis chapter describes the SAP HANA Database implementation of Structured Query Language (SQL). Itexplains the characteristics of SQL, also how to manage comments and reserve words.SQLSQL stands for Structured Query Language. It is a standardized language for communicating with a relationaldatabase. SQL is used to retrieve, store or manipulate information in the database.SQL statements perform the following tasks: Schema definition and manipulation Data manipulation System management Session management Transaction managementSupported Languages and Code PagesThe SAP HANA Database supports Unicode to allow the use of all languages in the Unicode Standard and 7 BitASCII code page without restriction.CommentYou can add comments to improve readability and maintainability of your SQL statements. Comments aredelimited in SQL statements as follows: Double hyphens "--". Everything after the double hyphen until the end of a line is considered by the SQL parser to be a comment "/*" and "*/". This style of commenting is used to place comments on multiple lines. All text between the opening "/*" and closing "*/" is ignored by the SQL parser.IdentifiersSyntax: <identifier> ::= <simple_identifier> | <double_quotes><special_identifier><double_qu otes> <simple_identifier> ::= <letter> [{<letter_or_digit>|<underscore>}, ...] <double_quotes> ::= " <special_identifier> ::= any character <letter> ::= A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | a | b | c | d | e | f | g | h | i | j | k | l | m | n | o | p | q | r | s | t | u | v | w | x | y | z <digit> ::= 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 <letter_or_digit> ::= <letter> | <digit> <underscore> ::= _Identifiers are used to represent names used in SQL statement including table name, view name, synonymname, column name, index name, function name, procedure name, user name, role name, and so on. Thereare two kinds of identifiers; undelimited identifiers and delimited identifiers. Undelimited table and column names must start with a letter and cannot contain any symbols other than digits or an underscore "_". Delimited identifiers are enclosed in the delimiter, double quotes, then the identifier can contain any character including special characters. For example, "AB$%CD" is a valid identifier name. Limitations: "_SYS_" is reserved exclusively for database engine, hence not allowed at the beginning of schema object names. Role name and user name must be specified as undelimited identifiers. Maximum length for the identifiers is 127 characters.Single Quotation MarkSingle quotation marks are used to delimit string literals and single quotation mark itself can be representedusing two single quotation marks.Double Quotation Mark11 2012-05-09
  • 12. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualDouble quotation marks are used to delimit identifiers and double quotation mark itself can be representedusing two double quotation marks.SQL Reserved WordsReserved words are words which have a special meaning to the SQL parser in the SAP HANA Database thatcannot be used as a user-defined name. Reserved words should not be used in SQL statements for schemaobject names. If necessary, you can work around this limitation by delimiting a table or column name withdouble quotation marks.The following table lists all the current and future reserved words for the SAP HANA Database. ALL ALTER AS BEFORE BEGIN BOTH CASE CHAR CONDITION CONNECT CROSS CUBE CURRENT_CONNECTION CURRENT_DATE CURRENT_SCHEMA CURRENT_TIME CURRENT_TIMESTAMP CURRENT_USER CURRENT_UTCDATE CURRENT_UTCTIME CURRENT_UTCTIMESTAMP CURRVAL CURSOR DECLARE DISTINCT ELSE ELSEIF ELSIF END EXCEPT EXCEPTION EXEC FOR FROM FULL GROUP HAVING IF IN INNER INOUT INTERSECT INTO IS JOIN LEADING LEFT LIMIT LOOP MINUS NATURAL NEXTVAL NULL ON ORDER OUT PRIOR RETURN RETURNS REVERSE RIGHT ROLLUP ROWID SELECT SET SQL START SYSDATE SYSTIME SYSTIMESTAMP SYSUUID TOP TRAILING UNION USING UTCDATE UTCTIME UTCTIMESTAMP VALUES WHEN WHERE WHILE WITHTable 1. Reserved Words12 2012-05-09
  • 13. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualData TypesThis section describes the data types used in the SAP HANA Database.Data type specifies the characteristics of a data value. A special value of NULL is included in every data typeto indicate the absence of a value. The following table shows the built-in data types available in the SAPHANA Database.Classification of Data TypesIn the SAP HANA Database each data type can be classified by its characteristic as follows: Classification Data Type Da teti me types DATE, TIME, SECONDDATE, TIMESTAMP Numeri c types TINYINT, SMALLINT, INTEGER, BIGINT, SMALLDECIMAL, DECIMAL, REAL, DOUBLE Cha ra cter s tri ng types VARCHAR, NVARCHAR, ALPHANUM, SHORTTEXT Bi na ry types VARBINARY La rge Object types BLOB, CLOB, NCLOB, TEXTTable 2: Classification of data typesDatetime Types DATE The DATE data type consists of year, month, and day information to represent a date value. The default format for the DATE data type is YYYY-MM-DD. YYYY represents the year, MM represents the month, and DD represents the day. The range of date value is 0001-01-01 through 9999-12-31. TIME The TIME data type consists of hour, minute, and second to represent a time value. The default format for the TIME data type is HH24:MI:SS. HH24 represents the hour from 0 to 24, MI represents the minute from 0 to 59, SS represents the second from 0 to 59. SECONDDATE The SECONDDATE data type consists of year, month, day, hour, minute and second information to represent a date with time value. The default format for the SECONDDATE data type is YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS. YYYY represents the year, MM represents the month, DD represents the day, HH24 represents hour, MI represents minute, and SS represents seconds. The range of date value is 0001- 01-01 00:00:01 through 9999-12-31 24:00:00. TIMESTAMP The TIMESTAMP data type consists of date and time information. Its default format is YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS.FF7. FFn represents the fractional seconds where n indicates the number of digits in fractional part. . The range of the timestamp value is 0001-01-01 00:00:00.0000000 through 9999-12- 31 23:59:59.9999999.For details on supported formats for datetime types, refer to Table 4, Table 5, Table 6 and Table 7 below.Date FormatsThe following date/time formats can be used when parsing a string into a date/time type and converting adate/time type value into a string value. Please note that format for Timestamp is the combination of Dateand Time with the additional support for fractional seconds.13 2012-05-09
  • 14. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual Format Description Examples YYYY-MM-DD Defa ul t forma t INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (1957-06-13); YYYY from 0001 to 9999, MM from 1 to 12, DD from 1 to 31. If yea r ha s l es s tha n four di gi ts , month ha s l es s tha n two di gi ts , or INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (1957-06-13); YYYY/MM/DD da y ha s l es s tha n two di gi ts , then va l ues INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (1957/06/13); YYYY/MM-DD wi l l be pa dded by one or more zeros . For INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (1957/06-13); YYYY-MM/DD exa mpl e, a two di gi t yea r 45 wi l l be s a ved INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (1957-06/13); a s yea r 0045, a one di gi t month 9 wi l l be s a ved a s 09, a nd a one di gi t da y 2 wi l l be s a ved a s 02. YYYYMMDD ABAP Da ta Type, DATS forma t. INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (19570613); INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (TO_DATE(2040- Ja n-10, YYYY-MON-DD)); MON Abbrevi a ted na me of month. (JAN. ~ DEC.) INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (TO_DATE(Ja n- 10, MON-DD)); INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (TO_DATE(2040- Ja nua ry-10, YYYY-MONTH-DD)); MONTH Na me of month. (JANUARY - DECEMBER). INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (TO_DATE(Ja nua ry-10, MONTH-DD)); INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (TO_DATE(2040-I- 10, YYYY-RM-DD)); RM Roma n numera l month (I-XII; JAN = I). INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (TO_DATE(I-10, RM-DD)); INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (TO_DATE(204, DDD)); DDD Da y of yea r (1-366). INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (TO_DATE(2001- 204,YYYY-DDD));Table 4: Supported formats for DateTime Formats Format Description Examples HH24:MI:SS Defa ul t forma t HH from 0 to 23. MI from 0 to 59. SS from 0 to 59. FFF from 0 to 999. If one di gi t hour, mi nute, s econd i s s peci fi ed, then 0 wi l l be i ns erted i nto INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (23:59:59); HH:MI[:SS][AM|PM] the va l ue. For exa mpl e, 9:9:9 wi l l be INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (3:47:39 AM); HH12:MI[:SS][AM|PM] s a ved a s 09:09:09. INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (9:9:9 AM); HH24:MI[:SS] HH12 i ndi ca tes 12 hour cl ock a nd HH24 INSERT INTO TBL VALUES i ndi ca tes 24 hour cl ock. (TO_TIME(11:59:59,HH12:MI:SS); AM or PM ca n be s peci fi ed a s a s uffi x to i ndi ca te the ti me va l ue i s before or a fter noon. INSERT INTO TBL VALUES (TO_TIME(12345, SSSSS Seconds pa s t mi dni ght (0-86399). SSSSS));Table 5: Supported formats for TimeTimestamp Formats Format Description Examples YYYY-MM-DD Defa ul t forma t HH24:MI:SS.FF7 Fra cti ona l s econds ha s the ra nge 1 to 7 a fter the FF pa ra meter to s peci fy the INSERT INTO TBL VALUES number of di gi ts i n the fra cti ona l s econd FF [1..7] (TO_TIMESTAMP(2011-05-11 porti on of the da te ti me va l ue returned. If 12:59.999,YYYY-MM-DD HH:SS.FF3)); a di gi t i s not s peci fi ed, the defa ul t va l ue i s us ed.Table 6: Supported formats for TimestampAdditional Formats14 2012-05-09
  • 15. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual Format Description Example D Da y of week (1-7). TO_CHAR(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,D) DAY Na me of da y (MONDAY - SUNDAY). TO_CHAR(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,DAY) DY Abbrevi a ted na me of da y (MON - SUN). TO_CHAR(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,DY) MON Abbrevi a ted month na me (JAN - DEC) TO_CHAR(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,MON) MONTH Ful l month na me (JANUARY - DECEMBER) TO_CHAR(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,MONTH) Roma n numera l month (I - XII; I i s for RM TO_CHAR(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,RM) Ja nua ry) Q Qua rter of yea r (1, 2, 3, 4) TO_CHAR(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,Q) W Week of month (1-5). TO_CHAR(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,W) WW Week of yea r (1-53). TO_CHAR(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,WW)Table 7: Additional formats for DatetimeSupported Functions for Date/Time types ADD_DAYS ADD_MONTHS ADD_SECONDS ADD_YEARS COALESCE CURRENT_DATE CURRENT_TIME CURRENT_TIMESTAMP CURRENT_UTCDATE CURRENT_UTCTIME CURRENT_UTCTIMESTAMP DAYNAME DAYOFMONTH DAYOFYEAR DAYS_BETWEEN EXTRACT GREATEST GREATEST HOUR IFNULL ISOWEEK LAST_DAY LEAST LOCALTOUTC MINUTE MONTH MONTHNAME NEXT_DAY NULLIF QUARTER SECOND SECONDS_BETWEEN TO_CHAR TO_DATE TO_DATS TO_NCHAR TO_TIME TO_TIMESTAMP UTCTOLOCAL WEEK WEEKDAY YEARNumeric Types TINYINT The TINYINT data type stores an 8-bit unsigned integer. The minimum value is 0 and the maximum value is 255 for TINYINT. SMALLINT The SMALLINT data type stores a 16-bit signed integer. The minimum value is -32,768 and the maximum value is 32,767 for SMALLINT.15 2012-05-09
  • 16. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual INTEGER The INTEGER data type stores a 32-bit signed integer. The minimum value is -2,147,483,648 and the maximum value is 2,147,483,647 for INTEGER. BIGINT The BIGINT data type stores a 64-bit signed integer. The minimum value is - 9,223,372,036,854,775,808 and the maximum value is 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 for BIGINT. DECIMAL(precision, scale) or DEC(p,s) The DECIMAL(p, s) data type specifies a fixed-point decimal number with precision p and scale s. The precision is the total number of significant digits and can range from 1 to 34. The scale is the number of digits from the decimal point to the least significant digit and can range from -6,111 to 6,176, which means scale specifies the range of the exponent in the decimal number from 10-6111 to 106176. If scale is not specified, it defaults to 0. Scale is positive when the number has significant digits to the right of the decimal point and negative when the number has significant digits to the left of the decimal point. Examples: 0.0000001234 (1234 x 10-10) has the precision 4 and the scale 10. 1.0000001234 (10000001234 x 10-10) has the precision 11 and scale 10. 1234000000 (1234x106) has the precision 4 and scale -6. When precision and scale are not specified, DECIMAL becomes a floating-point decimal number. In this case, precision and scale can vary within the range described above, 1~34 for precision and - 6,111~6,176 for scale depending on the stored value. SMALLDECIMAL The SMALLDECIMAL is a floating-point decimal number. The precision and scale can vary within the range, 1~16 for precision and -369~368 for scale depending on the stored value. SMALLDECIMAL is supported only on column store. DECIMAL and SMALLDECIMAL are floating-point types. For instance, a decimal column can store any of 3.14, 3.1415, 3.141592 whilst maintaining their precision. DECIMAL(p, s) is the SQL standard notation for fixed-point decimal. For instance, 3.14, 3.1415, 3.141592 are stored in a decimal(5, 4) column as 3.1400, 3.1415, 3.1416, respectively keeping the specified precision(5) and scale(4). REAL The REAL data type specifies a single-precision 32-bit floating-point number. DOUBLE The DOUBLE data type specifies a single-precision 64-bit floating-point number. The minimum value is -1.79769 x 10308 and the maximum value is 1.79769x10308 . The smallest positive DOUBLE value is 2.2207x10-308 and the largest negative DOUBLE value is -2.2207x10-308. FLOAT(n) The FLOAT(n) data type specifies a 32-bit or 64-bit real number, where n specifies the number of significant bits and can range between 1 and 53. When you use the FLOAT(n) data type, if n is smaller than 25, it becomes a 32-bit REAL data type. If n is greater than or equal to 25, it then becomes a 64-bit DOUBLE data type. If n is not declared, it becomes a 64-bit double data type by default.Character String TypesThe character string data types are used to store values that contain character strings. While VARCHAR datatypes contain ASCII character strings, NVARCHAR are used for storing Unicode character strings. VARCHAR The VARCHAR(n) data type specifies a variable-length ASCII character string, where n indicates the maximum length and is an integer between 1 and 5000. NVARCHAR The NVARCHAR(n) data type specifies a variable-length Unicode character set string, where n indicates the maximum length and is an integer between 1 and 5000. ALPHANUM The ALPHANUM(n) data type specifies a variable-length character string which contains alpha- numeric characters, where n indicates the maximum length and is an integer between 1 and 127. SHORTTEXT The SHORTTEXT(n) data type specifies veriable-length character string which supports textsearch-16 2012-05-09
  • 17. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual features and stringsearch-features. This is not a standalone sql-type. Selecting a SHORTTEXT(n)- column yields a column of type NVARCHAR(n). <shorttext_type> ::= SHORTTEXT ( int_const ) <elem_list_shorttext> <elem_list_shorttext> ::= <elem_shorttext> [... , <elem_shorttext>] <elem_shorttext> ::= <fulltext_elem> | SYNC[HRONOUS]Binary TypesBinary types are used to store bytes of binary data. VARBINARY The VARBINARY(n) data type is used to store binary data of a specified maximum length in bytes, where n indicates the maximum length and is an integer between 1 and 5000.Large Object (LOB) TypesLOB (large objects) data types, CLOB, NCLOB and BLOB, are used to store a large amount of data such as textdocuments and images. The maximum size of an LOB is 2 GB. BLOB The BLOB data type is used to store large binary data. CLOB The CLOB data type is used to store large ASCII character data. NCLOB The NCLOB data type is used to store a large Unicode character object. TEXT The TEXT data type specifies which supports textsearch-features. This is not a standalone sql-type. Selecting a TEXT-column yields a column of type NCLOB. <text_type> ::= TEXT <opt_fulltext_elem_list_text> <opt_fulltext_elem_list_text> ::= <fulltext_elem_text> [... , <fulltext_elem_text>] <fulltext_elem_text> ::= <fulltext_elem> | [SYNC[HRONOUS] | [ASYNC[HRONOUS] FLUSH [QUEUE] EVERY <n> MINUTES [[OR] AFTER <m> DOCUMENTS] ]Syntax-rules common to TEXT and SHORTTEXT <fulltext_elem> ::= LANGUAGE COLUMN <column_name> | LANGUAGE DETECTION ( <str_const_list> ) | MIME TYPE COLUMN <column_name> | FUZZY SEARCH INDEX [ON|OFF] | PHRASE INDEX RATIO [ON|OFF] | CONFIGURATION <str_const> | SEARCH ONLY [ON|OFF] | FAST PREPROCESS [ON|OFF]LOB types are provided for storing and retrieving such large data. LOB types support the followingoperations. The length() function returns the LOB length in bytes. LIKE can be used to search LOB columns.The LOB types have the following restrictions: LOB columns cannot appear in ORDER BY or GROUP BY clauses. LOB columns cannot appear in FROM clauses as a join predicate. LOB columns cannot appear in WHERE clauses as a predicate except LIKE, CONTAINS, =, or <>. LOB columns cannot appear in SELECT clauses as an aggregate function argument. LOB columns cannot appear in SELECT DISTINCT clauses. LOB columns cannot be used in set operations such as EXCEPT. UNION ALL is an exception. LOB columns cannot be used as a primary key. LOB columns cannot be used in CREATE INDEX statements. LOB columns cannot be used in statistics update statements.17 2012-05-09
  • 18. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualMapping between SQL Data Type and Column Store Data Type SQL Type Column Store Type Integer Types TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT CS_INT BIGINT CS_FIXED(18,0) Approxi ma te Types REAL CS_FLOAT DOUBLE CS_DOUBLE FLOAT CS_DOUBLE FLOAT(p) CS_FLOAT, CS_DOUBLE Deci ma l Types DECIMAL CS_DECIMAL_FLOAT DECIMAL(p,s ) CS_FIXED(p-s ,s ) SMALLDECIMAL CS_SDFLOAT Cha ra cter Types VARCHAR CS_STRING,CS_ALPHANUM,CS_UNITDECFLOAT,CS_DATE,CS_TIME NVARCHAR CS_STRING,CS_ALPHANUM,CS_UNITDECFLOAT CLOB, NCLOB CS_STRING ALPHANUM CS_ALPHANUM Bi na ry Types BLOB CS_RAW VARBINARY CS_RAW Da te/Ti me Types DATE CS_DAYDATE,CS_DATE TIME CS_SECONDTIME,CS_TIME TIMESTAMP CS_LONGDATE,CS_DATE,CS_SECONDDATE SECONDDATE CS_SECONDDATEData Type ConversionThis section describes the data type conversion allowed in SAP HANA Database. Explicit type conversion The type of an expression result, for example a field reference, a function on fields, or literals can be converted using the following functions: CAST, TO_ALPHANUM, TO_BIGINT, TO_VARBINARY, TO_BLOB, TO_CLOB, TO_DATE, TO_DATS, TO_DECIMAL, TO_DOUBLE, TO_INTEGER, TO_INT, TO_NCLOB, TO_NVARCHAR, TO_REAL, TO_SECONDDATE, TO_SMALLINT, TO_TINYINT, TO_TIME, TO_TIMESTAMP, TO_VARCHAR. Implicit type conversion When a given set of operand/argument types does not match what an operator/function expects, a type conversion is carried out by the SAP HANA Database. This conversion only occurs if a relevant conversion is available and if it makes the operation/function executable. For instance, a comparison of BIGINT and VARCHAR is performed by implicitly converting VARCHAR to BIGINT. The entire explicit conversions can be used for implicit conversion except for the TIME and TIMESTAMP data types. TIME and TIMESTAMP can be converted to each other using TO_TIME(TIMESTAMP) and TO_TIMESTAMP(TIME). Examples Input Expression Transformed Expression with Implicit Conversion BIGINT > VARCHAR BIGINT > BIGINT(VARCHAR) BIGINT > DECIMAL DECIMAL(BIGINT) > DECIMAL TIMESTAMP > DATE TIMESTAMP > TIMESTAMP(DATE) DATE > TIME Error beca us e there i s no convers i on a va i l a bl e between DATE a nd TIME Table 8: Implicit Type conversion ExamplesIn the tables below, Boxes with "OK" means data type conversions are allowed without any checks. Boxes with "CHK" means the data type can be converted if the data is valid for the target type. Boxes with "-" indicates that data type conversion is not allowed.The rules shown are applicable to both implicit and explicit conversion except for Time to Timestampconversion. Only explicit conversions are allowed for converting the Time data type to Timestamp using theTO_TIMESTAMP or CAST functions.18 2012-05-09
  • 19. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual smalldecimal decimal(p,s) Target/ nvarchar smallint decimal varchar double integer tinyint Source bigint real tinyint - OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK smallint CHK - OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK integer CHK CHK - OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK bigint CHK CHK CHK - OK CHK CHK CHK OK OK OK decimal CHK CHK CHK CHK - CHK CHK CHK OK OK OK decimal(p,s) CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK OK smalldecimal CHK CHK CHK CHK OK CHK - CHK CHK OK OK real CHK CHK CHK CHK OK CHK CHK - OK OK OK double CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK - OK OK varchar CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK - OK nvarchar CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK -Table 9a: Data type conversion table Target/ time date seconddate timestamp varchar nvarchar Source time - - - - OK OK date - - OK OK OK OK seconddate ti me da te - ti mes ta mp OK OK timestamp ti me da te s econdda te - OK OK varchar CHK CHK CHK CHK - OK nvarchar CHK CHK CHK CHK CHK -Table 9b: Data type conversion table Target/ varbinary alphanum varchar nvarchar Source varbinary - - - - alphanum - - OK OK varchar OK OK - OK nvarchar OK OK CHK -Table 9c: Data type conversion tableData Type PrecedenceThis section describes the data type precedence implemented by the SAP HANA Database. Data typeprecedence specifies that the data type with lower precedence is converted to the data type with higherprecedence.19 2012-05-09
  • 20. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual Highest TIMESTAMP SECONDDATE DATE TIME DOUBLE REAL DECIMAL SMALLDECIMAL BIGINT INTEGER SMALLINT TINYINT NCLOB NVARCHAR CLOB VARCHAR BLOB Lowest VARBINARYTyped ConstantA constant is a symbol that represents a specific fixed data value. Character string contant A character string constant is enclosed in single quotation marks. Brian 100 Unicode string has a similar format to character string but is preceded by an N identifier (N stands for National Language in the SQL-92 standard). The N prefix must be uppercase. Nabc SELECT Brian "character string 1", 100 "character string 2", Nabc "unicode st ring" FROM DUMMY; character string 1, character string 2, unicode string Brian, 100, abc Number constant A number constant is represented by a string of numbers that are not enclosed in quotation marks. Numbers may contain a decimal point or scientific notation. 123 123.4 1.234e2 A hexadecimal number constant is a string of hexadecimal numbers and has the prefix 0x. 0x0abc SELECT 123 "integer", 123.4 "decimal1", 1.234e2 "decimal2", 0x0abc "hexadecimal" FR OM DUMMY; integer, decimal1, decimal2, hexadecimal 123, 123.4, 123.4, 2748 Binary string constant A binary string has the prefix X and is a string of hexadecimal numbers that are enclosed in quotation marks. X00abcd xdcba00 SELECT X00abcd "binary string 1", xdcba00 "binary string 2" FROM DUMMY; binary string 1, binary string 220 2012-05-09
  • 21. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual 00ABCD, DCBA00 Date/Time/Timestamp constant Date, Time and Timestamp each have the following prefixes. date2010-01-01 time11:00:00.001 timestamp2011-12-31 23:59:59 SELECT date2010-01-01 "date", time11:00:00.001 "time", timestamp2011-12-31 23: 59:59 "timestamp" FROM DUMMY; date, time, timestamp 2010-01-01, 11:00:00, 2011-12-31 23:59:59.021 2012-05-09
  • 22. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualPredicatesA predicate is specified by combining one or more expressions, or logical operators, and returns one of thefollowing logical/truth values: TRUE, FALSE, or UNKNOWN.Comparison PredicatesTwo values are compared using comparison predicates and the comparison returns true, false, or unknown.Syntax: <comparison_predicate> ::= <expression> { = | != | <> | > | < | >= | <= } [ ANY | SOME| ALL ] { <expression_li st> | <subquery> } <expression_list> ::= <expression>, ...Expressions can be a simple expression such as a character, date, or number. An expression can also be ascalar subquery.ANY, SOME - When ANY or SOME are specified, the comparison returns true if at least one value returned bythe subquery or expression_list is true. ALL - When ALL is specified, the comparison returns true if thecomparison of all values returned by the subquery or expression_list is true.Range PredicateA value is compared with a list of values within the provided range.Syntax: <range_predicate> ::= <expression1> [NOT] BETWEEN <expression2> AND <expression3>BETWEEN ... AND ... - When a range predicate is used, it returns true if expression1 is within the rangespecified by expression2 and expression3. True will only be returned if expression2 has a lesser value thanexpression3.In PredicateA value is compared with a specified set of values. True will be returned if the value of expression1 is found inthe expression_list (or subquery).Syntax: <in_predicate> ::= <expression> [NOT] IN { <expression_list> | <subquery> }Exists PredicateReturns true if the subquery returns a result set that is not empty and returns false if the subquery returns anempty result set.Syntax: <exists_predicate> ::= [NOT] EXISTS ( <subquery> )LIKE PredicateThe LIKE predicate is used for string comparisons. Expression1 is tested for a pattern contained inexpression2. Wildcard characters ( % ) and ( _ ) may be used in the comparison string expression2. LIKEreturns true if the pattern specified by expression2 is found.The percentage sign (%) matches zero or more characters and underscore (_) matches exactly onecharacter. To match a percent sign or underscore in the LIKE predicate, an escape character must be used.Using the optional argument, ESCAPE expression3, you can specify the escape character that will be usedallowing the underscore (_) or percentage sign (%) to be matched.Syntax: <like_predicate> ::= <expression1> [NOT] LIKE <expression2> [ESCAPE <expression3>]NULL Predicate22 2012-05-09
  • 23. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualWhen the IS NULL predicate is specified, a value can be compared with NULL. IS NULL returns true if theexpression value is NULL. If the IS NOT NULL predicate is specified, it returns true if a value is not NULL.Syntax: <null_predicate> ::= <expression> IS [NOT] NULLCONTAINS PredicateThe CONTAINS predicate is used to search for text-matches to a search string in subqueries.Syntax: <contains_function> ::= CONTAINS ( <contains_columns> , <search_string>) | CONTAINS ( <contains_columns> , <search_string> , <se arch_specifier> ) <contains_columns> ::= * | <column_name> | ( <columnlist> ) <search_string> ::= <string_const> <search_specifier> ::= <search_type> <opt_search_specifier2_list> | <search_specifier2_list> <opt_search_specifier2_list> ::= empty | <search_specifier2_list> <search_type> ::= <exact_search> | <fuzzy_search> | <linguistic_search> <search_specifier2_list> ::= <search_specifier2> | <search_specifier2_list> , <search_specifier2> <search_specifier2> := <weights> | <language> <exact_search> ::= EXACT <fuzzy_search> ::= FUZZY | FUZZY ( <float_const> ) | FUZZY ( <float_const> , <additional_params> ) <linguistic_search> ::= LINGUISTIC <weights> ::= WEIGHT ( <float_const_list> ) <language> :: LANGUAGE ( <string_const> ) <additional_params> ::= <string_const>search_stringThe freestyle-search-string format is used (eg. Peter "Palo Alto" OR Berlin -"SAP LABS" )search_specifierIf the search_specifier clause is not specified EXACT is taken as defaultEXACTEXACT returns true for those records where exact matches of the searchterms are found in the search-attributesFUZZYFUZZY returns true for those records where words similar to the searchterms are found in the search-attributes (e.g. spelling errors will be ignored to a certain extent)float_constIf float_const is omitted, then 0.8 is the default. This default can be overridden by defining parameterFUZZINESSTHRESHOLD supported by columnstore join-viewsWEIGHTIf a weights list is specified, it must be the same size as the number of (expanded) columns in<contains_columns>LANGUAGE23 2012-05-09
  • 24. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualLANGUAGE is used during preprocessing of the search string and as a pre-search filter. Only documents whichmatch the search string and the language specified are returned.LINGUISTICLINGUISTIC returns true for those records where word-variants of the searchterms are found in the search-attributes (e.g. searching for cats will also return records which contain cat)Limitations: If there are multiple CONTAINS predicates specified in the where clause of a select statement,then only one of the predicates may consist of more than one column in the <contains_columns> listThe CONTAINS-predicate works only on column store tables (simple tables and join-views)Examples:Exact search select * from T where contains(column1, dog OR cat) -- EXACT is implicit select * from T where contains(column1, dog OR cat, EXACT) select * from T where contains(column1, "cats and dogs") -- phrase searchFuzzy search select * from T where contains(column1, catz, FUZZY(0.8))Linguistic search: select * from T where contains(column1, catz, LINGUISTIC)Freestyle search:The freestyle-search is a search mulitple columns. select * from T where CONTAINS( (column1,column2,column3), cats OR dogz, FUZZY(0. 7)) select * from T where CONTAINS( (column1,column2,column3), cats OR dogz, FUZZY(0. 7))24 2012-05-09
  • 25. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualOperatorsYou can perform arithmetic operations in expressions by using operators. Operators can be used forcalculation, value comparison or to assign values.Unary and Binary Operators Operator Operation Format Description una ry pl us opera tor(+) una ry nega ti on A una ry opera tor a ppl i es to one opera nd or a Una ry opera tor opera nd opera tor(-) s i ngl e va l ue expres s i on. l ogi ca l nega ti on(NOT) mul ti pl i ca ti ve opera tors ( *, / ) a ddi ti ve opera tors ( +,- ) Bi na ry A bi na ry opera tor a ppl i es to two opera nds opera nd1 opera tor Bi na ry compa ri s on or two va l ue expres s i ons . opera nd2 opera tors ( =,!=,<,>,<=,>=) l ogi ca l opera tors ( AND, OR )Table 10. Unary and binary operatorsOperator PrecedenceAn expression can use several operators. If the number of operators is greater than one then the SAP HANADatabase will evaluate them in order of operator precedence. You can change the order of evaluation byusing parentheses, as expressions contained within parentheses are always evaluated first.If parentheses are not used, the operators have the precedence indicated by the table below. Please note,the SAP HANA Database will evaluate operators with equal precedence from left to right within anexpression. Precedence Operator Operation Hi ghes t () pa renthes es +, - una ry pos i ti ve a nd nega ti ve opera ti on *, / mul ti pl i ca ti on, di vi s i on +, - a ddi ti on, s ubtra cti on || conca tena ti on =, !=, <, >, <=, >=, IS NULL, LIKE, BETWEEN compa rs i on NOT l ogi ca l nega ti on AND conjuncti on Lowes t OR di s juncti onTable 11. SQL operator precedenceArithmetic OperatorsYou use arithmetic operators to perform mathematical operations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying,dividing and negation of numeric values.25 2012-05-09
  • 26. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual Operator Description -<expres s i on> Nega ti on. If the expres s i on i s the NULL va l ue, the res ul t i s NULL. <expres s i on> + Addi ti on. If ei ther expres s i on i s the NULL va l ue, the res ul t i s NULL. <expres s i on> <expres s i on> - Subtra cti on. If ei ther expres s i on i s the NULL va l ue, the res ul t i s NULL. <expres s i on> <expres s i on> * Mul ti pl i ca ti on. If ei ther expres s i on i s NULL, the res ul t i s NULL. <expres s i on> <expres s i on> / Di vi s i on. If ei ther expres s i on i s NULL, or i f the s econd expres s i on i s 0, a n error i s <expres s i on> returned.Table 12. Arithmetic operatorsString OperatorsA concatenation operator combines two items such as strings, expressions or constants into one. Operator Description Stri ng conca tena ti on (two verti ca l ba rs ). <expres s i on> || <expres s i on> If ei ther s tri ng i s NULL, i t returns NULL.Table 13. Concatenation operatorsFor VARCHAR or NVARCHAR type strings, leading or trailing spaces are kept. If either string is of data typeNVARCHAR, the result has data type NVARCHAR and is limited to 5000 characters. The maximum length forVARCHAR concatenation is also limited to 5000 characters.Comparsion OperatorsSyntax: <comparison_operation> ::= <expression1> <comparison_operator> <expression2> Operator Description Example = Equa l to SELECT * FROM s tudents WHERE i d = 25; > Grea ter tha n SELECT * FROM s tudents WHERE i d > 25; < Les s tha n SELECT * FROM s tudents WHERE i d < 25; >= Grea ter tha n or equa l to SELECT * FROM s tudents WHERE i d >= 25; <= Les s tha n or equa l to SELECT * FROM s tudents WHERE i d <= 25; SELECT * FROM s tudents WHERE i d != 25; !=, <> Not equa l SELECT * FROM s tudents WHERE i d <> 25;Table 14. Comparison operatorsLogical OperatorsSearch conditions can be combined using AND or OR operators. You can also negate them using the NOToperator. Operator Syntax Description WHERE condi ti on1 When us i ng AND, the combi ned condi ti on i s TRUE i f both condi ti ons a re TRUE, AND AND FALSE i f ei ther condi ti on i s FALSE, a nd UNKNOWN otherwi s e. condi ti on2 WHERE condi ti on1 When us i ng OR, the combi ned condi ti on i s TRUE i f ei ther condi ti on i s TRUE, OR OR FALSE i f both condi ti ons a re FALSE, a nd UNKNOWN otherwi s e. condi ti on2 The NOT opera tor i s pl a ced before a condi ti on to nega te the condi ti on. The NOT WHERE NOT NOT condi ti on i s TRUE i f condi ti on i s FALSE, FALSE i f condi ti on i s TRUE, a nd UNKNOWN condi ti on i f condi ti on i s UNKNOWN.Table 15. Logical operatorsSet OperatorsThe operators described in this section perform set operations on the results of two or more queries.26 2012-05-09
  • 27. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual Operator Returned Value UNION Combi nes the res ul ts of two or more s el ect s ta tements or query expres s i ons UNION Combi nes the res ul ts of two or more s el ect s ta tements or query expres s i ons , i ncl udi ng a l l ALL dupl i ca te rows . Combi nes the res ul ts of two or more s el ect s ta tements or query expres s i ons , a nd returns a l l INTERSECT common rows . EXCEPT Ta kes output from the fi rs t query a nd then removes rows s el ected by the s econd query.Table 16. Set operators27 2012-05-09
  • 28. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualExpressionsAn expression is a clause that can be evaluated to return values.Syntax: <expression> ::= <case_expression> | <function_expression> | <aggregate_expression> | (<expression> ) | ( <subquery> ) | - <expression> | <expression> <operator> <expression> | <variable_name> | <constant> | [<correlation_name>.]<column_name>Case ExpressionsA case expression allows the user to use IF ... THEN ... ELSE logic without using procedures in SQL statements.Syntax: <case_expression> ::= CASE <expression> WHEN <expression> THEN <expression>, ... [ ELSE <expression>] { END | END CASE }If the expression following the CASE statement is equal to the expression following the WHEN statement,then the expression following the THEN statement is returned. Otherwise the expression following the ELSEstatement is returned if it exists.Function ExpressionsSQL built-in functions can be used as an expression.Syntax: <function_expression> ::= <function_name> ( <expression>, ... )Aggregate ExpressionsAn aggregate expression uses an aggregate function to calculate a single value from the values of multiplerows in a column.Syntax: <aggregate_expression> ::= COUNT(*) | <agg_name> ( [ ALL | DISTINCT ] <expression> ) <agg_name> ::= COUNT | MIN | MAX | SUM | AVG | STDDEV | VAR Aggregate Description name Counts the number of rows returned by a query. COUNT(*) returns the number of rows , rega rdl es s COUNT of the va l ue of thos e rows a nd i ncl udi ng dupl i ca te va l ues . COUNT(<expres s i on>) returns the number of non-NULL va l ues for tha t expres s i on returned by the query. MIN Returns the mi ni mum va l ue of expres s i on. MAX Returns the ma xi mum va l ue of expres s i on. SUM Returns the s um of expres s i on. AVG Returns the a ri thmeti ca l mea n of expres s i on. STDDEV Returns the s ta nda rd devi a ti on of gi ven expres s i on a s the s qua re root of VARIANCE functi on. VAR Returns the va ri a nce of expres s i on a s the s qua re of s ta nda rd devi a ti on.Subqueries in Expressions28 2012-05-09
  • 29. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualA subquery is a SELECT statement enclosed in parentheses. The SELECT statement can contain one and onlyone select list item. When used as an expression a scalar subquery is allowed to return only zero or one value.Syntax: <scalar_subquery_expression> ::= (<subquery>)Within the SELECT list of the top level SELECT, or in the SET clause of an UPDATE statement, you can use ascalar subquery anywhere that you can use a column name. However, scalar_subquery cannot be used insideGROUP BY clause.Example:For example, the following statement returns the number of employees in each department, grouped bydepartment name: SELECT DepartmentName, COUNT(*), out of, (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM Employees) FROM Departments AS D, Employees AS E WHERE D.DepartmentID = E.DepartmentID GROUP BY DepartmentName;29 2012-05-09
  • 30. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualSQL FunctionsIntroductionThis chapter describes SQL Functions that are provided by SAP HANA Database. Data Type Conversion Functions DateTime Functions Number Functions String Functions Miscellaneous FunctionsData Type Conversion FunctionsData type conversion functions are used to convert arguments from one data type to another, or to testwhether a conversion is possible.CASTSyntax CAST (expression AS data_type)Syntax Elementsexpression - The expression to be converted. data type - The target data type. TINYINT | SMALLINT |INTEGER | BIGINT | DECIMAL | SMALLDECIMAL | REAL | DOUBLE | ALPHANUM | VARCHAR | NVARCHAR |DAYDATE | DATE | TIME | SECONDDATE | TIMESTAMPDescriptionReturns the value of an expression converted to a supplied data type.Example SELECT CAST (7 AS VARCHAR) "cast" FROM DUMMY; cast 7TO_ALPHANUMSyntax TO_ALPHANUM (value)DescriptionConverts a given value to an ALPHANUM data type.Example SELECT TO_ALPHANUM (10) "to alphanum" FROM DUMMY; to alphanum 10TO_BIGINTSyntax TO_BIGINT (value)DescriptionConverts a value to a BIGINT data type.30 2012-05-09
  • 31. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualExample SELECT TO_BIGINT (10) "to bigint" FROM DUMMY; to bigint 10TO_BINARYSyntax TO_BINARY (value)DescriptionConverts a value to a BINARY data type.Example SELECT TO_BINARY (abc) "to binary" FROM DUMMY; to binary 616263TO_BLOBSyntax TO_BLOB (value)DescriptionConverts a value to a BLOB data type. The argument value must be a binary string.Example SELECT TO_BLOB (TO_BINARY(abcde)) "to blob" FROM DUMMY; to blob abcdeTO_CHARSyntax TO_CHAR (value [, format])DescriptionConverts a given value to a CHAR character data type. If the format specifier is omitted, the conversion isperformed using the date format model as explained in Date FormatsExample SELECT TO_CHAR (TO_DATE(2009-12-31), YYYY/MM/DD) "to char" FROM DUMMY; to char 2009/12/31TO_CLOBSyntax TO_CLOB (value)Description31 2012-05-09
  • 32. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualConverts a value to a CLOB data type.Example SELECT TO_CLOB (TO_CLOB converts the value to a CLOB data type) "to clob" FROM DU MMY; to clob TO_CLOB converts the value to a CLOB data typeTO_DATESyntax TO_DATE (d [, format])DescriptionConverts a date string d into a DATE data type. If the format specifier is omitted, the conversion is performedusing the date format model as explained in Date Formats.Example SELECT TO_DATE(2010-01-12, YYYY-MM-DD) "to date" FROM DUMMY; to date 2010-01-12TO_DATSSyntax TO_DATS (d)DescriptionConverts a date string d into an ABAP DATE string with format YYYYMMDD.Example SELECT TO_DATS (2010-01-12) "abap date" FROM DUMMY; abap date 20100112TO_DECIMALSyntax TO_DECIMAL (value [, precision, scale])DescriptionConverts the value to a DECIMAL data type.The precision is the total number of significant digits and can range from 1 to 34.The scale is the number of digits from the decimal point to the least significant digit and can range from -6,111 to 6,176. This means that the scale specifies the range of the exponent in the decimal number from 10-6111 to 106176. If the scale is not specified, it defaults to 0. Scale is positive when the number has significantdigits to the right of the decimal point, and negative when the number has significant digits to the left of thedecimal point.When precision and scale are not specified, DECIMAL becomes a floating-point decimal number. In this case,precision and scale can vary within the range described above, 1~34 for precision and -6,111~6,176 for scaledepending on the stored value.32 2012-05-09
  • 33. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualExample SELECT TO_DECIMAL(7654321.888888, 10, 3) "to decimal" FROM DUMMY to decimal 7654321.889TO_DOUBLESyntax TO_DOUBLE (value)DescriptionConverts a value to a DOUBLE (double precision) data type.Example SELECT 3*TO_DOUBLE (15.12) "to double" FROM DUMMY; to double 45.36TO_INTSyntax TO_INT (value)DescriptionConverts the value to an INTEGER data type.Example SELECT TO_INT(10) "to int" FROM DUMMY; to int 10TO_INTEGERSyntax TO_INTEGER (value)DescriptionConverts the value to an INTEGER data type.Example SELECT TO_INTEGER (10) "to int" FROM DUMMY; to int 10TO_NCHARSyntax TO_NCHAR (value [, format])DescriptionConverts the value to a NCHAR unicode character data type. If the format specifier is omitted, the conversion33 2012-05-09
  • 34. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manualis performed using the date format model as explained in Date Formats.Example SELECT TO_NCHAR (TO_DATE(2009-12-31), YYYY/MM/DD) "to nchar" FROM DUMMY; to nchar 2009/12/31TO_NCLOBSyntax TO_NCLOB (value)DescriptionConverts a value to a NCLOB data type.Example SELECT TO_NCLOB (TO_NCLOB converts the value to a NCLOB data type) "to nclob" FRO M DUMMY; to nclob TO_NCLOB converts the value to a NCLOB data typeTO_NVARCHARSyntax TO_NVARCHAR (value [,format])DescriptionConverts the value to a NVARCHAR unicode character data type. If the format specifier is omitted, theconversion is performed using the date format model as explained in Date Formats.Example SELECT TO_NVARCHAR(TO_DATE(2009/12/31), YY-MM-DD) "to nchar" FROM DUMMY; to nchar 09-12-31TO_REALSyntax TO_REAL (value)DescriptionConverts a value to a REAL (single precision) data type.Example SELECT 3*TO_REAL (15.12) "to real" FROM DUMMY; to real 45.36000061035156TO_SECONDDATESyntax TO_SECONDDATE (d [, format])34 2012-05-09
  • 35. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualDescriptionConverts a date string d into a SECONDDATE data type. If the format specifier is omitted, the conversion isperformed using the date format model as explained in Date Formats.Example SELECT TO_SECONDDATE (2010-01-11 13:30:00, YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS) "to seconddat e" FROM DUMMY; to seconddate 2010-01-11 13:30:00.0TO_SMALLDECIMALSyntax TO_SMALLDECIMAL (value)DescriptionConverts the value to a SMALLDECIMAL data type.Example SELECT TO_SMALLDECIMAL(7654321.89) "to smalldecimal" FROM DUMMY; to smalldecimal 7654321.89TO_SMALLINTSyntax TO_SMALLINT (value)DescriptionConverts the value to a SMALLINT data type.Example SELECT TO_SMALLINT (10) "to smallint" FROM DUMMY; to smallint 10TO_TIMESyntax TO_TIME (t [, format])DescriptionConverts a time string t into the TIME data type. If the format specifier is omitted, the conversion isperformed using the time format model as explained in Time Formats.Example SELECT TO_TIME (08:30 AM, HH:MI AM) "to time" FROM DUMMY; to time 08:30:00TO_TIMESTAMP35 2012-05-09
  • 36. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualSyntax TO_TIMESTAMP (d [, format])DescriptionConverts a date string d into the TIMESTAMP data type. If the format specifier is omitted, the conversion isperformed using the date format model as explained in Date Formats.Example SELECT TO_TIMESTAMP (2010-01-11 13:30:00, YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS) "to timestamp" FROM DUMMY; to timestamp 2010-01-11 13:30:00.0TO_TINYINTSyntax TO_TINYINT (value)DescriptionConverts the value to a TINYINT data type.Example SELECT TO_TINYINT (10) "to tinyint" FROM DUMMY; to tinyint 10TO_VARCHARSyntax TO_VARCHAR (value [, format])DescriptionConverts a given value to a VARCHAR character data type. If the format specifier is omitted, the conversion isperformed using the date format model as explained in Date Formats.Example SELECT TO_VARCHAR (TO_DATE(2009-12-31), YYYY/MM/DD) "to char" FROM DUMMY; to char 2009/12/31DateTime FunctionsADD_DAYSSyntax ADD_DAYS (d, n)DescriptionComputes the date d plus n days.Example36 2012-05-09
  • 37. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual SELECT ADD_DAYS (TO_DATE (2009-12-05, YYYY-MM-DD), 30) "add days" FROM DUMMY; add days 2010-01-04ADD_MONTHSSyntax ADD_MONTHS (d, n)DescriptionComputes the date d plus n months.Example SELECT ADD_MONTHS (TO_DATE (2009-12-05, YYYY-MM-DD), 1) "add months" FROM DUMMY ; add months 2010-01-05ADD_SECONDSSyntax ADD_SECONDS (t, n)DescriptionComputes the time t plus n seconds.Example SELECT ADD_SECONDS (TO_TIMESTAMP (2012-01-01 23:30:45), 60*30) "add seconds" FROM DUMMY; add seconds 2012-01-02 00:00:45.0ADD_YEARSSyntax ADD_YEARS (d, n)DescriptionComputes the date d plus n years.Example SELECT ADD_YEARS (TO_DATE (2009-12-05, YYYY-MM-DD), 1) "add years" FROM DUMMY; add years 2010-12-05CURRENT_DATESyntax CURRENT_DATEDescriptionReturns the current local system date.37 2012-05-09
  • 38. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualExample SELECT CURRENT_DATE "current date" FROM DUMMY; current date 2010-01-11CURRENT_TIMESyntax CURRENT_TIMEDescriptionReturns the current local system time.Example SELECT CURRENT_TIME "current time" FROM DUMMY; current time 17:37:37CURRENT_TIMESTAMPSyntax CURRENT_TIMESTAMPDescriptionReturns the current local system timestamp information.Example SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP "current timestamp" FROM DUMMY; current timestamp 2010-01-11 17:38:48.802CURRENT_UTCDATESyntax CURRENT_UTCDATEDescriptionReturns the current UTC date. The UTC stands for Coordinated Universal Time, also known as GreenwichMean Time (GMT).Example SELECT CURRENT_UTCDATE "Coordinated Universal Date" FROM DUMMY; Coordinated Universal Time 2010-01-11CURRENT_UTCTIMESyntax CURRENT_UTCTIMEDescription38 2012-05-09
  • 39. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualReturns the current UTC time.Example SELECT CURRENT_UTCTIME "Coordinated Universal Time" FROM DUMMY; Coordinated Universal Time 08:41:19CURRENT_UTCTIMESTAMPSyntax CURRENT_UTCTIMESTAMPDescriptionReturns the current UTC timestamp.Example SELECT CURRENT_UTCTIMESTAMP "Coordinated Universal Timestamp" FROM DUMMY; Coordinated Universal Timestamp 2010-01-11 08:41:42.484DAYNAMESyntax DAYNAME (d)DescriptionReturns the weekday in English for date d.Example SELECT DAYNAME (2011-05-30) "dayname" FROM DUMMY; dayname MONDAYDAYOFMONTHSyntax DAYOFMONTH (d)DescriptionReturns an integer the day of the month for date d.Example SELECT DAYOFMONTH (2011-05-30) "dayofmonth" FROM DUMMY; dayofmonth 30DAYOFYEARSyntax DAYOFYEAR (d)39 2012-05-09
  • 40. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualDescriptionReturns an integer representation of the day of the year for date d.Example SELECT DAYOFYEAR (2011-05-30) "dayofyear" FROM DUMMY; dayofyear 150DAYS_BETWEENSyntax DAYS_BETWEEN (d1, d2)DescriptionComputes the number of days between d1 and d2.Example SELECT DAYS_BETWEEN (TO_DATE (2009-12-05, YYYY-MM-DD), TO_DATE(2010-01-05, Y YYY-MM-DD)) "days between" FROM DUMMY; days between 31EXTRACTSyntax EXTRACT ({YEAR | MONTH | DAY | HOUR | MINUTE | SECOND} FROM d)DescriptionFinds and returns the value of a specified datetime field from date d.Example SELECT EXTRACT (YEAR FROM TO_DATE (2010-01-04, YYYY-MM-DD)) "extract" FROM DUM MY; extract 2010HOURSyntax HOUR (t)DescriptionReturns an integer representation of the hour for time t.Example SELECT HOUR (12:34:56) "hour" FROM DUMMY; hour 12ISOWEEKSyntax40 2012-05-09
  • 41. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual ISOWEEK (d)DescriptionReturns the ISO year and week numbers of date d. The week number is prefixed by the letter W.Please also see WEEKExample SELECT ISOWEEK (TO_DATE(2011-05-30, YYYY-MM-DD)) "isoweek" FROM DUMMY; isoweek 2011-W22LAST_DAYSyntax LAST_DAY (d)DescriptionReturns the date of the last day of the month that contains the date d.Example SELECT LAST_DAY (TO_DATE(2010-01-04, YYYY-MM-DD)) "last day" FROM DUMMY; last day 2010-01-31LOCALTOUTCSyntax LOCALTOUTC (t, timezone)DescriptionConvert the local time t from a timezone to the UTC(GMT) timeExample SELECT LOCALTOUTC (TO_TIMESTAMP(2012-01-01 01:00:00, YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS), EST) "localtoutc" FROM DUMMY; localtoutc 2012-01-01 06:00:00.0MINUTESyntax MINUTE (t)DescriptionReturns an integer representation of the minute for time t.Example SELECT MINUTE (12:34:56) "minute" FROM DUMMY; minute 3441 2012-05-09
  • 42. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualMONTHSyntax MONTH(d)DescriptionReturns the number of the month from date d.Example SELECT MONTH (2011-05-30) "month" FROM DUMMY; month 5MONTHNAMESyntax MONTHNAME(d)DescriptionReturns the name of the month in English for date d.Example SELECT MONTHNAME (2011-05-30) "monthname" FROM DUMMY; monthname MAYNEXT_DAYSyntax NEXT_DAY (d)DescriptionReturns the date of the next day after date d.Example SELECT NEXT_DAY (TO_DATE (2009-12-31, YYYY-MM-DD)) "next day" FROM DUMMY; next day 2010-01-01NOWSyntax NOW ()DescriptionReturns the current timestamp.Example SELECT NOW () "now" FROM DUMMY; now42 2012-05-09
  • 43. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual 2010-01-01 16:34:19.894QUARTERSyntax QUARTER (d, [, start_month ])DescriptionReturns the numerical year quarter of date d. The first quarter starts in the month specified by start_month.If start_month is not specified the first quarter is assumed to begin in January.Example SELECT QUARTER (TO_DATE(2012-01-01, YYYY-MM-DD), 2) "quarter" FROM DUMMY; quarter 2011-Q4SECONDSyntax SECOND (t)DescriptionReturns an integer representation of the second for time t.Example SELECT SECOND (12:34:56) "second" FROM DUMMY; second 56SECONDS_BETWEENSyntax SECONDS_BETWEEN (d1, d2)DescriptionComputes the number of seconds between date arguments d1 and d2, which is semantically equal to d2 - d1.Example SELECT SECONDS_BETWEEN (2009-12-05, 2010-01-05) "seconds between" FROM DUMMY; Seconds between 2678400UTCTOLOCALSyntax UTCTOLOCAL (t, timezone)DescriptionConvert the UTC(GMT) time t to the local time in a timezoneExample43 2012-05-09
  • 44. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual SELECT UTCTOLOCAL (TO_TIMESTAMP(2012-01-01 01:00:00, YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS), EST) "utctolocal" FROM DUMMY; utctolocal 2011-12-31 20:00:00.0WEEKSyntax WEEK (d)DescriptionReturns the week number of date d.Please also see ISOWEEKExample SELECT WEEK (TO_DATE(2011-05-30, YYYY-MM-DD)) "week" FROM DUMMY; week 23WEEKDAYSyntax WEEKDAY (d)DescriptionReturns an integer representation of the day of the week for date d. The return value ranges from 0 to 6,representing Monday(0) through to Sunday(6).Example SELECT WEEKDAY (TO_DATE (2010-12-31, YYYY-MM-DD)) "week day" FROM DUMMY; week day 4YEARSyntax YEAR (d)DescriptionReturns the year number of date d.Example SELECT YEAR (TO_DATE (2011-05-30, YYYY-MM-DD)) "year" FROM DUMMY; year 2011Number FunctionsNumber functions take numeric values, or strings with numeric characters, as inputs and return numericvalues. When strings with numeric characters are provided as inputs implicit conversion from a string to anumber is performed automatically before results are computed.ABS44 2012-05-09
  • 45. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualSyntax ABS (n)DescriptionReturns the absolute value of the numeric argument n.Example SELECT ABS (-1) "absolute" FROM DUMMY; absolute 1ACOSSyntax ACOS (n)DescriptionReturns the arc-cosine, in radians, of the numeric argument n between -1 and 1.Example SELECT ACOS (0.5) "acos" FROM DUMMY; acos 1.0471975511965979ASINSyntax ASIN (n)DescriptionReturns the arc-sine, in radians, of the numeric argument n between -1 and 1.Example SELECT ASIN (0.5) "asin" FROM DUMMY; asin 0.5235987755982989ATANSyntax ATAN (n)DescriptionReturns the arc-tangent, in radians, of the numeric argument n. The range of n is unlimited.Example SELECT ATAN (0.5) "atan" FROM DUMMY; atan 0.463647609000806145 2012-05-09
  • 46. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualATAN2Syntax ATAN2 (n, m)DescriptionReturns the arc-tangent, in radians, of the ratio of two numbers n and m. This produces the same result asATAN(n/m).Example SELECT ATAN2 (1.0, 2.0) "atan2" FROM DUMMY; atan2 0.4636476090008061BINTOHEXSyntax BINTOHEX (expression)DescriptionConverts a binary value to a hexadecimal value.Example SELECT BINTOHEX(AB) "bintohex" FROM DUMMY; bintohex 4142BITANDSyntax BITAND (n, m)DescriptionPerforms an AND operation on the bits of the arguments n and m. Both n and m must be non-negativeintegers. The BITAND function returns a result with BIGINT type.Example SELECT BITAND (255, 123) "bitand" FROM DUMMY; bitand 123CEILSyntax CEIL (n)DescriptionReturns the first integer that is greater or equal to the value n.Example SELECT CEIL (14.5) "ceiling" FROM DUMMY;46 2012-05-09
  • 47. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual ceiling 15COSSyntax COS (n)DescriptionReturns the cosine of the angle, in radians, of the argument n.Example SELECT COS (0.0) "cos" FROM DUMMY; cos 1.0COSHSyntax COSH (n)DescriptionComputes the hyperbolic cosine of the argument n.Example SELECT COSH (0.5) "cosh" FROM DUMMY; cosh 1.1276259652063807COTSyntax COT (n)DescriptionComputes the cotangent of a number n, where the argument is an angle expressed in radians.Example SELECT COT (40) "cot" FROM DUMMY; cot -0.8950829176379128EXPSyntax EXP (n)DescriptionReturns the result of the base of natural logarithms e raised to the power of the argument n.Example47 2012-05-09
  • 48. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual SELECT EXP (1.0) "exp" FROM DUMMY; exp 2.718281828459045FLOORSyntax FLOOR (n)DescriptionReturns the largest integer not greater than the numeric argument n.Example SELECT FLOOR (14.5) "floor" FROM DUMMY; floor 14GREATESTSyntax GREATEST (n1 [, n2]...)DescriptionReturns the greatest value among the arguments: n1, n2, ...Example SELECT GREATEST (aa, ab, ba, bb) "greatest" FROM DUMMY; greatest bbHEXTOBINSyntax HEXTOBIN (value)DescriptionConverts a hexadecimal value to a binary value.Example SELECT HEXTOBIN (1a) "hextobin" FROM DUMMY; hextobin 1ALEASTSyntax LEAST (n1 [, n2]...)DescriptionReturns the least value among the arguments: n1, n2...Example48 2012-05-09
  • 49. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual SELECT LEAST(aa, ab, ba, bb) "least" FROM DUMMY; least aaLNSyntax LN (n)DescriptionReturns the natural logarithm of the argument n.Example SELECT LN (9) "ln" FROM DUMMY; ln 2.1972245773362196LOGSyntax LOG (b, n)DescriptionReturns the natural logarithm of a number n base b. Base b must be a positive value greater than 1 and nmust be any positive value.Example SELECT LOG (10, 2) "log" FROM DUMMY; log 0.30102999566398114MODSyntax MOD (n, d)DescriptionReturns the remainder of a number n divided by a divisor d.When n is negative this function acts differently to the standard computational modulo operation.The following explains example of what the MOD function returns as the result. If d is zero, then n is returned. If n is greater than 0 and n is less than d, then n is returned. If n is less than 0 and n is greater than d, then n is returned. In other case that those mentioned above, remainder of the absolute value of n divided by the absolute value of d is used to calculate remainder. If n is less than 0, then the returned remainder from MOD is a negative number, and if n is greater than 0, then the returned remainder from MOD is a positive number.Example SELECT MOD (15, 4) "modulus" FROM DUMMY; modulus49 2012-05-09
  • 50. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual 3 SELECT MOD (-15, 4) "modulus" FROM DUMMY; modulus -3POWERSyntax POWER (b, e)DescriptionCalculates the base number b raised to the power of an exponent e.Example SELECT POWER (2, 10) "power" FROM DUMMY; power 1024.0ROUNDSyntax ROUND (n [, pos])DescriptionRounds argument n to the specified pos amount of places after the decimal point.Example SELECT ROUND (16.16, 1) "round" FROM DUMMY; round 16.2 SELECT ROUND (16.16, -1) "round" FROM DUMMY; round 20SIGNSyntax SIGN (n)DescriptionReturns the sign (positive or negative) of the numeric argument n. Returns 1 if n is a positive value,-1 if n is anegative value, and 0 if n is equal to zero.Example SELECT SIGN (-15) "sign" FROM DUMMY; sign -1SINSyntax50 2012-05-09
  • 51. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual SIN (n)DescriptionReturns the sine of n, where the argument is an angle expressed in radians.Example SELECT SIN ( 3.141592653589793/2) "sine" FROM DUMMY; sine 1.0SINHSyntax SINH (n)DescriptionReturns the hyperbolic sine of n, where the argument is an angle expressed in radians.Example SELECT SINH (0.0) "sinh" FROM DUMMY; sinh 0.0SQRTSyntax SQRT (n)DescriptionReturns the square root of the argument n.Example SELECT SQRT (2) "sqrt" FROM DUMMY; sqrt 1.4142135623730951TANSyntax TAN (n)DescriptionReturns the tangent of n, where the argument is an angle expressed in radians.Example SELECT TAN (0.0) "tan" FROM DUMMY; tan 0.0TANHSyntax51 2012-05-09
  • 52. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual TANH (n)DescriptionReturns the hyperbolic tangent of the numeric argument n.Example SELECT TANH (1.0) "tanh" FROM DUMMY; tanh 0.7615941559557649UMINUSSyntax UMINUS (n)DescriptionReturns the negated value of the numeric argument n.Example SELECT UMINUS(-765) "uminus" FROM DUMMY; uminus 765String FunctionsASCIISyntax ASCII(c)DescriptionReturns the integer ASCII value of the first byte in a string c.Example SELECT ASCII(Ant) "ascii" FROM DUMMY; ascii 65CHARSyntax CHAR (n)DescriptionReturns the character with the ASCII value of a number n.Example SELECT CHAR (65) || CHAR (110) || CHAR (116) "character" FROM DUMMY; character Ant52 2012-05-09
  • 53. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualCONCATSyntax CONCAT (str1, str2)DescriptionReturns a combined string consisting of str1 followed by str2. The concatenation operator (||) is identical tothis function.Example SELECT CONCAT (C, at) "concat" FROM DUMMY; concat CatLCASESyntax LCASE(str)DescriptionConverts all characters in string str to lowercase. Note: The LCASE function is identical to the LOWER function.Example SELECT LCASE (TesT) "lcase" FROM DUMMY; lcase testLEFTSyntax LEFT (str, n)DescriptionReturns the first n characters/bytes from the beginning of string str.Example SELECT LEFT (Hello, 3) "left" FROM DUMMY; left HelLENGTHSyntax LENGTH(str)DescriptionReturns the number of characters in string str. For Large Object (LOB) types, this function returns the lengthof the object in bytes.Example53 2012-05-09
  • 54. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual SELECT LENGTH (length in char) "length" FROM DUMMY; length 14LOCATESyntax LOCATE (haystack, needle)DescriptionReturns the position of a substring needle within a string haystack. Returns 0 if needle is not found withinhaystack.Example SELECT LOCATE (length in char, char) "locate" FROM DUMMY; Locate 11 SELECT LOCATE (length in char, length) "locate" FROM DUMMY; Locate 1 SELECT LOCATE (length in char, zchar) "locate" FROM DUMMY; Locate 0LOWERSyntax LOWER(str)DescriptionConverts all characters in string str to lowercase. Note: The LOWER function is identical to the LCASE function.Example SELECT LOWER (AnT) "lower" FROM DUMMY; lower antLPADSyntax LPAD (str, n [, pattern])DescriptionPads the start of string str with spaces to make a string of n characters in length. If the pattern argument isprovided string str will be padded using sequences of these characters until the required length is met.Example SELECT LPAD (end, 15, 12345) "lpad" FROM DUMMY;54 2012-05-09
  • 55. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual lpad 123451234512endLTRIMSyntax LTRIM (str [, remove_set])DescriptionReturns string str, trimmed of all leading spaces. If remove_set is specified, LTRIM removes all the characterscontained in this set from the start of string str. This process continues until a character not the inremove_set is reached. Note: remove_set is treated as a set of characters and not as a search string.Example SELECT LTRIM (babababAabend,ab) "ltrim" FROM DUMMY; ltrim AabendNCHARSyntax NCHAR (n)DescriptionReturns the Unicode character with the integer code number n.Example SELECT NCHAR (65) "nchar" FROM DUMMY; nchar AREPLACESyntax REPLACE (original_string, search_string, replace_string)DescriptionSearches in original_string for all occurrences of search_string and replaces them with replace_string. If original_string is an empty string, then the result will be an empty string. If two overlapping substrings match the search_string in the original_string, then only the first occurrence will be replaced. If original_string does not contain any occurrence of search_string, then original_string will be returned unchanged. If original_string, search_string, or replace_string are NULL then NULL is returned.Example SELECT REPLACE (DOWNGRADE DOWNWARD,DOWN, UP) "replace" FROM DUMMY; replace UPGRADE UPWARDRIGHT55 2012-05-09
  • 56. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualSyntax RIGHT(str, n)DescriptionReturns the rightmost n characters/bytes of string str.Example SELECT RIGHT(HI0123456789, 3) "right" FROM DUMMY; right 789RPADSyntax RPAD (str, n [, pattern])DescriptionPads the end of string str with spaces to make a string of n characters in length. If the pattern argument isprovided string str will be padded using sequences of these characters until the required length is met.Example SELECT RPAD (end, 15, 12345) "right padded" FROM DUMMY; right padded end123451234512RTRIMSyntax RTRIM (str [,remove_set ])DescriptionReturns string str, trimmed of all trailing spaces. If remove_set is specified, RTRIM removes all the characterscontained in this set from the end of string str. This process continues until a character not the in remove_setis reached. Note: remove_set is treated as a set of characters and not as a search string.Example SELECT RTRIM (endabAabbabab,ab) "rtrim" FROM DUMMY; rtrim endabASUBSTR_AFTERSyntax SUBSTR_AFTER (str, pattern)DescriptionReturns a substring of string str that follows the first occurrence of the pattern argument. If str does not contain the pattern substring, then an empty string is returned.56 2012-05-09
  • 57. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual If pattern is an empty string, then str is returned. If str or pattern is NULL, then NULL is returned.Example SELECT SUBSTR_AFTER (Hello My Friend,My ) "substr after" FROM DUMMY; substr after FriendSUBSTR_BEFORESyntax SUBSTR_BEFORE (str, pattern)DescriptionReturns a substring of string str before the first occurrence of the pattern argument in the target string. If str does not contain the pattern substring, then an empty string is returned. If pattern is an empty string, then str is returned. If str or pattern is NULL, then NULL is returned.Example SELECT SUBSTR_BEFORE (Hello My Friend,My) "substr before" FROM DUMMY; substr before HelloSUBSTRINGSyntax SUBSTRING (str, start_position [, string_length])DescriptionReturns a substring of string str starting from start_position within the string. SUBSTRING can return theremaining part of a string from the start_position or optionally, a number of characters set by thestring_length parameter. If start_position is less than 0, then it is considered as 1. If string_length is less than 1, then an empty string is returned.Example SELECT SUBSTRING (1234567890,4,2) "substring" FROM DUMMY; substring 45TRIMSyntax TRIM ([[LEADING | TRAILING | BOTH] trim_char FROM] str )DescriptionReturns string str after removing leading and trailing spaces. The trimming operation is carried out eitherfrom the start (LEADING), end (TRAILING) or both(BOTH) ends of string str. If either str or trim_char are a null values, then a NULL is returned. If no options are specified, TRIM removes both the leading and trailing substring trim_char from string str. If trim_char is not specified, then a single blank space is used.57 2012-05-09
  • 58. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualExample SELECT TRIM (a FROM aaa123456789aa) "trim both" FROM DUMMY; trim both 123456789 SELECT TRIM (LEADING a FROM aaa123456789aa) "trim leading" FROM DUMMY; trim leading 123456789aaUCASESyntax UCASE (str)DescriptionConverts all characters in string str to uppercase. Note: The UCASE function is identical to the UPPER function.Example SELECT UCASE (Ant) "ucase" FROM DUMMY; ucase ANTUNICODESyntax UNICODE(c)DescriptionReturns an integer containing the Unicode code point of the first character in the string, or NULL if the firstcharacter is not a valid encoding.Example SELECT UNICODE (#) "unicode" FROM DUMMY; unicode 35UPPERSyntax UPPER (str)DescriptionConverts all characters in string str to uppercase. Note: The UPPER function is identical to the UCASE function.Example SELECT UPPER (Ant) "uppercase" FROM DUMMY; uppercase ANT58 2012-05-09
  • 59. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual ANTMiscellaneous FunctionsCOALESCESyntax COALESCE (expression_list)DescriptionReturns the first non-NULL expression from a list. At least two expressions must be contained inexpression_list, and all expressions must be comparable. The result will be NULL if all the arguments areNULL.Example CREATE TABLE coalesce_example (ID INT PRIMARY KEY, A REAL, B REAL); INSERT INTO coalesce_example VALUES(1, 100, 80); INSERT INTO coalesce_example VALUES(2, NULL, 63); INSERT INTO coalesce_example VALUES(3, NULL, NULL); SELECT id, a, b, COALESCE (a, b*1.1, 50.0) "coalesce" FROM coalesce_example; ID A B coalesce 1 100.0 80.0 100.0 2 NULL 63.0 69.30000305175781 3 NULL NULL 50.0CURRENT_CONNECTIONSyntax CURRENT_CONNECTIONDescriptionReturns the id of the current connection.Example SELECT CURRENT_CONNECTION "current connection" FROM DUMMY; current connection 2CURRENT_SCHEMASyntax CURRENT_SCHEMADescriptionReturns a string containing the current schema name.Example SELECT CURRENT_SCHEMA "current schema" FROM DUMMY; current schema SYSTEMCURRENT_USER59 2012-05-09
  • 60. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualSyntax CURRENT_USERDescriptionReturns the current user name at the current statement context. This will be user name which is currently atthe top of authorization stack.Example -- example showing basic function operation using SYSTEM user SELECT CURRENT_USER "current user" FROM DUMMY; current user SYSTEM -- definer-mode procedure declared by USER_A CREATE PROCEDURE USER_A.PROC1 LANGUAGE SQLSCRIPT SQL SECURITY DEFINER AS BEGIN SELECT CURRENT_USER "current user" FROM DUMMY; END; -- USER_B executing USER_A.PROC1 CALL USER_A.PROC1; current user USER_A -- invoker-mode procedure declared by USER_A CREATE PROCEDURE USER_A.PROC2 LANGUAGE SQLSCRIPT SQL SECURITY INVOKER AS BEGIN SELECT CURRENT_USER "current user" FROM DUMMY; END; -- USER_B is executing USER_A.PROC CALL USER_A.PROC2; current user USER_BGROUPING_IDSyntax GROUPING_ID(column_name_list)DescriptionGROUPING_ID function can be used with GROUPING SETS to return multiple levels of aggregations in a singleresult set. GROUPING_ID returns an integer value to identify which grouping set each row belongs to. Eachcolumn in GROUPING_ID must be an element of the GROUPING SETS.GROUPING_ID is assigned by converting the bit vector generated from GROUPING SETS to a decimal numberby treating the bit vector as a binary number. When a bit vector is composed, 0 is assigned to each columnspecified in the GROUPING SETS and 1 otherwise in the order it appears in the GROUPING SETS. By treatingthe bit vector as a binary number, this function returns an integer value as the output.Example SELECT customer, year, product, SUM(sales), GROUPING_ID(customer, year, product) FROM guided_navi_tab GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( (customer, year, product), (customer, year), (customer, product), (year, product), (customer), (year), (product));60 2012-05-09
  • 61. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual CUSTOMER YEAR PRODUCT SUM(SALES) GROUPING_ID(CUSTOMER,YEAR,PRODUCT) 1 C1 2009 P1 100 0 2 C1 2010 P1 50 0 3 C2 2009 P1 200 0 4 C2 2010 P1 100 0 5 C1 2009 P2 200 0 6 C1 2010 P2 150 0 7 C2 2009 P2 300 0 8 C2 2010 P2 150 0 9 C1 2009 a 300 1 10 C1 2010 a 200 1 11 C2 2009 a 500 1 12 C2 2010 a 250 1 13 C1 a P1 150 2 14 C2 a P1 300 2 15 C1 a P2 350 2 16 C2 a P2 450 2 17 a 2009 P1 300 4 18 a 2010 P1 150 4 19 a 2009 P2 500 4 20 a 2010 P2 300 4 21 C1 a a 500 3 22 C2 a a 750 3 23 a 2009 a 800 5 24 a 2010 a 450 5 25 a a P1 450 6 26 a a P2 800 6IFNULLSyntax IFNULL (expression1, expression2)DescriptionReturns the first not NULL input expression. Returns expression1 if expression1 is not NULL. Returns expression2 if expression1 is NULL. Returns NULL if both input expressions are NULL.Example SELECT IFNULL (diff, same) "ifnull" FROM DUMMY; ifnull diff SELECT IFNULL (NULL, same) "ifnull" FROM DUMMY; ifnull same SELECT IFNULL (NULL, NULL) "ifnull" FROM DUMMY; ifnull NULLMAPSyntax MAP (expression, search1, result1 [, search2, result2] ... [, default_result])DescriptionSearches for an expression within a set of search values and returns the corresponding result. If the expression value is not found and default_result is defined, MAP returns default_result. If the expression value is not found and default_result is not defined, MAP returns NULL.61 2012-05-09
  • 62. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual Note: Search values and corresponding results are always provided in search-result pairs.Example SELECT MAP(2, 0, Zero, 1, One, 2, Two, 3, Three, Default) "map" FROM DUMM Y; map Two SELECT MAP(99, 0, Zero, 1, One, 2, Two, 3, Three, Default) "map" FROM DUM MY; map Default SELECT MAP(99, 0, Zero, 1, One, 2, Two, 3, Three) "map" FROM DUMMY; map NULLNULLIFSyntax NULLIF (expression1, expression2)DescriptionNULLIF compares the values of two input expressions. If the first expression equals the second expression,NULLIF returns NULL. If expression1 does not equal expression2, NULLIF returns expression1. If expression2 is NULL, NULLIF returns expression1.Example SELECT NULLIF (diff, same) "nullif" FROM DUMMY; nullif diff SELECT NULLIF(same, same) "nullif" FROM DUMMY; nullif NULLSESSION_CONTEXTSyntax SESSION_CONTEXT(session_variable)DescriptionReturns the value of session_variable assigned to the current user.The session_variable accessed can either be predefined or user-defined. Predefined session variables that canbe set by the client are APPLICATION, APPLICATIONUSER, and TRACEPROFILE.Session variables can be defined or modified using SET [SESSION] <variable_name> = <value> command, andunset using UNSET [SESSION] <variable_name>.SESSION_CONTEXT returns an NVARCHAR with a maximum length of 512 characters.ExampleTo read session variables use:62 2012-05-09
  • 63. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual SELECT SESSION_CONTEXT(APPLICATION) "session context" FROM DUMMY; session context HDBStudioSESSION_USERSyntax SESSION_USERDescriptionReturns the user name of the current session.Example -- example showing basic function operation using SYSTEM user SELECT SESSION_USER "session user" FROM DUMMY; session user SYSTEM -- definer-mode procedure declared by USER_A CREATE PROCEDURE USER_A.PROC1 LANGUAGE SQLSCRIPT SQL SECURITY DEFINER AS BEGIN SELECT SESSION_USER "session user" FROM DUMMY; END; -- USER_B is executing USER_A.PROC CALL USER_A.PROC1; session user USER_B -- invoker-mode procedure declared by USER_A CREATE PROCEDURE USER_A.PROC2 LANGUAGE SQLSCRIPT SQL SECURITY INVOKER AS BEGIN SELECT SESSION_USER "session user" FROM DUMMY; END; -- USER_B is executing USER_A.PROC CALL USER_A.PROC2; session user USER_BSYSUUIDSYSUUID SYSUUIDDescriptionReturns the SYSUUID of the connected SAP HANA instance.Example SELECT SYSUUID FROM DUMMY; SYSUUID 4DE3CD576C79511BE10000000A3C222063 2012-05-09
  • 64. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualSQL StatementsThis chapter describes the SQL statements that are supported by the SAP HANA Database. Schema Definition and Manipulation Statements Data Manipulation Statements System Management Statements Session Management Statements Transaction Management Statements Access Control Statements Data Import Export StatementsSchema Definition and Manipulation StatementsALTER AUDIT POLICYSyntax ALTER AUDIT POLICY <policy_name> <audit_mode>Syntax Elements policy_name ::= <identifier>The name of the audit policy to be altered. audit_mode ::= ENABLE | DISABLEThe audit mode enables or disables the audit policy.ENABLEEnables the audit policy.DISABLEDisables the audit policy.DescriptionThe ALTER AUDIT POLICY statement enables or disables an audit policy. <policy_name> must specify anexisting audit policy.Only database users having the system privilege AUDIT ADMIN are allowed to alter an audit policy. Eachdatabase user that has this privilege can alter any audit policy, regardless of if they are the creator of thepolicy.A newly created audit policy is disabled by default and does not cause any auditing to occur. Therefore theaudit policy has to be enabled to make its audit actions take effect.An audit policy can be disabled and enabled as often as required.Configuration ParametersThe following configuration parameters for auditing are stored in global.ini, in the section on auditingconfiguration:global_auditing_state ( true / false )Regardless of the number of enabled audit policies, auditing will only occur if the global_auditing_stateconfiguration parameter is set to true. The default is false.default_audit_trail_type ( SYSLOGPROTOCOL / CSVTEXTFILE )Specifies how auditing results will be stored. SYSLOGPROTOCOL: uses the system syslog. CSVTEXTFILE: stores audit information as comma-separated values in a text file.default_audit_trail_pathSpecifies the file path where the CSVTEXTFILE should be stored.These parameters can be selected in monitoring view M_INIFILE_CONTENTS if the current user has the64 2012-05-09
  • 65. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manualrequired system privileges. These parameters will only be seen in the case that they have been explicitly set.System Tables and Monitoring ViewsAUDIT_POLICY: shows all audit policies and their statesM_INIFILE_CONTENTS: shows the database system configuration parametersOnly database users with system privilege CATALOG READ, DATA ADMIN or INIFILE ADMIN can view thecontent of the M_INIFILE_CONTENTS view. For all other database users this view will be empty.ExampleFor this example you need to first create an audit policy called priv_audit using the following statement: CREATE AUDIT POLICY priv_audit AUDITING SUCCESSFUL GRANT PRIVILEGE, REVOKE PRIVILEG E, GRANT ROLE, REVOKE ROLE LEVEL CRITICAL;Now you can enable this audit policy with: ALTER AUDIT POLICY priv_audit ENABLE;You can also disable the same audit policy with: ALTER AUDIT POLICY priv_audit DISABLE;ALTER FULLTEXT INDEXSyntax ALTER FULLTEXT INDEX <index_name> <fulltext_elem_list> <fulltext_elem_list> ::= <fulltext_elem> [, <fulltext_elem_list>] <fulltext_elem> ::= FUZZY SEARCH INDEX [ON|OFF] | [SYNC[HRONOUS]|[ASYNC[HRONOUS] FLUSH [QUEUE] EVERY <n> MINUTES [[OR] AFTER <m> DOCUMENTS] ] | PHRASE INDEX RATIO [ON|OFF] ALTER FULLTEXT INDEX <index_name> <queue commands> QUEUE <queue commands> ::= FLUSH | SUSPEND | ACTIVATEDescriptionThe ALTER FULLTEXT INDEX <fulltext_elem_list> statement changes the parameters of an explicit fulltextindex.The ALTER FULLTEXT INDEX <queue commands>=""> statement changes the queuestate for anasynchronous explicit fulltext index.Example ALTER FULLTEXT INDEX i1 PHRASE INDEX RATIO 0.3 ALTER FULLTEXT INDEX i2 SUSPEND QUEUEALTER INDEXSyntax ALTER INDEX <index_name> REBUILDSyntax Elements <index_name>::= <identifier>Specifies the name of the index to be rebuilt.Description65 2012-05-09
  • 66. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualThe ALTER INDEX statement rebuilds an index.ExampleThe following example rebuilds the idx index. ALTER INDEX idx REBUILD;ALTER SEQUENCESyntax ALTER SEQUENCE <sequence_name> [<alter_sequence_parameter_list>] [RESET BY <reset_by_subquery>]Syntax Elements sequence_name ::= <identifier>The name of the sequence to be altered. alter_sequence_parameter_list ::= <alter_sequence_parameter>, ... alter_sequence_parameter ::= <sequence_parameter_restart_with> | <basic_sequence_parameter> sequence_parameter_restart_with ::= RESTART WITH n basic_sequence_parameter ::= INCREMENT BY n | MAXVALUE n | NO MAXVALUE | MINVALUE n | NO MINVALUE | CYCLE | NO CYCLERESTART WITHDefines the starting sequence value. If you do not specify a value for the RESTART WITH clause, the currentvalue of the sequence is used.INCREMENT BYDefines the sequence increment.MAXVALUEDefines the maximum value that can be generated by the sequence and must be between 0 and4611686018427387903.NO MAXVALUEWhen the NO MAXVALUE directive is used the maximum value for an ascending sequence will be4611686018427387903 and the maximum value for a descending sequences will be -1.MINVALUEDefines the minimum value that can be generated by the sequence and must be between 0 and4611686018427387903.NO MINVALUEWhen the NO MINVALUE directive is used, the minimum value for an ascending sequence is 1 and theminimum value for a descending is -4611686018427387903.CYCLEWhen the CYCLE directive is used the sequence number will be restarted after it reaches its maximum orminimum value.NO CYCLEWhen the NO CYCLE directive is used the sequence number will not be restarted after it reaches its maximumor minimum value. reset_by_subquery ::= <subquery>During a restart of the database, the system automatically executes the RESET BY statement and thesequence value is restarted with the value determined from the RESET BY subquery.66 2012-05-09
  • 67. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualFor details about subqueries please see SubqueryDescriptionThe ALTER SEQUENCE statement is used to alter the parameters of a sequence generator.ExampleThe starting sequence value of sequence seq can be changed as follows: ALTER SEQUENCE seq RESTART WITH 2;ALTER TABLESyntax ALTER TABLE <table_name> { <add_column_clause> | <drop_column_clause> | <alter_column_clause> | <add_primary_key_clause> | <drop_primary_key_clause> | <preload_clause> | <add_statistics_clause> | <drop_statistics_clause> | <table_conversion_clause> | <move_clause> | <add_range_partition_clause> | <move_partition_clause> | <drop_range_partition_clause> | <partition_by_clause> | <create_history_clause> | <drop_history_clause> | <disable_persistent_merge_clause> | <enable_persistent_merge_clause> | <enable_delta_log> | <disable_delta_log> | <enable_automerge> | <disable_automerge> }Syntax Elements <table_name> ::= [<schema_name>.]<identifier> <add_column_clause> ::= ADD ( <column_definition> [<column_constraint>], ... ) <drop_column_clause> ::= DROP ( <column_name>, ... ) <alter_column_clause> ::= ALTER ( <column_definition> [<column_constraint>], .. . ) <column_definition> ::= <column_name> <data_type> [<column_store_data_type>] [<ddic_data_type>] [DEFAULT <default_value>] [GENERATED ALWAYS AS <expression>] <column_constraint> ::= NULL | NOT NULL | UNIQUE [BTREE | CPBTREE] | PRIMARY KEY [BTREE | CPBTREE] <column_name> ::= <identifier>ALTERIncreasing the length of a column can be done. When modifying column definition is tried in column store, noerror is returned because no check is done inside the database yet. An error may be returned if the data doesnot fit in the new data type defined when selecting the column. ALTER does not follow data type conversionrules yet.Adding NOT NULL constraint to an existing column is allowed if the table is empty or the default value is specified when the table has data <add_primary_key_clause> ::= ADD [CONSTRAINT <constraint_name>] PRIMARY KEY ( <colu mn_name>, ... )CONSTRAINT67 2012-05-09
  • 68. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualSpecifies the name of a constraint.PRIMARY KEYA primary key constraint is a combination of a NOT NULL constraint and a UNIQUE constraint. It prohibitsmultiple rows from having the same value in the same column. <drop_primary_key_clause> ::= DROP PRIMARY KEY<preload_clause> ::= PRELOAD ALL | PRELOAD ( <column_name> ) | PRELOAD NONEPRELOADsets/removes the preload flag of the given tables or columns. As a consequence, these tables areautomatically loaded into memory after an index server start. The current status of the preload flag is visiblein the system table TABLES, column PRELOAD, possible values (FULL, PARTIALLY, NO) and in system tableTABLE_COLUMNS, column PRELOAD, possible values (TRUE, FALSE). <add_statistics_clause> ::= ADD STATISTICS FOR QUERY OPTIMIZER [ ( <column_name>,.. .) ]ADD STATISTICS FOR QUERY OPTIMIZERCreates statistics for the columns of a table. If a column list is not specified, the statistics for all columns of thetable are created. System view statistics has the statistics of columns of a table. Statistics are min, max,count, distinct count, null count values. <update_statistics_clause> ::= UPDATE STATISTICS FOR QUERY OPTIMIZER [ ( <column_na me>,...) ]UPDATE STATISTICS FOR QUERY OPTIMIZERUpdate statistics for the columns of a table. If a column list is not specified, the statistics for all columns of thetable are updated. System view statistics has the statistics of columns of a table. Statistics are min, max,count, distinct count, null count values. <drop_statistics_clause> ::= DROP STATISTICS FOR QUERY OPTIMIZER [ ( <column_name>, ...) ]DROP STATISTICS FOR QUERY OPTIMIZERDrops statistics for the columns of a table. If a column list is not specified, all existing statistics of the table aredropped. <table_conversion_clause> ::= [ALTER TYPE] {ROW [THREADS <number_of_threads>] | COL UMN [THREADS <number_of_threads> [BATCH <batch_size>]]}For table conversion clause, refer to ALTER TABLE ALTER TYPE.ALTER TYPE ROW | COLUMNThis command is used to convert the table storage from ROW to COLUMN or from COLUMN to ROW.THREADS <number_of_threads>Specifies how many threads should be used in parallel for table conversion. The optimal value for number ofthreads should set to the number of available CPU cores.Default: The default value is param_sql_table_conversion_parallelism that is, the number of CPU coresspecified in the indexserver.ini file.BATCH <batch_size>Specifies the number of rows inserted in batch, and the default value is 2,000,000 which is the optimal value.Insert into column table will be immediately committed after every int_const records insertion, which mayreduce memory consumption. BATCH option can be used only when the table is converted from ROW toCOLUMN. However, the batch size more than 2,000,000 might cause high memory consumption, thus it isnot recommended to change this value.A new table with a different storage type can be created from an existing table by copying the existingtables columns and data. This command is used to convert the table storage from ROW to COLUMN or fromCOLUMN to ROW. If the source table was in ROW storage, then the created table will be in COLUMNstorage. <move_clause> ::= MOVE [PARTITION <partition_number>] TO [LOCATION ]<host_port> [PH YSICAL] | MOVE [PARTITION <partition_number>] PHYSICALMOVE moves a table to another location in a distributed environment. The port number is the internalindexserver port number, 3xx03.68 2012-05-09
  • 69. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualI you have a partitioned table you can only move individual parts by specifying the optional partition number.Moving a partitioned table without specifying a partition number will result in an error.The PHYSICAL keyword is only for column store tables. Row store tables are always moved physical.If the optional keyword PHYSICAL is specified, the persistence storage is immediately moved to the targethost. Otherwise move will just create a link inside the new host persistence pointing to the old hostpersistence. This link will be removed on the next merge or a another move operation without the TO<host_port> part.The move PHYSICAL operation without TO <host_port> part will just remove persistence links that might stillexists from previouse move operations.LOCATION is supported only for backward-compatibility <add_range_partition_clause> ::= ADD <range_partition_clause> <range_partition_clause> ::= PARTITION <lower_value> <= VALUES < <upper_val ue> | PARTITION <value_or_values> = <target_value> | PARTITION OTHERS <lower_value> ::= <string_literal> | <numeric_literal> <upper_value> ::= <string_literal> | <numeric_literal> <target_value> ::= <string_literal> | <numeric_literal>ADD adds a partition for tables partitioned with RANGE, HASH RANGE, ROUNDROBIN RANGE. When addinga partition to a table which is partitioned by range and with a rest partition, the rest partition can berepartitioned if needed. <drop_range_partition_clause> ::= DROP <range_partition_clause> <range_partition_clause> ::= PARTITION <lower_value> <= VALUES < <upper_val ue> | PARTITION <value_or_values> = <target_value> | PARTITION OTHERS <lower_value> ::= <string_literal> | <numeric_literal> <upper_value> ::= <string_literal> | <numeric_literal> <target_value> ::= <string_literal> | <numeric_literal>DROP PARTITION drops a partition for tables partitioned with RANGE, HASH RANGE, ROUNDROBIN RANGE. <partition_clause> ::= PARTITION BY <hash_partition> [,<range_partition> | ,<hash_p artition>] | PARTITION BY <range_partition> | PARTITION BY <roundrobin_partition> [,<range_partition>] <hash_partition> ::= HASH (<partition_expression>[, ...]) PARTITIONS { <num_partitions> | GET_ NUM_SERVERS() } <range_partition> ::= RANGE ( <partition_expression> ) ( <range_spec> ) <roundrobin_partition> ::= ROUNDROBIN PARTITIONS {<num_partitions> | GET_NUM_SERVERS()} <range_spec> ::= {<from_to_spec> | <single_spec>[,...] } [, PARTITION OTH ERS] <from_to_spec> ::= PARTITION <lower_value> <= VALUES < <upper_val ue> <single_spec> ::= PARTITION VALUE <single_value> <partition_expression> ::= <column_name>| YEAR(<column_name>) | M ONTH(<column_name>)DROP PARTITION drops a partition for tables partitioned with RANGE, HASH RANGE, ROUNDROBIN RANGE.For table partition clause, refer to sql_table_partition(?). <merge_partition_clause> ::= MERGE PARTITIONSMERGE PARTITIONS merges all parts of a partitioned table into a non-partitioned table. <create_history_clause> ::= CREATE HISTORYChanges session type from SIMPLE to HISTORY and creates history-main and history-delta part of a table. <drop_history_clause> ::= DROP HISTORY69 2012-05-09
  • 70. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualChanges session type from HISTORY to SIMPLE and drops history-main and history-delta part of a table. <disable_persistent_merge_clause> ::= DISABLE PERSISTENT MERGEInstruct the merge-manager to use main-memory merges instead of persistent merges for the given table. <enable_persistent_merge_clause> ::= ENABLE PERSISTENT MERGEInstruct the merge-manager to use persistent merges for the given table (default behaviour). <enable_delta_log> ::= ENABLE DELTA LOGEnable logging for table. After enabling, you have to perform a savepoint to be sure that all data is persistedand you have to perfrom a data backup, else you can not recover this data. <enable_delta_log> ::= DISABLE DELTA LOGDisable logging for table. If logging is disabled, no log entries will be persisted for this table. Changes to thistable will only be written to the data area, when a savepoint is done. This can cause loss of committedtransaction, when the indexserver terminates. In case of termination, you have to truncate this table andinsert all data again.Only use this command for initial load ! <enable_delta_log> ::= ENABLE AUTOMERGEInstruct the merge-manager to handle this table. <enable_delta_log> ::= DISABLE AUTOMERGEInstruct the merge-manager to ignore this table.CREATE AUDIT POLICYSyntax CREATE AUDIT POLICY <policy_name> AUDITING <audit_status_clause> <audit_action_list> LEVEL <audit_level>Syntax Elements <audit_status_clause> ::= SUCCESSFUL | UNSUCCESSFUL | ALL <audit_action_list> ::= <audit_action_name>[,<audit_action_name>]... <audit_action_name> ::= GRANT PRIVILEGE | REVOKE PRIVILEGE | GRANT STRUCTURED PRIVILEGE | REVOKE STRUCTURED PRIVILEGE | GRANT ROLE | REVOKE ROLE | GRANT ANY | REVOKE ANY | CREATE USER | DROP USER | CREATE ROLE | DROP ROLE | ENABLE AUDIT POLICY | DISABLE AUDIT POLICY | CREATE STRUCTURED PRIVILEGE | DROP STRUCTURED PRIVILEGE | ALTER STRUCTURED PRIVILEGE | CONNECT | SYSTEM CONFIGURATION CHANGE | SET SYSTEM LICENSE | UNSET SYSTEM LICENSE <audit_level> ::= EMERGENCY | ALERT | CRITICAL | WARNING | INFODescriptionThe CREATE AUDIT POLICY statement creates a new audit policy. This audit policy can be enabled afterwardsand will then cause the auditing of the specified audit actions to happen.Only database users having the system privilege AUDIT ADMIN are allowed to create an audit policy.70 2012-05-09
  • 71. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualThe specified audit policy name must not be identical to the name of an existing audit policy.An audit policy defines which audit actions will be audited. Existing audit policies need to be enabled to makethe auditing happen.The <audit_status_clause> defines, if only successful or unsuccessful or all executions of the specified auditactions are audited.The following audit actions are available. They are grouped in several groups. Audit actions of one group canbe combined in one audit policy. Audit actions of different groups can not be combined in one audit policy. Group Audit Policy Description Number GRANT PRIVILEGE 1 a udi ts the gra nt of pri vi l eges to us ers or rol es REVOKE PRIVILEGE 1 a udi ts the revoke of pri vi l eges from us ers or rol es GRANT STRUCTURED a udi ts the gra nt of s tructured/a na l yti ca l pri vi l eges to us ers or 1 PRIVILEGE rol es REVOKE STRUCTURED a udi ts the revoke of s tructured/a na l yti ca l pri vi l eges from us ers 1 PRIVILEGE or rol es GRANT ROLE 1 a udi ts the gra nt of rol es to us ers or rol es REVOKE ROLE 1 a udi ts the revoke of rol es from us ers or rol es a udi ts the gra nt of pri vi l eges , s tructured pri vi l eges or rol es to GRANT ANY 1 us ers or rol es a udi ts the revoke of pri vi l eges , s tructured pri vi l eges or rol es from REVOKE ANY 1 us ers or rol es CREATE USER 2 a udi ts the crea te of us ers DROP USER 2 a udi ts the drop of us ers CREATE ROLE 2 a udi ts the crea te of rol es DROP ROLE 2 a udi ts the drop of rol es CONNECT 3 a udi ts the connect of us ers to the da ta ba s e SYSTEM CONFIGURATION 4 a udi ts cha nges to the s ys tem confi gura ti on (e.g. INIFILE) CHANGE ENABLE AUDIT POLICY 5 a udi ts the a cti va ti on of a udi t pol i ci es DISABLE AUDIT POLICY 5 a udi ts the dea cti va ti on of a udi t pol i ci es CREATE STRUCTURED 6 a udi ts the crea ti on of s tructured/a na l yti ca l pri vi l eges PRIVILEGE DROP STRUCTURED 6 a udi ts the des tructi on of s tructured/a na l yti ca l pri vi l ege PRIVILEGE ALTER STRUCTURED 6 a udi ts the cha nge of s tructured/a na l yti ca l pri vi l ege PRIVILEGE SET SYSTEM LICENSE 7 a udi ts the i ns ta l l a ti on of a l i cens e UNSET SYSTEM LICENSE 7 a udi ts the del eti on of l i cens esEach audit policy is assigned to a audit level. Possible levels, in decreasing order of importance, are:EMERGENCY, ALERT, CRITICAL, WARNING, INFO.To make auditing happen, audit policies have to be created and enabled and the configuration parameterglobal_auditing_state (see below) has to be set to true;Configuration ParameterCurrently the configuration parameter for auditing are stored in global.ini, section auditing configuration andare the following:global_auditing_state ( true / false ) to activate / deactivate the whole auditing, no matter, how manyaudit policies are available and enabled. The default is false, meaning: no auditing will happen at all.default_audit_trail_type ( SYSLOGPROTOCOL / CSVTEXTFILE ) to specify, how to store the auditing results.SYSLOGPROTOCOL is the default.CSVTEXTFILE should be used only for testing purposes.default_audit_trail_path to specify where to store the file, in case CSVTEXTFILE had been selected.As all configuration parameter, these parameters can be selected in view M_INIFILE_CONTENTS, if thecurrent user has the needed privilege to do so. But these parameter currently will only be seen in case theyhave been set explicitly. This means, they will not be seen with a newly installed database instance.System and Monitoring Views71 2012-05-09
  • 72. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualAUDIT_POLICY: shows all audit policies and their statesM_INIFILE_CONTENTS: shows the configuration parameter concerning auditingOnly database users with system privilege CATALOG READ, DATA ADMIN or INIFILE ADMIN can see any infoout of the view M_INIFILE_CONTENTS. For other database users this view will be empty.ExampleA new audit policy named priv_audit is created which will audit successful commands concerning grantingand revoking of privileges and roles. This audit policy has the medium audit level CRITICAL.This policy has to be enabled explicity (see alter_audit_policy) to make the auditing of the audit policy tohappen. CREATE AUDIT POLICY priv_audit AUDITING SUCCESSFUL GRANT PRIVILEGE, REVOKE PRIVILEG E, GRANT ROLE, REVOKE ROLE LEVEL CRITICAL;CREATE CALCULATION SCENARIOSyntax CREATE CALCULATION SCENARIO <scenario_name> USING <xml>Syntax Elements <scenario_name> ::= <identifier> <xml> ::= <string_literal>CREATE CALCULATION SCENARIOCREATE CALCULATION SCENARIO statement creates a calculation scenario.Please note that a calculation scenario is not a default catalog object, so it cannot be accessed via a SELECTstatement after its creation. A column view of type calculation is required on top of the scenario to query it.As it is not a catalog object, it is also not linked to a catalog schema. The first part of the name can be ratherseen as a package in which the scenario is created. This implies that a drop of a (database) schema does notdrop the calculation scenarios.The scenario is defined with the used XML-string which has to be formatted as described in the XSD.The default schema defines on the one hand the package in which the scenario is created (if not definedexplicitly), and the schema for the views on top listed in the expose nodes on the other.It can be either in-memory only (set optional parameter value INMEMORY_SCENARIO = 1) or persistent.The default scenario is persistent and stored in the repository. With an expose node item it is possible todirectly create a column view of type calculation on top of a specified node on top of the scenario. The viewname is defined in view_name. The referenced node has to be specified in node_name. Note that sub-transactions have started (and committed) in order to create the views.Note:For application development, a column view of type calculation should be used.Example CREATE COLUMN TABLE TEST1(A INTEGER, B DOUBLE); insert into test1 values ( 1, 2); insert into test1 values ( 11, 22); insert into test1 values ( 111, 222); DROP CALCULATION SCENARIO SYSTEM.DEMO_PROJECTION_OP cascade; CREATE CALCULATION SCENARIO SYSTEM.DEMO_PROJECTION_OP USING <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <cubeSchema version="2" operation="createCalculationScenario"> <calculationScenario schema="SYSTEM" name="DEMO_PROJECTION_OP"> <dataSources> <tableDataSource name="demo_projection_datasource" schema="SYSTEM" table="TES T1"> <attributes> <allAttribute/> </attributes>72 2012-05-09
  • 73. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual </attributes> </tableDataSource> </dataSources> <calculationViews> <projection name="demo_projection" defaultViewFlag="true"> <inputs> <input name="demo_projection_datasource" /> </inputs> <attributes> <allAttribute /> <calculatedAttribute name="C" datatype="double" isViewAttribute="true"> <formula>"A" * "B"</formula> </calculatedAttribute> </attributes> <filter>"C" > 1</filter> </projection> </calculationViews> </calculationScenario> </cubeSchema> ;CREATE FULLTEXT INDEXSyntax CREATE FULLTEXT INDEX <index_name> ON <tablref> ( <column_name> ) [<fulltext_el em_list>] <fulltext_elem_list> ::= <fulltext_elem> [, <fulltext_elem_list>] <fulltext_elem> ::= LANGUAGE COLUMN <column_name> | LANGUAGE DETECTION ( <str_const_list> ) | MIME TYPE COLUMN <column_name> | [SYNC[HRONOUS]|[ASYNC[HRONOUS] FLUSH [QUEUE] EVERY <n> MINUTES [[OR] AFTER <m> DOCUMENTS] ] | FUZZY SEARCH INDEX [ON|OFF] | PHRASE INDEX RATIO [ON|OFF] | CONFIGURATION <str_const> | SEARCH ONLY [ON|OFF] | FAST PREPROCESS [ON|OFF]DescriptionThe CREATE FULLTEXT INDEX statement creates an explicit fulltext index on the given table column.Example CREATE FULLTEXT INDEX idx ON A(C) FUZZY SEARCH INDEX OFF SYNC LANGUAGE DETECTION (EN,DE,KR)CREATE INDEXSyntax CREATE [UNIQUE] [BTREE | CPBTREE] INDEX <index_name> ON <table_name> (<column_name_ order>, ...) [ASC | DESC]Syntax Elements <index_name> ::= [<schema_name>.]<identifier> <column_name_order> ::= <column_name> [ASC | DESC]UNIQUEUsed to create unique indexes. Check for duplicates will occur when an index is created and when a record isadded to the table.BTREE | CPBTREEUsed to select the kind of index to use.When column data types are character string types, binary string types, decimal types, or when theconstraint is a composite key, or a non-unique constraint, the default index type is CPBTREE; otherwise,73 2012-05-09
  • 74. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualBTREE is used.If neither BTREE nor CPBTREE keyword is specified, then SAP HANA Database chooses the appropriate indextype.ASC | DESCSpecifies whether the index should be created in ascending or descending order.These keywords can be only used in the btree index, and can be specified only once for each column.DescriptionThe CREATE INDEX statement creates an index.Example CREATE INDEX idx ON A(B); CREATE INDEX idx ON A(B, C DESC); CREATE INDEX idx ON A(B, C) DESC;CREATE SCHEMASyntax CREATE SCHEMA <schema_name> [OWNED BY <user_name>]Syntax Elements <schema_name> ::= <identifier>OWNED BYSpecifies the name of the schema owner.DescriptionThe CREATE SCHEMA statement creates a schema in the current database.Example CREATE SCHEMA my_schema OWNED BY system;CREATE SEQUENCESyntax CREATE SEQUENCE <sequence_name> [<common_sequence_parameter_list>] [RESET BY <subqu ery>]Syntax Elements <sequence_name> ::= <identifier> <common_sequence_parameter_list> ::= <common_sequence_parameter>, ... <common_sequence_parameter> ::= <sequence_parameter_start_with> | <basic_sequence_parameter> <basic_sequence_parameter> ::= INCREMENT BY n | MAXVALUE n | NO MAXVALUE | MINVALUE n | NO MINVALUE | CYCLE | NO CYCLE <sequence_parameter_start_with> ::= START WITH nINCREMENT BYDefines the amount the next sequence value is incremented from the last value assigned. The default is 1.Specify a negative value to generate a descending sequence. An error is returned if the INCREMENT BY valueis 0START WITHDefines the starting sequence value. If you do not specify a value for the START WITH clause, MINVALUE is74 2012-05-09
  • 75. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manualused for ascending sequences and MAXVALUE is used for descending sequences.MAXVALUEDefines the largest value generated by the sequence and must be between 0 and 4611686018427387903.NO MAXVALUEWhen MAXVALUE is not specified, the maximum value for an ascending sequence is 4611686018427387903and the maximum value for a descending sequences is -1.MINVALUEThe minimum value of a sequence can be specified after MINVALUE and is between 0 and4611686018427387903.NO MINVALUEWhen MINVALUE is not specified, the minimum value for an ascending sequence is 1 and the minimum valuefor a descending is -4611686018427387903.CYCLEThe sequence number will be reused after it reaches its maximum or minimum value.NO CYCLEDefault option. The sequence number will not be reused after it reaches its maximum or minimum value.RESET BYDuring the restart of the database, database automatically executes the RESET BY statement and thesequence value is restarted with the specified value from the statement after RESET BY.If RESET BY is not specified, the sequence value is stored persistently in database. During the restart of thedatabase, the next value of the sequence is generated from the saved sequence value.DescriptionThe CREATE SEQUENCE statement is used to create a sequence.A sequence is used to generate unique integers by multiple users. CURRVAL is used to get the current valueof the sequence and NEXTVAL is used to get the next value of the sequence. CURRVAL is only valid aftercalling NEXTVAL in a session.ExampleExample 1: sequence_name.CURRVAL sequence_name.NEXTVALExample 2:If the sequence s is used to create a unique key on column A in the table R, then after a database is restarted,a UNIQUE key value can be created by automatically assigning the maximum value of column A to thesequence value using a RESET BY statement as follows: CREATE SEQUENCE s RESET BY SELECT IFNULL(MAX(a), 0) + 1 FROM r;CREATE SYNONYMSyntax CREATE [PUBLIC] SYNONYM <synonym_name> FOR <object_name>Syntax Elements <synonym_name> ::= <identifier> <object_name> ::= <table_name> | <view_name> | <procedure_name> | <sequence_name>DescriptionThe CREATE SYNONYM creates an alternate name for a table, view, procedure or sequence.You can use a synonym to re-point functions and stored procedures to differing tables, views or sequences75 2012-05-09
  • 76. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manualwithout needing to re-write the function or stored procedure.The optional PUBLIC element allows for the creation of a public synonym.Example CREATE SYNONYM a_synonym FOR a;CREATE TABLESyntax CREATE [<table_type>] TABLE <table_name> <table_contents_source> [<logging_option> | <auto_merge_option> | <partition_clause> | <location_clause>]Syntax Elements <table_name> ::= [<schema_name>.]<identifier>For descriptions on schema name and identifer, please refer to sql_identifier.table_type: <table_type> ::= COLUMN | ROW | HISTORY COLUMN | GLOBAL TEMPORARY | LOCAL TEMPORARYROW, COLUMNIf the majority of access is through a large number of tuples but with only a few selected attributes,COLUMN-based storage should be used. If the majority of access involves selecting a few records with allattributes selected, ROW-based storage is preferable. The SAP HANA Database uses a combination to enablestorage and interpretation in both forms. You can define the type of organization for each table. The defaultvalue is ROW.HISTORY COLUMNCreates a table with a particular transaction session type called HISTORY. Tables with session type HISTORYsupport time travel; the execution of queries against historic states of the database is possible.Timetravel can be done in the following ways.Session-level timetravel:SET HISTORY SESSION TO UTCTIMESTAMP = <timestamp>SET HISTORY SESSION TO COMMIT ID = <commitid>A database session can be set back to a certain point-in-time. The COMMIT ID variant of the statement takesa commitid as a parameter. The value of the commitid parameter must occur in COMMIT_ID column of thesystem table SYS.TRANSACTION_HISTORY, otherwise an exception will be thrown. The COMMIT ID is usefulwhen using user defined snapshots. A user defined snapshot can be taken by simply storing the commitidwhich is assigned to a transaction during the commit phase. The commitid can be retrieved by executing thefollowing query directly after a transaction commit:SELECT LAST_COMMIT_ID FROM M_TRANSACTIONSWHERE CONNECTION_ID = CURRENT_CONNECTION;The TIMESTAMP-variant of the statement takes a timestamp as parameter. Internally, the timestamp isused to look up a (commit_time,commit_id)-pair inside the system-table SYS.TRANSACTION_HISTORY wherethe commit_time is close to the given timestamp (to be more precisely: choose pair where maximalCOMMIT_TIME is smaller or equal to the given timestamp; if no such pair is found an exception will beraised). The session then will be restored with the determined commit-id as in the COMMIT ID variant.To terminate a restored session to switch back to the current session, an explicit COMMIT or ROLLBACK hasto be executed on the DB connection.Statement-level timetravel: <subquery> AS OF UTCTIMESTAMP <timestamp yyyy:mm:dd hh:mm:ss> <subquery> AS OF COMMIT ID <commitid>In order to be able to relate the commitid with the commit time, a system table SYS.TRANSACTION_HISTORYis maintained which stores additional information for each transaction which commits data for history table.For detailed information on setting session-level timetravel, please refer to SET HISTORY SESSION, and for76 2012-05-09
  • 77. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualFor detailed information on setting session-level timetravel, please refer to SET HISTORY SESSION, and fordetails on <subquery>, please refer to sql_command_subquery.Note:. Autocommit has to be turned off when a session should be restored (otherwise an exception will be thrownwith an appropriate error message). Non-history tables in restored sessions always show their current snapshot. Only data query statement (select) is allowed inside restored sessions.. A history table must have a primary key. The session type can be checked from the column, SESSION_TYPE of the system table SYS.TABLES.GLOBAL TEMPORARYTable definition is globally available while data is visible only to the current session. The table is truncated atthe end of the session.Metadata in a global temporary table is persistent meaning the metadata exists until the table is droppedand the metadata is shared across sessions. Data in a global temporary table is session-specific meaning onlythe owner session of the global temporary table is allowed to insert/read/truncate the data, exists for theduration of the session and data from the global temporary table is automatically dropped when the sessionis terminated. Global temporary table can be dropped only when the table does not have any record in it.Supported operations on Global Temporary Table:1. Create without a primary key2. Rename table3. Rename column4. Truncate5. Drop6. Create or Drop view on top of global temporary table7. Create synonym8. Select9. Select into or Insert10. Delete11. Update12. Upsert or ReplaceLOCAL TEMPORARYThe table definition and data is visible only to the current session. The table is truncated at the end of thesession.Metadata exists for the duration of the session and is session-specific meaning only the owner session of thelocal temporary table is allowed to see. Data in a local temporary table is session-specific meaning only theowner session of the local temporary table is allowed to insert/read/truncate the data, exists for the durationof the session and data from the local temporary table is automatically dropped when the session isterminated.Supported operations on Global Temporary Table:1. Create without a primary key2. Truncate3. Drop4. Select5. Select into or Insert6. Delete7. Update8. Upsert or Replacetable_contents_source: <table_contents_source> ::= (<table_element>, ...) | <like_table_clause> [WITH [NO] DATA] | [(<column_name>, ...)] <as_table_subquery> [WITH [NO] D ATA]] <table_element> ::= <column_definition> [<column_constraint>] | <table_constraint> (<column_name>, ... ) <column_definition> ::= <column_name> <data_type> [<column_store_data_type> ] [<ddic_data_type>] [DEFAULT <default_value>] [GENERATED ALWAYS AS <expression>] <column_name> ::= <identifier>DEFAULTDefault specifies a value to be assigned to the column if an INSERT statement does not provide a value for thecolumn.DATA TYPE in column definitionAvailable column store data types are CS_ALPHANUM, CS_INT, CS_FIXED, CS_FLOAT, CS_DOUBLE,CS_DECIMAL_FLOAT, CS_FIXED(p-s,s), CS_SDFLOAT, CS_STRING, CS_UNITEDECFLOAT, CS_DATE, CS_TIME,77 2012-05-09
  • 78. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualCS_FIXEDSTRING, CS_RAW, CS_DAYDATE, CS_SECONDTIME, CS_LONGDATE, and CS_SECONDDATE.Available DDIC data types are DDIC_ACCP, DDIC_ALNM, DDIC_CHAR, DDIC_CDAY, DDIC_CLNT, DDIC_CUKY,DDIC_CURR, DDIC_D16D, DDIC_D34D, DDIC_D16R, DDIC_D34R, DDIC_D16S, DDIC_D34S, DDIC_DATS,DDIC_DAY, DDIC_DEC, DDIC_FLTP, DDIC_GUID, DDIC_INT1, DDIC_INT2, DDIC_INT4, DDIC_INT8,DDIC_LANG, DDIC_LCHR, DDIC_MIN, DDIC_MON, DDIC_LRAW, DDIC_NUMC, DDIC_PREC, DDIC_QUAN,DDIC_RAW, DDIC_RSTR, DDIC_SEC, DDIC_SRST, DDIC_SSTR, DDIC_STRG, DDIC_STXT, DDIC_TIMS,DDIC_UNIT, DDIC_UTCM, DDIC_UTCL, DDIC_UTCS, DDIC_TEXT, DDIC_VARC, DDIC_WEEK.GENERATED ALWAYS ASSpecifies the expression to generate the column value in runtime. <column_constraint> ::= NULL | NOT NULL | UNIQUE [BTREE | CPBTREE] | PRIMARY KEY [BTREE | CPBTREE]NULL | NOT NULLThe NOT NULL constraint prohibits a column value from being NULL.If NULL is specified it is not considered a constraint, it represents a column that may contain a null value. Thedefault is NULL.UNIQUESpecifies a column as a unique key.A composite unique key enables the specification of multiple columns as a unique key. With a uniqueconstraint, multiple rows cannot have the same value in the same column.PRIMARY KEYA primary key constraint is a combination of a NOT NULL constraint and a UNIQUE constraint. It prohibitsmultiple rows from having the same value in the same column.BTREE | CPBTREESpecifies the index type. When column data types are character string types, binary string types, decimaltypes, or when the constraint is a composite key, or non-unique constraint, the default index type isCPBTREE. Otherwise, BTREE is used.BTREE keyword has to be used in order to use B+-tree index and the CPBTREE keyword has to be used for theCPB+-tree index.If the index type is omitted, the SAP HANA Database chooses the appropriate index considering the columndata types. <table_constraint> ::= UNIQUE [BTREE | CPBTREE] | PRIMARY KEY [BTREE | CPBTREE]This defines a table constraint which can be used on one or more columns of a table. There are two kinds of atable constraint. They are:UNIQUESpecifies a uniqueness constraint for a column. This prevents multiple rows from having the same values inthe same column list.PRIMARY KEYA primary key constraint is a combination of the NOT NULL and UNIQUE constraints. It creates a uniquecolumn that can be always be used to locate rows uniquely within a table.BTREE | CPBTREESpecifies the index type. When column data types are character string types, binary string types, decimaltypes, or when the constraint is a composite key, or non-unique constraint, the default index type isCPBTREE, BTREE is used in all other cases.BTREE keyword has to be used in order to use the B+-tree index and the CPBTREE keyword has to be used forthe CPB+-tree index.If the index type is omitted, the SAP HANA Database chooses the appropriate index considering the columndata types. <like_table_clause> ::= LIKE <like_table_name> <like_table_name> ::= <table_name>Creates a table that has the same definition as like_table_name. All the column definitions with constraintsand default values are copied from like_table_name. Data is filled from the specified table when WITH DATAoption is provided, however, the default value is WITH NO DATA. <as_table_subquery> ::= AS (<sql_select_query>)78 2012-05-09
  • 79. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualCreates a table and fills it with the data computed by the <sql_select_query>. Only NOT NULL constraints arecopied by this clause. If column_names are specified, specified column_names override the column namesfrom <sql_select_query>. The default value is WITH DATA.WITH [NO] DATA Specifies whether the data is copied from <sql_select_query> or <like_table_clause>. <logging_option> ::= LOGGING | NO LOGGING [RETENTION retention_period]LOGGING | NO LOGGINGLOGGING (default value) specifies that table logging is activated.NO LOGGING specifies that logging is deactivated. A NO LOGGING table means that the definition of thetable is persistent and globally available, data is temporary and global.RETENTIONSpecifies the retention time in seconds of the column table created by NOLOGGING. After the specifiedretention period has elapsed, the table will be dropped if used physical memory of the host reaches above80%. <auto_merge_option> ::= AUTO MERGE | NO AUTO MERGEAUTO MERGE | NO AUTO MERGEAUTO MERGE (default value) specifies that automatic delta merge is triggered by memwacher. <partition_clause> ::= PARTITION BY <hash_partition> [, <range_partition> | , <hash _partition>] | PARTITION BY <range_partition> | PARTITION BY <roundrobin_partition> [,<range_partition>] <hash_partition> ::= HASH (<partition_expression> [, ...]) PARTITIONS {<num_par titions> | GET_NUM_SERVERS()} <range_partition> ::= RANGE (<partition_expression>) (<range_spec>, ...) <roundrobin_partition> ::= ROUNDROBIN PARTITIONS {<num_partitions> | GET_NUM_SE RVERS()} [, <range_partition>] <range_spec> ::= {<from_to_spec> | <single_spec>} [, ...] [, PARTITION OTHE RS] <from_to_spec> ::= PARTITION lower_value <= VALUES < upper_value <single_spec> ::= PARTITION VALUE single_value <partition_expression> ::= <column_name> | YEAR(<column_name>) | MONTH(<col umn_name>)It is possible to determine the index servers on which the partitions are created. If you specify the LOCATION,the partitions will be created on these instances using round robin. Duplicates in the list will be removed. Ifyou specify exactly the same number of instances as partitions in the partition specification, then eachpartition will be assigned to the respective instance in the list. All index servers in the list have to belong tothe same instance.If no locations are specified, the partitions will be created randomly. If the number of partitions matches thenumber of servers - for example by using GET_NUM_SERVERS() - it is ensured that multiple CREATE TABLEcalls distribute the partitions in the same way. In case of a multi-level partitioning, this applies for the numberof partitions of the first level. This mechanism is useful if several tables are to be created which have asemantic relation to each other. <location_clause> ::= AT [LOCATION] {host:port | (host:port, ...)}AT LOCATIONA table can be created in the specified location with host:port. Location list can be specified when creatingpartitioned tables that are distributed on multiple instances. When location list is provided without<partition_clause>, the table is created on the first location specified.If location information is not provided, the table will be automatically assigned to one node. This option canbe used for both row store and column store tables in a distributed environment.DescriptionThe CREATE TABLE statement creates a table. Tables are created without data except when<as_table_subquery> or <like_table_clause> is used with the WITH DATA option.Example CREATE TABLE A (A INT PRIMARY KEY, B INT); CREATE COLUMN TABLE P1 (U DATE PRIMARY KEY) PARTITION BY RANGE (U) (PARTITION 2010 -02-03 <= VALUES < 2011-01-01, PARTITION VALUE = 2011-05-01); CREATE COLUMN TABLE P2 (I INT, J INT, K INT, PRIMARY KEY(I, J)) PARTITION BY HASH ( I, J) PARTITIONS 2, HASH (K) PARTITIONS 2; CREATE COLUMN TABLE C1 LIKE A WITH DATA;79 2012-05-09
  • 80. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual CREATE TABLE C2 AS (SELECT * FROM A) WITH NO DATA;CREATE TRIGGERSyntax CREATE TRIGGER <trigger_name> <trigger_action_time> <trigger_event> ON <table_name> [ FOR EACH ROW ] BEGIN [<proc_block_decl_list>] [<proc_handler_list>] <trigger_stmt_list> ENDSyntax Elements <trigger_action_time> ::= BEFORE | AFTER <trigger_event> ::= INSERT | DELETE | UPDATE <proc_block_decl_list> ::= <proc_block_decl> | <proc_block_decl_list> <proc_block_decl> ::= DECLARE <proc_decl> <proc_decl> ::= <column_name> CONSTANT <proc_data_type> <opt_not_null> <opt_proc_default> ; | <column_name> <proc_data_type> <opt_not_null> <opt_proc_default> ; <proc_handler_list> ::= <proc_handler> | <proc_handler_list> <proc_handler> <proc_handler> ::= DECLARE EXIT HANDLER FOR <proc_condition_value_list> <trigger_stmt> <proc_condition_value_list> ::= <proc_condition_value> | <proc_condition_value_list> , <proc_condition_value> <proc_condition_value> ::= <column_name> | <sql_error_code> | NOT_FOUND <sql_error_code> ::= SQL_ERROR_CODE <int_const> <trigger_stmt_list> ::= <trigger_stmt> | <trigger_stmt_list> <trigger_stmt> <trigger_stmt> ::= <proc_block> | <proc_assign> | <proc_if> | <proc_loop> | <proc_while> | <proc_for> | <proc_foreach> | <proc_signal> | <proc_resignal> | <proc_sql>COMMANDDescriptions to detailed syntax elements of this SQL Command. BEFORETrigger is executed before the subject table operation.AFTERTrigger is executed after the subject table operation.INSERT | DELETE | UPDATE80 2012-05-09
  • 81. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualTrigger execution is triggered by the operation(INSERT or UPDATE or DELETE) on the subject table.ROWThe trigger will be called in a row-wise fashion.Currently statement-wise trigger calling is not supported.proc_handlerPlease refer exception handling for procedure.trigger_stmtTrigger_stmt is subset of proc_stmt. Please refer proc_stmt in procedure definition.The syntax of trigger body complies with that of procedure, which are nested block(proc_block),scalar parameter assign(proc_assign), if block(proc_if), loop block(proc_loop), for block(proc_for),for each block(proc_foreach), exception signal(proc_signal), exception resignal(proc_resignal),all sql statement (proc_sql).DescriptionCREATE TRIGGER statement creates a trigger. A trigger is special kind of stored procedure thatautomatically executes when an event occurs on a certain table.CREATE TRIGGER command defines a set of statements that is executed when a givenoperation(INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE)takes place on a given object(subject table)Only database users having the TRIGGER privilege for the given <table_name> are allowed to create atrigger for that table.Current trigger limitation is described below: INSTEAD_OF trigger is not supported. Access of subject table in trigger body is not allowed. Statement level trigger is not supported. Row level trigger means trigger action will be executed for every row changes. Statement level trigger means trigger action will be executed once for a statement execution. Transition variable/table (OLD/NEW, ROW/TABLE) is not supported. Trigger SQL statement might want to refer to data that are being changed by trigger-triggering- event like insert/update/delete. Transition variable/table is the way SQL statement in trigger body access old and new data. Transition variable is used by row level trigger while transition table is used by statement level trigger. Trigger execution on partitioned table to multiple host or table in slave node is not supported. A table can have only three triggers for each DML operation which would be a insert trigger, a update trigger and a delete trigger and three of them all can be activated together. Not supported trigger body syntax(while procedure does) : resultset assignment, exit/continue command, cursor open/fetch/close, procedure call, dynomic sql execution, returnSystem and Monitoring ViewsTRIGGERS is system view for trigger.Descriptions to Monitoring view related to this command. System view TRIGGERS shows:SCHEMA_NAME, TRIGGER_NAME, TRIGGER_OID, OWNER_NAME, OWNER_OID,SUBJECT_TABLE_SCHEMA,SUBJECT_TABLE_NAME, TRIGGER_ACTION_TIME, TRIGGER_EVENT, TRIGGERED_ACTION_LEVEL,DEFINITIONExample CREATE TRIGGER TEST_TRIGGER_FOR_INSERT AFTER INSERT ON TARGET BEGIN DECLARE v_id INT := 0; DECLARE v_name VARCHAR(20) := ; DECLARE v_pay INT := 0; DECLARE v_msg VARCHAR(200) := ; DELETE FROM message_box; FOR v_id IN 11111 .. 11113 DO81 2012-05-09
  • 82. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual SELECT name, payment INTO v_name, v_pay FROM control_tab WHERE id = :v_id; v_msg := :v_name || has || TO_CHAR(:v_pay); INSERT INTO message_box VALUES (:v_msg, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP); END FOR; END; <br><br> CREATE TRIGGER TEST_TRIGGER_FOR_UPDATE AFTER UPDATE ON TARGET FOR EACH ROW BEGIN DECLARE SAMPLE_COUNT INT; SELECT COUNT(*) INTO SAMPLE_COUNT FROM SAMPLE WHERE A > 40; IF :SAMPLE_COUNT = 0 THEN INSERT INTO SAMPLE VALUES(50); ELSEIF :SAMPLE_COUNT = 1 THEN INSERT INTO SAMPLE VALUES(60); END IF; END;COMMANDCREATE VIEWSyntax CREATE VIEW <view_name> [(<column_name>, ... )] AS <subquery>Syntax Elements <view_name> ::= [<schema_name>.]<view_name>DescriptionThe CREATE VIEW statement effectively creates virtual table based on the results of an SQL statement. It isnot a table in a real sense as it does not contain data in itself.When a column name is specified along with the view name, a query result is displayed with that columnname. If a column name is omitted, a query result gives an appropriate name to the column automatically.The number of column names has to be the same as the number of columns returned from <subquery>.Update operations on views are supported if the following conditions are met:. Each column in the view must map to a column of a single table. If a column in the base table has NOT NULL constraint without default value, the column must be included inview columns to be an insertable view. Update operation on a view is allowed without this condition.. Must not contain an aggregate or analytic function in a SELECT list for example, the followings are notallowed:. TOP, SET, DISTINCT operator in a SELECT list. GROUP BY, ORDER BY clause. Must not contain a subquery in a SELECT list. Must not contain a sequence value(CURRVAL, NEXTVAL). Must not contain a column view as the base viewIf base views or tables are updatable, a view on the base views or tables can be updatable if the aboveconditions are met.Example CREATE VIEW v_name AS SELECT * FROM a;DROP AUDIT POLICYSyntax DROP AUDIT POLICY <policy_name>Description82 2012-05-09
  • 83. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualThe DROP AUDIT POLICY statement drops an audit policy. <policy_name> must specify an existing auditpolicy.Only database users having the system privilege AUDIT ADMIN are allowed to drop an audit policy. Eachdatabase user having this privilege is allowed to drop any audit policy, no matter if he created it or not.Even if an audit policy is dropped, it may happen, that the audit action specified in the dropped audit policywill be audited further. This will happen, if another audit policy is enabled and specifies that audit action aswell.To switch off an audit policy temporarily, it can be disabled and need not be dropped.System and Monitoring ViewsAUDIT_POLICY: shows all audit policies and their statesM_INIFILE_CONTENTS: shows the configuration parameter concerning auditingOnly database users with system privilege CATALOG READ, DATA ADMIN or INIFILE ADMIN can see any infoout of the view M_INIFILE_CONTENTS. For other database users this view will be empty.ExampleAssuming that the creation of an audit policy happened before. CREATE AUDIT POLICY priv_audit AUDITING SUCCESSFUL GRANT PRIVILEGE, REVOKE PRIVILEG E, GRANT ROLE, REVOKE ROLE LEVEL CRITICAL;Now this audit policy has to be dropped. DROP AUDIT POLICY priv_audit;DROP CALCULATION SCENARIOSyntax DROP CALCULATION SCENARIO <scenario_name> [<drop_option>]Syntax Elements <drop_option> ::= CASCADEDefault = CASCADECascaded drop drops the calculation scenario and dependent column views of type calculation.Non-cascaded drop behavior prevents dropping the scenario if there are any column views of type calculationreferencing the scenario.DescriptionThe DROP CALCULATION SCENARIO statement deletes a calculation scenario.Example DROP CALCULATION SCENARIO SYSTEM.DEMO_PROJECTION_OP CASCADE;DROP FULLTEXT INDEXSyntax DROP FULLTEXT INDEX <fulltext_index_name>Syntax Elements fulltext_index_name ::= <identifier>Specifies the index to be dropped.DescriptionThe DROP FULLTEXT INDEX statement removes a fulltext index.83 2012-05-09
  • 84. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualExample DROP FULLTEXT INDEX idx;DROP INDEXSyntax DROP INDEX <index_name>Syntax Elements index_name ::= <identifier>The index name identifier specifies the index to be dropped.DescriptionThe DROP INDEX statement removes an index.Example DROP INDEX idx;DROP SCHEMASyntax DROP SCHEMA <schema_name> [<drop_option>]Syntax Elements <drop_option> ::= CASCADE | RESTRICTDefault = RESTRICTRestrict drop behavior will drop the object when there is no dependent object. If there is a dependent object,an error will be thrown. Cascaded drop drops the object and dependent objects. Non-Cascaded drop option isnot supported for dropping SCHEMA.DescriptionThe DROP SCHEMA statement removes a schema.Example DROP SCHEMA my_schema;DROP SEQUENCESyntax DROP SEQUENCE <sequence_name> [<drop_option>]Syntax Elements <drop_option> ::= CASCADE | RESTRICTDefault = RESTRICTCascaded drop drops the object and dependent objects. When CASCADE option is not specified, non-cascadeddrop behavior drops the object and does not drop the dependent objects, but invalidates the dependentobjects (VIEW, PROCEDURE).The invalidated object can be revalidated when an object that has same schema and object name is created.84 2012-05-09
  • 85. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualObject ID, schema name, and object name pair is reserved for revalidating dependent objects.Restrict drop behavior will drop the object when there is no dependent object. If there is a dependent object,an error will be thrown.DescriptionThe DROP SEQUENCE statement removes a sequence.Example DROP SEQUENCE s;DROP SYNONYMSyntax DROP [PUBLIC] SYNONYM <synonym_name> [<drop_option>]Syntax Elements <drop_option> ::= CASCADE | RESTRICTDefault = RESTRICTCascaded drop drops the object and dependent objects. When CASCADE option is not specified, non-cascadeddrop behavior drops the object and does not drop the dependent objects, but invalidates the dependentobjects (VIEW, PROCEDURE).The invalidated object can be revalidated when an object that has same schema and object name is created.Object ID, schema name, and object name pair will be reserved for revalidating dependent objects.Restrict drop behavior will drop the object when there is no dependent object. If there is a dependent object,an error will be thrown.DescriptionThe DROP SYNONYM statement removes a synonym. The optional PUBLIC element allows for the removal ofa public synonym.Example DROP SYNONYM a_synonym;DROP TABLESyntax DROP TABLE <table_name> [<drop_option>]Syntax Elements <drop_option> ::= CASCADE | RESTRICTDefault = RESTRICTCascaded drop drops the object and dependent objects. When CASCADE option is not specified, non-cascadeddrop behavior drops the object and does not drop the dependent objects, but invalidates the dependentobjects (VIEW, PROCEDURE).The invalidated object can be revalidated when an object that has the same schema and object name iscreated. The object ID, schema name, and object name pair will be reserved for revalidating dependentobjects.Restrict drop behavior drops the object when there is no dependent object. If there is a dependent object, anerror is thrown.Description85 2012-05-09
  • 86. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualThe DROP TABLE statement deletes a table.Example DROP TABLE A;DROP TRIGGERSyntax DROP TRIGGER <trigger_name>DescriptionThe DROP TRIGGER statement deletes a trigger.Only database users having the TRIGGER privilege for the table, the trigger was defined for, are allowed todrop a trigger for that table.Example DROP TRIGGER A;DROP TYPESyntax DROP TYPE <type_name> [<drop_option>]Syntax Elements <drop_option> ::= CASCADE | RESTRICTDefault = RESTRICTCascaded drop drops the object and dependent objects. When CASCADE option is not specified, non-cascadeddrop behavior drops the object and does not drop the dependent objects, but invalidates the dependentobjects (VIEW, PROCEDURE).When a table type is dropped with non-cascaded drop option, the dependent SQLScript procedure will beinvalidated but will not be dropped. When the underlying object of SQLScript procedure is recreated, thevalidity of the procedure is checked again and revalidated.Restrict drop behavior will drop the object when there is no dependent object. If there is a dependent object,an error will be thrown.DescriptionThe DROP TYPE statement remove a user-defined table type.Example DROP TYPE my_type;DROP VIEWSyntax DROP VIEW <view_name> [<drop_option>]Syntax Elements <drop_option> ::= CASCADE | RESTRICTDefault = RESTRICTCascaded drop drops the object and dependent objects. When CASCADE option is not specified, non-cascaded86 2012-05-09
  • 87. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manualdrop behavior drops the object and does not drop the dependent objects, but invalidates the dependentobjects (VIEW, PROCEDURE).The invalidated object can be revalidated when an object that has same schema and object name is created.Object ID, schema name, and object name pair will be reserved for revalidating dependent objects.Restrict drop behavior will drop the object when there is no dependent object. If there is a dependent object,an error will be thrown.DescriptionThe DROP VIEW statement removes a view.Example DROP VIEW v_name;RENAME COLUMNSyntax RENAME COLUMN <table_name>.<old_column_name> TO <new_column_name>Syntax Elements <old_column_name> ::= <identifier> <new_column_name> ::= <identifier>DescriptionThe RENAME COLUMN statement changes the name of a column.For the information on column name, please refer to sql_identifier.Example CREATE TABLE B (A INT PRIMARY KEY, B INT); RENAME COLUMN B.A TO C;RENAME INDEXSyntax RENAME INDEX <old_index_name> TO <new_index_name>Syntax Elements <old_index_name> ::= <identifier> <new_index_name> ::= <identifier>DescriptionThe RENAME INDEX statement changes the name of an index.For the information on index name, please refer to sql_identifier.Example RENAME INDEX idx TO new_idx;RENAME TABLESyntax RENAME TABLE <old_table_name> TO <new_table_name>87 2012-05-09
  • 88. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualSyntax Elements <old_table_name> ::= <identifier> <new_table_name> ::= <identifier>DescriptionThe RENAME TABLE statement changes the name of a table to new_table_name in the same schema.For the information on table name, please refer to sql_identifier.Example RENAME TABLE A TO B; RENAME TABLE mySchema.A TO B;ALTER TABLE ALTER TYPESyntax <table_conversion_clause> ::= [ALTER TYPE] [ROW THREADS <int_const>] | [ COLUMN THR EADS <int_constr> BATCH <batch_size>]DescriptionALTER TYPE ROW | COLUMNThis command is used to convert the table storage from ROW to COLUMN or from COLUMN to ROW.THREADS int_constSpecifies how many threads should be used in parallel for table conversion. The optimal value for number ofthreads should set to the number of available CPU cores.Default:The default value is TABLE_CONVERSION_PARALLELISM which is the number of CPU cores specified in theindexserver.ini file.BATCH int_constSpecifies the number of rows inserted in batch, and the default value is 2,000,000 which is the optimal value.Insert into column table will be immediately committed after every int_const records insertion, which mayreduce memory consumption. BATCH option can be used only when the table is converted from ROW toCOLUMN. However, the batch size more than 2,000,000 might cause high memory consumption, thus it isnot recommended to change this value.A new table with a different storage type can be created from an existing table by copying the existingtables columns and data. This command is used to convert the table storage from ROW to COLUMN or fromCOLUMN to ROW. If the source table was in ROW storage, then the created table will be in COLUMNstorage.Configuration parameterFor the configuration parameter, please refer to param_sql_table_conversion_parallelism.ExampleALTER TABLE my_table ALTER TYPE ROWTRUNCATE TABLESyntax TRUNCATE TABLE <table_name>DescriptionDeletes all rows from a table. TRUNCATE is faster than DELETE FROM when deleting all records from a table,but TRUNCATE cannot be rollbacked. To rollback from deleting records, "DELETE FROM <table_name>"should be used.HISTORY tables can also be truncated just like normal tables by executing this command. All parts of the88 2012-05-09
  • 89. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manualhistory table (main, delta, history main and history delta) will be deleted and the content will be lost.Data Manipulation StatementsDELETESyntax DELETE [HISTORY] FROM <table_name> [WHERE <predicate>]DescriptionThe DELETE statement deletes records from a table where the predicates are met. If the WHERE clause isomitted, then it removes all records from a table.DELETE HISTORYDELETE HISTORY will mark the chosen records of the history-part of the history-table for deletion. This meansthat after executing this command, timetravel queries referencing the deleted rows may still see these rows.In order to physically delete these rows the following statements have to be executed:ALTER SYSTEM RECLAIM VERSION SPACE; MERGE HISTORY DELTA of <table_name>;Please note that in some cases even the execution of the two statements above may not lead to physicaldeletion.To check whether the rows are physically deleted, the following statement can be helpful:SELECT * FROM <table_name> WHERE <predicate> WITH PARAMETERS (REQUEST_FLAGS=(ALLCOMMITTED,HISTORYONLY));WITH PARAMETERS should be removed from the SQL Reference Manual, please check with developers...Example DELETE FROM table_a WHERE a = 1;EXPLAIN PLANEXPLAIN PLAN EXPLAIN PLAN [SET STATEMENT_NAME = <statement_name>] FOR SELECT <subquery>Syntax <statement_name> ::= string literal used to identify the name of a specific executi on plan in the output table for a given SQL statement.It is set to NULL if the SET STATEMENT_NAME is not specified.DescriptionThe EXPLAIN PLAN statement is used to evaluate the execution plan that the SAP HANA Database follows toexecute an SQL statement. The result of the evaluation is stored into the EXPLAIN_PLAN_TABLE view forlater user examination. The SQL statement must be data manipulation statement, thus a schema definitionlanguage statement cannot be used with the EXPLAIN PLAN command. You can obtain SQL plan fromEXPLAIN_PLAN_TABLE view. The view is shared by all users. Here is an example of reading an SQL plan fromthe view. SELECT * FROM EXPLAIN_PLAN_TABLE;Columns in EXPLAIN_PLAN_TABLE view: Table 1: Column name and description Col umn Na me Des cri pti on The s tri ng s peci fi ed a s STATEMENT_NAME on executi ng the EXPLAIN PLAN comma nd. Thi s STATEMENT_NAME i s us ed to di s ti ngui s h pl a ns from ea ch other when there a re mul ti pl e pl a ns i n the EXPLAIN_PLAN_TABLE vi ew. OPERATOR_NAME Na me of a n opera tor. Deta i l s a re des cri bed i n the fol l owi ng s ecti on.89 2012-05-09
  • 90. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual Deta i l s of a n opera tor. Predi ca tes a nd expres s i ons us ed by the opera tor a re s hown OPERATOR_DETAILS here. SCHEMA_NAME Na me of the s chema of the a cces s ed ta bl e. TABLE_NAME Na me of the a cces s ed ta bl e. Type of the a cces s ed ta bl e. One of the fol l owi ng opti ons : COLUMN TABLE, ROW TABLE, TABLE_TYPE MONITORING VIEW, JOIN VIEW, OLAP VIEW, CALCULATION VIEW a nd HIERARCHY VIEW. TABLE_SIZE Es ti ma ted number of rows i n the a cces s ed ta bl e OUTPUT_SIZE Es ti ma ted number of rows produced by a n opera tor Es ti ma ted cos t of executi ng the s ubtree s ta rti ng from a n opera tor. Thi s va l ue i s onl y for SUBTREE_COST rel a ti ve compa ri s on. OPERATOR_ID ID of a n opera tor uni que i n a pl a n. IDs a re i ntegers s ta rti ng from 1. OPERATOR_ID of the pa rent of a n opera tor. The s ha pe of a n SQL pl a n i s a tree a nd the PARENT_OPERATOR_ID topol ogy of the tree ca n be recons tructed us i ng OPERATOR_ID a nd PARENT_OPERATOR_ID. PARENT_OPERATOR_ID of the root opera tor i s s hown a s NULL. Level from the root opera tor. Level of the root opera tor i s 1, l evel of a chi l d of the root LEVEL opera tor i s 2 a nd s o on. Thi s ca n be uti l i zed for output i ndenta ti on. Pos i ti on i n the pa rent opera tor. Pos i ti on of the fi rs t chi l d i s 1, pos i ti on of the s econd POSITION chi l d i s 2 a nd s o on. HOST The hos tna me where a n opera tor wa s executed PORT The TCP/IP port us ed to connect to the hos t TIMESTAMP Da te a nd ti me when the EXPLAIN PLAN comma nd wa s executed. CONNECTION_ID ID of the connecti on where the EXPLAIN PLAN comma nd wa s executed. EXECUTION_ENGINE Type of the executi on engi ne where a n opera tor i s executed: COLUMN or ROWOPERATOR_NAME column in EXPLAIN_PLAN_TABLE view: Table 2. List of column engine operators shownin the OPERATOR_NAME column. Opera tor Na me Des cri pti on COLUMN Sta rti ng pos i ti on of col umn engi ne opera tors . OPERATOR_DETAILS l i s ts projected col umns . SEARCH LIMIT Opera tor for l i mi ti ng the number of output rows ORDER BY Opera tor for s orti ng output rows HAVING Opera tor for fi l teri ng wi th predi ca tes on top of groupi ng a nd a ggrega ti on GROUP BY Opera tor for groupi ng a nd a ggrega ti on DISTINCT Opera tor for dupl i ca te el i mi na ti on FILTER Opera tor for fi l teri ng wi th predi ca tes JOIN Opera tor for joi ni ng i nput rel a ti ons COLUMN TABLE Informa ti on a bout a cces s ed col umn ta bl e Opera tor for produci ng uni on-a l l of mul ti pl e res ul ts ha vi ng the s a me groupi ng a nd MULTIPROVIDER a ggrega ti onTable 3. List of row engine operators shown in the OPERATOR_NAME column. Opera tor Des cri pti on Na me ROW SEARCH Sta rti ng pos i ti on of row engi ne opera tors . OPERATOR_DETAILS l i s ts projected col umns . LIMIT Opera tor for l i mi ti ng number of output rows ORDER BY Opera tor for s orti ng output rows HAVING Opera tor for fi l teri ng wi th predi ca tes on top of groupi ng a nd a ggrega ti on GROUP BY Opera tor for groupi ng a nd a ggrega ti on MERGE Opera tor for mergi ng the res ul ts of mul ti pl e pa ra l l el groupi ng a nd a ggrega ti ons AGGREGATION DISTINCT Opera tor for dupl i ca te el i mi na ti on FILTER Opera tor for fi l teri ng wi th predi ca tes UNION ALL Opera tor for produci ng uni on-a l l of i nput rel a ti ons MATERIALIZED Opera tor for produci ng uni on-a l l of i nput rel a ti ons wi th i ntermedi a te res ul t ma teri a l i za ti on UNION ALL Opera tor for joi ni ng i nput rel a ti ons through B-tree i ndex s ea rches . Joi n type s uffi x ca n be BTREE INDEX a dded. For exa mpl e, B-tree i ndex joi n for l eft outer joi n i s s hown a s BTREE INDEX JOIN (LEFT JOIN OUTER). Joi n wi thout joi n type s uffi x mea ns i nner joi n. CPBTREE Opera tor for joi ni ng i nput rel a ti ons through CPB-tree i ndex s ea rches . Joi n type s uffi x ca n be INDEX JOIN a dded. Opera tor for joi ni ng i nput rel a ti ons through probi ng ha s h ta bl e bui l t on the fl y. Joi n type s uffi x90 2012-05-09
  • 91. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual Opera tor for joi ni ng i nput rel a ti ons through probi ng ha s h ta bl e bui l t on the fl y. Joi n type s uffi x HASH JOIN ca n be a dded. NESTED LOOP Opera tor for joi ni ng i nput rel a ti ons through nes ted l oopi ng. Joi n type s uffi x ca n be a dded. JOIN MIXED Opera tor for joi ni ng a n i nput rel a ti on of row s tore forma t wi th a col umn ta bl e wi thout forma t INVERTED convers i on us i ng a n i nverted i ndex of the col umn ta bl e. Joi n type s uffi x ca n be a dded. INDEX JOIN BTREE INDEX Ta bl e a cces s through B-tree i ndex s ea rch SEARCH CPBTREE Ta bl e a cces s through CPB-tree i ndex s ea rch INDEX SEARCH TABLE SCAN Ta bl e a cces s through s ca nni ng AGGR TABLE Opera tor for a ggrega ti ng ba s e ta bl e di rectl y MONITOR Moni tori ng vi ew a cces s through s ea rch SEARCH MONITOR Moni tori ng vi ew a cces s through s ca nni ng SCANCOLUMN SEARCH is a mark for the starting position of column engine operators and ROW SEARCH is a markfor the starting position of row engine operators. In the example below, the intermediate result produced bya COLUMN SEARCH (ID 10) is consumed by a ROW SEARCH (ID 7), and the intermediate result produced bythe ROW SEARCH (ID 7) is consumed by another COLUMN SEARCH (ID 1). The operators below the lowestCOLUMN SEARCH (ID 10) explain how the COLUMN SEARCH (ID 10) is executed. The operators between theROW SEARCH (ID 7) and the COLUMN SEARCH (ID 10) explain how the ROW SEARCH (ID 7) processes theintermediate result produced by the COLUMN SEARCH (ID 10). The operators between the top COLUMNSEARCH (ID 1) and the ROW SEARCH (ID 7) explain how the top COLUMN SEARCH (ID 1) processes theintermediate result produced by the ROW SEARCH (ID 7). Table 4. Operators OPERATOR_NAME OPERATOR_ID PARENT_OPERATOR_ID LEVEL POSITION COLUMN SEARCH 1 NULL 1 1 LIMIT 2 1 2 1 ORDER BY 3 2 3 1 GROUP BY 4 3 4 1 JOIN 5 4 5 1 COLUMN TABLE 6 5 6 1 <font <font <font <font <font col or="BLUE">ROW SEARCH</font> col or="BLUE">7</font> col or="BLUE">5</font> col or="BLUE">6</font> col or="BLUE">2</font> BTREE INDEX JOIN 8 7 7 1 BTREE INDEX JOIN 9 8 8 1 <font <font <font <font <font col or="RED">COLUMN SEARCH</font> col or="RED">10</font> col or="RED">9</font> col or="RED">9</font> col or="RED">1</font> FILTER 11 10 10 1 COLUMN TABLE 12 11 11 1Example of SQL plan explanation Here is an example of SQL plan explanation of a query. The query is fromTPC-H Benchmark. In the example, all tables are located on row store. DELETE FROM expl a i n_pl a n_ta bl e WHERE s ta tement_na me = TPC-H Q10; EXPLAIN PLAN SET STATEMENT_NAME = TPC-H Q10 FOR SELECT TOP 20 c_cus tkey, c_na me, SUM(l _extendedpri ce * (1 - l _di s count)) AS revenue, c_a cctba l , n_na me, c_a ddres s , c_phone, c_comment FROM cus tomer, orders , l i nei tem, na ti on WHERE c_cus tkey = o_cus tkey AND l _orderkey = o_orderkey AND o_orderda te >= 1993-10-01 AND o_orderda te < ADD_MONTHS(1993-10-01,3) AND l _returnfl a g = R91 2012-05-09
  • 92. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual AND c_na ti onkey = n_na ti onkey GROUP BY c_cus tkey, c_na me, c_a cctba l , c_phone, n_na me, c_a ddres s , c_comment ORDER BY revenue DESC; SELECT opera tor_na me, opera tor_deta i l s , ta bl e_na me FROM expl a i n_pl a n_ta bl e WHERE s ta tement_na me = TPC-H Q10;The following is the plan explanation of the above query. OPERATOR_NAME OPERATOR_DETAILS TABLE_NAME CUSTOMER.C_CUSTKEY, CUSTOMER.C_NAME, SUM(LINEITEM.L_EXTENDEDPRICE * (1 - ROW SEARCH LINEITEM.L_DISCOUNT)), CUSTOMER.C_ACCTBAL, NATION.N_NAME, CUSTOMER.C_ADDRESS, CUSTOMER.C_PHONE, CUSTOMER.C_ None COMMENT LIMIT NUM RECORDS: 20 ORDER BY SUM(LINEITEM.L_EXTENDEDPRICE * (1 - LINEITEM.L_DISCOUNT)) DESC None MERGE AGGREGATION NUM PARTITIONS: 4 None GROUPING: NATION.N_NAME, R_CUSTOMER.C_CUSTKEY, AGGREGATION: SUM(LINEITEM.L_EXTENDEDPRICE * (1 - GROUP BY None LINEITEM.L_DISCOUNT)) INDEX NAME: _SYS_TREE_RS_279_#0_#P0, CPBTREE INDEX JOIN INDEX CONDITION: ORDERS.O_ORDERKEY = LINEITEM.L_ORDERKEY, LINEITEM INDEX FILTER: R = LINEITEM.L_RETURNFLAG INDEX NAME: _SYS_TREE_RS_285_#0_#P0, BTREE INDEX JOIN NATION INDEX CONDITION: CUSTOMER.C_NATIONKEY = NATION.N_NATIONKEY INDEX NAME: _SYS_TREE_RS_283_#0_#P0, BTREE INDEX JOIN CUSTOMER INDEX CONDITION: ORDERS.O_CUSTKEY = CUSTOMER.C_CUSTKEY TABLE SCAN FILTER CONDITION: ORDERS.O_ORDERDATE < 1994-01-01 AND ORDERS.O_ORDERDATE >= 1993-10-01 ORDERSThis means that:1. TABLE SCAN will be executed on ORDERS with the FILTER CONDITION.2. BTREE INDEX JOIN will be executed with the B-tree index of CUSTOMER and the result of the below TABLESCAN.3. BTREE INDEX JOIN will be executed with the B-tree index of NATION and the result of the below BTREEINDEX JOIN.4. CPBTREE INDEX JOIN will be executed with the CPB-tree index of LINEITEM and the result of the belowBTREE INDEX JOIN.5. GROUP BY will be executed with the result of the below CPBTREE INDEX JOIN, with 4 threads.6. MERGE AGGREGATION will be executed with the result of the GROUP BY below.INSERTSyntax INSERT INTO <table_name> [(<column_name_list>)] {VALUES (<expression_list>) | <subq uery>}Syntax Elements <column_name_list> ::= <column_name>,... <expression_list> ::= <expression>,...DescriptionThe INSERT statement adds records to a table. A subquery that returns records can be used to insert recordsinto the table. If the subquery does not return any records, then the database will not insert any records intothe table. The column list can be specified with the INSERT statement. If the column list is omitted, thedatabase inserts all columns in the table.Example92 2012-05-09
  • 93. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual CREATE TABLE table_a (A INT); INSERT INTO table_a VALUES (1);LOADSyntax LOAD <table_name> {DELTA | ALL | (<column_name>, ...)}DescriptionThe LOAD statement loads the column store table data to memory.DELTA - DELTA part of the column store table is loaded into memory. Since the column store is readoptimized and compressed, deltas are introduced to optimize insert or updates. All insertions are passed to adelta.ALL - ALL data of the column store table in main and delta is loaded into memory.column_name, ... - Columns specified in the column list are loaded into memory.Example LOAD a_table all;MERGE DELTASyntax MERGE [HISTORY] DELTA OF <table_name> [PART n] [WITH PARAMETERS (<parameter_key_val ue>, ...)]Syntax ElementsWITH PARAMETERS (<parameter_key_value>):Column store-specific options can be passed in using the "WITH PARAMETERS" clause. <parameter_key_value> ::= <string_literal> = <string_literal>Current parameters: SMART_MERGE = ON | OFF When SMART_MERGE is ON, the database does a smartmerge, this means database decides whether to merge or not based on merge criteria specified inautomerge section of indexserver configurationMEMORY_MERGE = ON | OFF Database merges delta index in memory only, it will not be persisted.DescriptionThe MERGE DELTA statement merges deltas to main column store table. Since the column store is readoptimized and compressed, deltas are introduced to optimize insert or updates in the optimized way. Allinsertions are passed to a delta. At a certain point in time, deltas can be merged into the main column table.Deltas will be merged into main column table.HISTORY - Can be specified to merge history deltas into the history main on column store history tables. PART- Can be specified to merge a delta of a partition to main column table.Example MERGE DELTA OF A; MERGE DELTA OF A PART 1; MERGE HISTORY DELTA OF A; MERGE HISTORY DELTA OF A PART 1;REPLACE | UPSERTSyntax UPSERT <table_name> [(<column_name>,...) ] { <values_list_clause> | <subquery> } REPLACE <table_name> [(<column_name>,...) ] { <values_list_clause> | <subquery> } <values_list_clause> ::= VALUES ( <expression>,... ) [ WHERE <predicate> | WI93 2012-05-09
  • 94. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual TH PRIMARY KEY ]Syntax ElementsDescriptionDescriptions to detailed syntax elements of this SQL Command.The UPSERT or REPLACE statement without a subquery is similar to the UPDATE statement. The onlydifference is when the WHERE clause predicate is false, it adds a new record to the table like the INSERTstatement.In case of a table which has a PRIMARY KEY, the PRIMARY KEY column must be included in the column list.Columns defined with NOT NULL without default specification have to be included in the column list as well.Other columns are filled with default value or NULL if not specified.The UPSERT or REPLACE statement with a subquery works like the INSERT statement, except that if an oldrow in the table has the same value as a new row for a PRIMARY KEY, then the old row is changed by valuesof the returned record from a subquery. Unless the table has a PRIMARY KEY, it becomes equivalent toINSERT because there is no index to be used to determine whether or not a new row duplicates another.The UPSERT or REPLACE statement with a WITH PRIMARY KEY is same as one with the subquery. It worksbased on the PRIMARY KEY.Example CREATE TABLE A (A INT PRIMARY KEY, B INT); UPSERT A VALUES (1, 1); UPSERT A SELECT A + 1, B FROM A;SELECTSyntax <select_statement> ::= <subquery> [ <for_update> | <time_travel> ] | ( <subquery> ) [ <for_update> | <time_travel> ] <subquery> ::= <select_clause> <from_clause > [<where_clause>] [<group_by_clause>] [<having_clause>] [{<set_operator> <subquery>, ... }] [<order_by_clause>] [<limit>]SELECT clauseThe select clause specifies an output to be returned either to users or to an outer select clause if exists. <select_clause> ::= SELECT [TOP n] [ ALL | DISTINCT ] <select_list> <select_list> ::= {<select_item>, ... } <select_item> ::= [<table_name>.] <asterisk> | <expression> [ AS ] <column_alias> <table_name> ::= [<schema_name>.] <identifier> <asterisk> ::= *TOPTOP can be used to return the first n records from the SQL statement.DISTINCT and ALLDISTINCT can be used to return only one copy of each set of duplicate records selected.ALL can be used to return all rows selected, including all copies of duplicates. The default is ALL.select_listThe select list allows users to specify columns they want to retrieve from tables.asteriskAsterisk (*) can be used to select all columns from all tables or views listed in the FROM clause. If a schemaname and a table name or a table name is provided with asterisk(*), it is used to limit the scope of the resultset to the specified table.column_alias94 2012-05-09
  • 95. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualColumn aliases can be used to represent columns or expressions simply.FROM clauseThe from clause specifies inputs such as tables, views, and subqueries to be used in the select statement. <from_clause> ::= FROM {<table>, ... } <table> ::= <table_name> [ [AS] <table_alias> ] | <subquery> [ [AS] <table_alias> ] | <joined_table> <joined_table> ::= <table> [<join_type>] JOIN <table> ON <predicate> | <table> CROSS JOIN <table> | <joined_table> <join_type> ::= INNER | { LEFT | RIGHT | FULL } [OUTER]The join_type specifies the type of join being performed. LEFT indicates a left outer join, RIGHT indicates aright outer join, and FULL indicates a full outer join. OUTER may or may not be used when an outer join isbeing performed.ON <predicate>The ON clause specifies a join predicate.CROSS JOINCROSS indicates that a cross join is being performed. A cross join produces the cross-product of two tables.WHERE clauseThe WHERE clause is used to specify predicates on inputs in the FROM clause, so users can retrieve thedesired records. <where_clause> ::= WHERE <condition> <condition> ::= <condition> OR <condition> | <condition> AND <condition> | NOT <condition> | ( <condition> ) | <predicate> <predicate> ::= <comparison_predicate> | <range_preciate> | <in_predicate> | <exist_predicate> | <like_predicate> | <null_predicate> <comparison_predicate> ::= <expression> { = | != | <> | > | < | >= | <= } [ ANY | SOME | ALL ] ({<expr_list> | <subquery>}) <range_predicate> ::= <expression> [NOT] BETWEEN <expression> AND <expres sion> <in_predicate> ::= <expression> [NOT] IN ( { <expr_list> | <subquery> } ) <exist_predicate> ::= [NOT] EXISTS ( <subquery> ) <like_predicate> ::= <expression> [NOT] LIKE <expression> [ESCAPE <expres sion>] <null_predicate> ::= <expression> IS [NOT] NULLGROUP BY clause <group_by_clause> ::= GROUP BY { <group_by_expression_list> | <grouping_set> } <group_by_expression_list> ::= { <expression>, ... } <grouping_set> ::= { GROUPING SETS | ROLLUP | CUBE } [BEST number] [LIMIT number [OFFSET number] ] [WITH SUBTOTAL] [WITH BALANCE] [WITH TOTAL] [TEXT_FILTER <filterspec> [FILL UP [SORT MATCHES TO TOP]]] [STRUCTURED RESULT [WITH OVERVIEW] [PREFIX value] | MULTIPLE RESULTSETS]95 2012-05-09
  • 96. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual ( <grouping_expression_list> ) <grouping_expression_list> ::= { <grouping_expression>, ... } <grouping_expression> ::= <expression> | ( <expression>, ... ) | ( ( <expression>, ... ) <order_by_clause> )The GROUP BY clause is used to group the selected rows based on the values in the specified columns.GROUPING SETSGenerates results with specified multiple groupings of data in a single statement. If no additional options suchas best and limit are set, the result is the same as UNION ALL of the aggregation of each specified group. Forexample, "select col1, col2, col3, count(*) from t group by grouping sets ( (col1, col2), (col1, col3) )" isequivalent to "select col1, col2, NULL, count(*) from t group by col1, col2 union all select col1, NULL, col3,count(*) from t group by col1, col3". In the grouping-sets query each of (col1, col2) and (col1, col3) specifiesthe grouping.ROLLUPGenerates results with multiple levels of aggregation in a single statement. For example, "rollup (col1, col2,col3)" is equivalent to "grouping sets ( (col1, col2, col3), (col1, col2), (col1) )" with an additional aggregationwithout grouping. Thus, the number of grouping that result set contains is the number of columns in ROLLUPlist plus one for last aggregation if there is no additional option.CUBEGenerates results with multiple levels of aggregations in a single statement. For example, "cube (col1, col2,col3)" is equivalent to "grouping sets ( (col1, col2, col3), (col1, col2), (col1, col3), (col2, col3), (col1), (col2),(col3) )" with an additional aggregation without grouping. Thus, the number of grouping that result setcontains is the same as all possible permutations of columns in the CUBE list plus one for the last aggregationif there is no additional option.BEST nReturns only the top-n grouping sets sorted in descending order of the number of rows aggregated in eachgrouping set. n can be any of zero, positive, and negative. When n is zero, it is the same with no BEST option.When n is negative, it means sorting in ascending order.LIMIT n1 [OFFSET n2]Returns the first n1 grouped records after skipping n2 ones for each grouping set.WITH SUBTOTALReturns for each grouping set an additional subtotal of the returned results as controlled by OFFSET or LIMIT.Unless OFFSET and LIMIT is set, the value is the same as the one for WITH TOTAL.WITH BALANCEReturns for each grouping set an additional aggregated value of the remaining values not returned ascontrolled by OFFSET or LIMIT.WITH TOTALReturns for each grouping set an additional row that is the aggregated total value. OFFSET and LIMIT optionscannot change this value.TEXT_FILTER <filterspec>Performs text filtering or highlighting on the grouping columns with <filterspec>, which is a single-quotedstring that follows the below syntax. <filterspec> ::= [<prefix>]<element>{<subsequent>, ...} <prefix> ::= + | - | NOT <element> ::= <token> | <phrase> <token> ::= !! Unicode letters or digits <phrase> ::= !! double-quoted string that does not contain double quotations inside <subsequent> ::= [<prefix_subsequent>]<element> <prefix_subsequent> ::= + | - | NOT | AND | AND NOT | ORA filter defined by <filterspec> is a token/phrase or tokens/phrases connected with logical operators such asAND, OR and NOT. A token matches a string that contains its corresponding word case-insensitively. Forexample, ab matches ab cd and cd Ab but does not match abcd A token can contain wildcard characters that matches any string and that matches any character. Inside phrase, however, and do not work aswildcard characters. With tokens and phrases logical operators AND, OR and NOT may be used together.Since OR is the default operator, ab cd is the same as ab OR cd Note that logical operators should bewritten in uppercase characters. As a kind of logical operators, prefixes + and - mean inclusion (AND) andexclusion (AND NOT), respectively. For example, ab -cd is the same as ab AND NOT cd If there is no FILL UPoption, only grouped records that have matching values are returned. Note that a filter is applied to only the96 2012-05-09
  • 97. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manualfirst grouping column in each grouping set.FILL UPReturns not only matched grouped records, but also non-matched ones. Function text_filter is useful toidentify which one is matched. Refer to Related Functions below.SORT MATCHES TO TOPReturns matching values before non-matching ones for each grouping set. This option cannot be used withSUBTOTAL, BALANCE and TOTAL.STRUCTURED RESULTReturns results as temporary tables. For each grouping set a single temporary table is created. If WITHOVERVIEW option is set, an additional temporary table is created for the overview of grouping sets. Thenames of temporary tables are specified by PREFIX option.WITH OVERVIEWReturns the overview in a separate table additionally.PREFIX valueSpecifies a prefix for naming the temporary tables. It must start with "#", which means the temporary table.If omitted, the default prefix is "#GN". Then, the concatenation of this prefix value and a nonnegative integernumber is used as the name of temporary tables; for example, "#GN0", "#GN1" and "#GN2". Refer toReturn Format below.MULTIPLE RESULTSETSReturns results in multiple result sets.The projection clause must include all grouping columns used in the GROUPING SETS specification.Related Functionsgrouping_id ( <grouping_column1, ..., grouping_columnn> ) function returns an integer number to identifywhich grouping set each grouped record belongs to. text_filter ( <grouping_column> ) function, which is usedwith TEXT_FILTER, FILL UP, and SORT MATCHES TO TOP, displays matching values or NULL. NULL is displayedfor non-matching values when FILL UP option is specified.Return FormatIf neither STRUCTURED RESULT nor MULTIPLE RESULTSETS is set, the unioned result of all grouping sets isreturned, with NULL values filling up attributes that are not included in a specific grouping set. WithSTRUCTURED RESULT, temporary tables are created additionally which can be queried using "SELECT *FROM <table name>" in the same session. The name of the tables follows the form <PREFIX>0: this table will contain the overview if WITH OVERVIEW is specified <PREFIX>n: n-th grouping set subject to re-ordering by the BEST parameter With MULTIPLE RESULTSETS, multiple result sets are returned. Grouped records for each grouping set are in a single result set.ExampleHere is t1 table. drop table t1; create column table t1 ( id int primary key, customer varchar(5), year int, product varchar(5), sales int ); insert into t1 values(1, C1, 2009, P1, 100); insert into t1 values(2, C1, 2009, P2, 200); insert into t1 values(3, C1, 2010, P1, 50); insert into t1 values(4, C1, 2010, P2, 150); insert into t1 values(5, C2, 2009, P1, 200); insert into t1 values(6, C2, 2009, P2, 300); insert into t1 values(7, C2, 2010, P1, 100); insert into t1 values(8, C2, 2010, P2, 150);The following GROUPING SETS query is equivalent to the second below group-by query. Note that two groupsinside grouping sets in the first query are specified at each group by in the second query. select customer, year, product, sum(sales) from t1 group by GROUPING SETS ( (customer, year), (customer, product) );97 2012-05-09
  • 98. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual select customer, year, NULL, sum(sales) from t1 group by customer, year union all select customer, NULL, product, sum(sales) from t1 group by customer, product;ROLLUP and CUBE are concise representations of grouping sets that are used frequently. The followingROLLUP query is equivalent to the second below grouping-set query. select customer, year, sum(sales) from t1 group by ROLLUP(customer, year); select customer, year, sum(sales) from t1 group by grouping sets ( (customer, year), (customer) ) union all select NULL, NULL, sum(sales) from t1;The following CUBE query is equivalent to the second below grouping-set query. select customer, year, sum(sales) from t1 group by CUBE(customer, year); select customer, year, sum(sales) from t1 group by grouping sets ( (customer, year), (customer), (year) ) union all select NULL, NULL, sum(sales) from t1;BEST 1 specifies that the following query returns only top-1 best group. In this example, 4 records exist for(customer, year) group and 2 records exist for (product) group, so the former 4 records are returned. ForBEST -1 instead of BEST 1, the latter 2 records are returned. select customer, year, product, sum(sales) from t1 group by grouping sets BEST 1 ( (customer, year), (product) );LIMIT 2 limits the number of records to maximum 2 for each group. For (customer, year) group, the numberof its records are 4, then only first 2 records will be returned. For (product) group, the number of its recordsare 2, so all the records will be returned. select customer, year, product, sum(sales) from t1 group by grouping sets LIMIT 2 ( (customer, year), (product) );WITH SUBTOTAL produces additional one record for each group to display subtotal of returned records.These subtotal records get NULL for each of customer, year, product columns and the sum of sum(sales)values in the select list. select customer, year, product, sum(sales) from t1 group by grouping sets LIMIT 2 WITH SUBTOTAL (98 2012-05-09
  • 99. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual (customer, year), (product) );WITH BALNACE produces additional one record for each group to display subtotal of unreturned records. select customer, year, product, sum(sales) from t1 group by grouping sets LIMIT 2 WITH BALANCE ( (customer, year), (product) );WITH TOTAL produces additional one record for each group to display total of all grouped records withoutregard that the records are returned or not. select customer, year, product, sum(sales) from t1 group by grouping sets LIMIT 2 WITH TOTAL ( (customer, year), (product) );TEXT_FILTER allows users to retrieve the first column of each group with a given <filterspec>. The followingquery will search columns ending with 2: customers for the first grouping set and products for the secondone. Only matched three records will be returned. TEXT_FILTER function in the select list is useful to seewhich values are matched. select customer, year, product, sum(sales), text_filter(customer), text_filter(prod uct) from t1 group by grouping sets TEXT_FILTER *2 ( (customer, year), (product) );FILL UP is used to return both matched and non-matched records with <filterspec>. Therefore, the followingquery returns six records whereas the previous query does three ones. select customer, year, product, sum(sales), text_filter(customer), text_filter(prod uct) from t1 group by grouping sets TEXT_FILTER *2 FILL UP ( (customer, year), (product) );SORT MATCHES TO TOP is used to raise matched records up. For each grouping set, its grouped records willbe sorted. select customer, year, product, sum(sales), text_filter(customer), text_filter(prod uct) from t1 group by grouping sets TEXT_FILTER *2 FILL UP SORT MATCHES TO TOP ( (customer, year), (product) );STRUCTURED RESULT creates temporary tables: one for each grouping set and one more for the overviewtable optionally. "#GN1" table is for (customer, year) grouping set and "#GN2" table is for (product) one.Note that each table contains only related columns. That is, "#GN1" table does not have "product" columnand "#GN2" table does not have "customer" and "year" columns. select customer, year, product, sum(sales) from t1 group by grouping sets STRUCTURED RESULT ( (customer, year), (product) );99 2012-05-09
  • 100. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual ); select * from "#GN1"; select * from "#GN2";WITH OVERVIEW creates a temporary table "#GN0" for the overview table. drop table "#G1"; drop table "#G2"; select customer, year, product, sum(sales) from t1 group by grouping sets structured result WITH OVERVIEW ( (customer, year), (product) ); select * from "#GN0"; select * from "#GN1"; select * from "#GN2";Users can change the names of temporary tables by using PREFIX keyword. Note that the names still muststart with #, which is the prefix of temporary tables. select customer, year, product, sum(sales) from t1 group by grouping sets STRUCTURED RESULT WITH OVERVIEW PREFIX #MYTAB ( (customer, year), (product) ); select * from "#MYTAB0"; select * from "#MYTAB1"; select * from "#MYTAB2";Temporary tables are dropped when the corresponding session is closed or when a user executes a dropcommand. A list of temporary tables are seen in m_temporary_tables. select * from m_temporary_tables;MULTIPLE RESULTSETS returns resultsets as multiple resultsets. In SAP HANA Studio, the following query willreturn three resultsets: one is for the overview table and two are for grouping sets. select customer, year, product, sum(sales) from t1 group by grouping sets MULTIPLE RESULTSETS ( (customer, year), (product) );HAVING clauseThe HAVING clause is used to select the specified groups that satisfy the predicates. If this clause is omitted,all groups are selected. <having_clause> ::= HAVING <condition>SET OPERATORSThe set operators enable more than one select statements to be combined and only one result set isreturned. <set_operator> ::= UNION [ ALL | DISTINCT ] | INTERSECT [DISTINCT] | EXCEPT [DISTIN CT]UNION ALLSelects all records from all select statements. Duplicates are not removed.UNION [DISTINCT]Selects all unique records from all select statements by removing duplicates found from different selectstatements. UNION is the same as UNION DISTINCT.100 2012-05-09
  • 101. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualINTERSECT [DISTINCT]Returns all unique records that exist in all select statements in common.EXCEPT [DISTINCT]Returns all unique records from the first select statements after removing the duplicates in the followingselect statements.ORDER BY clause <order_by_clause> ::= ORDER BY { { <expression> | <position> } [ ASC | DESC ] }The ORDER BY clause is used to sort records by expressions or positions. A position means the index of theselect list. For "select col1, col2 from t order by 2", 2 indicates col2 as the second expression used in theselect list. ASC is used to sort records in ascending order and DESC is used to sort records in descending order.The default value is ASC.LIMITLIMIT keyword specifies the number of output records. <limit> ::= LIMIT n1 [ OFFSET n2 ]LIMIT n1 [OFFSET n2]Returns the first n1 records after skipping n2 ones.FOR UPDATEFOR UPDATE keywords lock the selected records so that other users cannot lock or change the records untilend of this transaction. <for_update> ::= FOR UPDATETIME TRAVELKeywords related wtih time travel can be used for statement-level time travel to go back to the snapshotspecified by commit_id or timestamp.Example <time_travel> ::= AS OF [ COMMIT ID | TIMESTAMP ] [ <commit_id> | <timestamp> ]UNLOADSyntax UNLOAD <table_name>DescriptionThe UNLOAD statement unloads the column store table data from memory to disk.Example UNLOAD a_table;UPDATESyntax UPDATE <table_name> [[AS] <alias_name> ] <set_clause> [WHERE <predicate>]Syntax Elements <set_clause> ::= SET {<column_name> = <expression>},...Description101 2012-05-09
  • 102. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualThe UPDATE statement changes the values of the records of a table where the predicate is met. If theWHERE clause predicate is true, the result of expression is assigned to that column. If the WHERE clause isomitted, then it updates all records of a table.Example UPDATE table_a SET a = 2 WHERE a = 1;System Management StatementsSET SYSTEM LICENSESyntax SET SYSTEM LICENSE <license key>DescriptionInstall a license key to the database instance. The license key (<license key>="">) is to be copied and pastedfrom the license key file. The system privilege LICENSE ADMIN is required to execute this command.Example SET SYSTEM LICENSE ----- Begin SAP License ----- SAPSYSTEM=HD1 HARDWARE-KEY=K4150485960 INSTNO=0110008649 BEGIN=20110809 EXPIRATION=20151231 LKEY=... SWPRODUCTNAME=SAP-HANA SWPRODUCTLIMIT=2147483647 SYSTEM-NR=00000000031047460ALTER SYSTEM ALTER CONFIGURATIONSyntax ALTER CONFIGURATION (<filename>, <layer>[, <layer_name>]) SET | UNSET <parameter_key_value_list> [ WITH RECONFIGURE]Syntax Elements filename ::= <string_literal>The filename is indexserver.ini in the case of row-store engine configuration. The filename used must be oneof the ini files located on the DEFAULT layer. If the file selected by filename does not exist on the requiredlayer, the file will be created in the case of a SET command. layer ::= <string_literal>Sets the target layer for the configuration change. This parameter can be either SYSTEM or HOST. TheSYSTEM layer is the recommended layer for customer settings. The HOST layer should generally only be usedfor minor configuration, for example parameters contained in daemon.ini. layer_name ::= <string_literal>If the layer parameter above is set to HOST, layer_name is used to target either a tenant name or a targethost name. For example, selxeon12 would target the selxeon12 host.SETThe SET command updates the value of a key if the key already exists, or inserts it if required.UNSETThe UNSET command removes a key and its associated value. parameter_key_value_list ::=102 2012-05-09
  • 103. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual {(<section_name>,<parameter_name>) = <parameter_value>},...Specifies the section, key and value of the ini file parameter to be altered as follows: section_name ::= <string_literal>The section name of the parameter to be altered. parameter_name ::= <string_literal>The name of the parameter to be altered. parameter_value ::= <string_literal>The value of the parameter to be altered.WITH RECONFIGUREWhen WITH RECONFIGURE is specified the configuration changes will be directly applied to the running SAPHANA Database instance.When WITH RECONFIGURE is not specified the new configuration will be written to the ini file, however thenew value is not applied to the current running system and will only be applied at the next startup of thedatabase. This means that there can be inconsistencies between the ini file contents and the actualconfiguration value that the SAP HANA Database is currently using.DescriptionSets or removes configuration parameters in an ini file. Ini file configuration is used for the layeredconfiguration for DEFAULT, SYSTEM, HOST layers. Note: The DEFAULT layer configuration cannot be changed or removed using this command.The following is an example of ini file locations:DEFAULT: /usr/sap/<SYSTEMNAME>/HDB<INSTANCENUMBER>/exe/config/indexserver.iniSYSTEM: /usr/sap/<SYSTEMNAME>/SYS/global/hdb/custom/config/indexserver.iniHOST: /usr/sap/<SYSTEMNAME>/HDB<INSTANCENUMBER>/<HOSTNAME>/indexserver.iniThe priority of the configuration layers is as follows: DEFAULT < SYSTEM < HOST.This means that the layer that has the highest priority is the HOST layer, followed by the SYSTEM layer andfinally the DEFAULT layer. The configuration with the highest priority will be applied to the runningenvironment. If the highest priority level configuration is removed, then the configuration with the nexthighest priority will be applied.System and Monitoring ViewsCurrently available ini files are listed in the M_INIFILES system table and the current configuration is availablein M_INIFILE_CONTENTS system table.ExampleExample syntax to change system layer configuration is as follows: ALTER SYSTEM ALTER CONFIGURATION (filename, layer) SET (section1, key1) = value1, (section2, key2) = value2, ... [WITH RECONFIGURE]; ALTER SYSTEM ALTER CONFIGURATION (filename, layer, layer_name ) UNSET (secti on1, key1), (section2), ...[WITH RECONFIGURE];ALTER SYSTEM ALTER SESSION SETSyntax ALTER SYSTEM ALTER SESSION [<session_id>] SET <key> = <value>Syntax Elements session_id ::= <string_literal>103 2012-05-09
  • 104. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualIf you have session administration privileges, you can change session variables of other sessions by specifyingthe session_id parameter. key ::= <string_literal>The key of a session variable. The maximum length of key is 32 characters. value ::= <string_literal>The desired value of a session variable. The maximum length of value is 512 characters.DescriptionWith this command you can set session variables of your own session by providing key and value pairs. Also ifyou have session administration privileges, you can change session variables of other sessions by specifyingthe session_id parameter. Note: There are several available read-only session variables that you cannot change with this command: APPLICATION, APPLICATIONUSER, TRACEPROFILE.Session variables can be retrieved using SESSION_CONTEXT function and unset using the UNSET [SESSION]command.Example ALTER SYSTEM ALTER SESSION SET MY_VAR= dummy; SELECT SESSION_CONTEXT(MY_VAR) FROM dummy; UNSET MY_VAR;ALTER SYSTEM CANCEL [WORK IN] SESSIONSyntax ALTER SYSTEM CANCEL [WORK IN] SESSION <session_id>Syntax Elements <session_id> ::= connection IDDescriptionCancels the currently executed operation by the specified session, however, the session is not disconnected.ALTER SYSTEM CLEAR SQL PLAN CACHESyntax ALTER SYSTEM CLEAR SQL PLAN CACHEDescriptionResets SQL Plan Cache. It removes all the plans that are not currently running.ALTER SYSTEM CLEAR TRACESSyntax ALTER SYSTEM CLEAR TRACES (<trace_type_list>)Syntax Elements <trace_type_list> ::= <trace_type>,... <trace_type> ::= <string_literal>Description104 2012-05-09
  • 105. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualClears trace contents from trace files and all files that were opened by a service will be removed or reset tosize 0. On distributed system, the command will clear all traces on all hosts. It can clear different types offiles: Type Files ALERT *a l ert_*.trc CLIENT l oca l cl i ent_*.trc CRASHDUMP *.cra s hdump.* EMERGENCYDUMP *.emergencydump.* * a l l *.trc fi l es of s ervi ces l i s ted bel ow INDEXSERVER,NAMESERVER,...,DAEMON open *.trc fi l es of a s i ngl e s ervi ce typeThe trace files can be monitored using M_TRACEFILES and trace file contents can be monitored usingM_TRACEFILE_CONTENTS.ALTER SYSTEM DELETE ALL HANDLED EVENTSSyntax ALTER SYSTEM DELETE HANDLED EVENTSDescriptionDelete all envents with status "HANDLED".ALTER SYSTEM DELETE HANDLED EVENTSyntax ALTER SYSTEM DELETE HANDLED EVENT <host_port> <event_id>Syntax Elements <host_port> ::= (<host_name>:<port_number>) | (<host_name>, <port_number>) <host_name> ::= <string_literal> <port_number> ::= <integer_literal> <event_id> ::= <integer literal>DescriptionDelete the event with given ID.ALTER SYSTEM DISCONNECT SESSIONSyntax ALTER SYSTEM DISCONNECT SESSION <session_id>Syntax Elements <session_id> ::= connection IDDescriptionDisconnects the specified session from the database. The specified session will be disconnected but thecurrent operation will be continued until it is completed.ALTER SYSTEM LOGGINGSyntax ALTER SYSTEM LOGGING <on_off>Syntax Elements105 2012-05-09
  • 106. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual <on_off> ::= ON | OFFDescriptionLogging is enabled or disabled.While logging is disabled, no log entries are persisted. Only the data area will be writtten, when a savepoint isdone. This can cause loss of committed transactions, when the indexserver terminated in the middle of aload. In case of termination, you have to truncate and insert all data again.After enable logging you have to perform a savepoint to be sure that all data is persisted and you have toperfrom a data backup, else you can not recover this data.Only use this command for initial load !You can also do this for single column tables with ALTER TABLE ... ENABLE/DISABLE DELTA LOGALTER SYSTEM RECLAIM DATAVOLUMESyntax ALTER SYSTEM RECLAIM DATA VOLUME [SPACE] [<host_port>] <overload_size> <shrink_mo de>Syntax Elements <host_port> ::= host_name:port_number <overload_size> ::= % of overload size <shrink_mode> ::= Either defragment or sparsify, default value is defragmentDescriptionReduces data volume size to a N% of overload size; it works like defragmenting a hard disk, pages scatteredaround the data volume will be moved to the front of the data volume and the free space at the end of thedata volume will be truncated.If <host_port> is omitted the statement is distributed to all servers with persistence.ExampleALTER SYSTEM RECLAIM LOGSyntax ALTER SYSTEM RECLAIM LOG [<log_part>]Syntax Elements <log_part> ::= Log part numberDescriptionReclaim disk space of unused log segments.ExampleALTER SYSTEM RECLAIM VERSION SPACESyntax ALTER SYSTEM RECLAIM VERSION SPACEDescriptionPerforms MVCC version garbage collection for resource reuse.Example106 2012-05-09
  • 107. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualALTER SYSTEM RECONFIGURE SERVICESyntax ALTER SYSTEM RECONFIGURE SERVICE (<host_name>,<service_name>,<port_number>)Syntax Element <host_name> ::= <string_literal> <service_name> ::= <string_literal> <port_number> ::= <numeric_literal>DescriptionReconfigures the specified service by applying the current configuration parameters.ExampleALTER SYSTEM REMOVE TRACESSyntax ALTER SYSTEM REMOVE TRACES (<host_name>, <trace_file_name_list>)DescriptionDeletes the trace files on specified hosts. When a service has a trace file open, then it cannot be deleted, so"CLEAR" command should be used in that case.ALTER SYSTEM RESET MONITORING VIEWSyntax ALTER SYSTEM RESET MONITORING VIEW <view_name>Syntax Element <view_name> ::= <identifier>DescriptionResets statistics data for the specified monitoring view.ExampleALTER SYSTEM SAVE PERFTRACESyntax ALTER SYSTEM SAVE PERFTRACE <file_name> <file_name> ::= <string_literal>DescriptionCollect performance trace data and save the information into a file. The file is located on the server in thetrace directory. If no file name is specified, then perftrace.tpt is used. The file can be downloaded from SAPHANA Computing Studio->Diagnosis-Files and then the performance trace can be loaded and analyzed withHDBAdmin in any HDB instance.Monitoring ViewThe status of performance trace can be monitored from M_PERFTRACE.Example107 2012-05-09
  • 108. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualALTER SYSTEM SAVEPOINTDescriptionExecutes a savepoint on the persistence manager. A savepoint is a point in time when a complete consistentimage of the database is persisted on the disk. The consistent image can be used to restart the database.ExampleALTER SYSTEM SET EVENT HANDLEDDescriptionSet event with given ID and type to state "HANDLED".ExampleALTER SYSTEM START PERFTRACESyntax ALTER SYSTEM START PERFTRACE [<user_name>] [<application_user_name>] [PLAN_EXECUT ION] [FUNCTION_PROFILER] [DURATION <duration_seconds>]Syntax Element <user_name> ::= <identifier> <application_user_name> ::= <identifier> <duration_seconds> ::= <numeric literal>DescriptionStart Performance Trace. It can be restricted to a specific SQL and application user. Optionally plan executionand function profiler details can be recorded. If duration is specified it automatically stops after the specifiedduration in seconds.ExampleALTER SYSTEM STOP PERFTRACESyntax ALTER SYSTEM STOP PERFTRACEDescriptionStops Performance Trace.ExampleALTER SYSTEM STOP SERVICESyntax ALTER SYSTEM STOP SERVICE (<service_name>,<host_name>,<port_number>) [IMMEDIATE [W ITH COREFILE]]Syntax Element <service_name> ::= <string_literal> <host_name> ::= <string_literal> <port_number> ::= <numeric_literal>DescriptionSTOP SERVICE stops the service. HOST and PORT information should be specified to stop a service.108 2012-05-09
  • 109. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualSTOP SERVICE with IMMEDIATE option kills the running service. HOST and PORT information should bespecified to kill a running service.ExampleUNSET SYSTEM LICENSE ALLSyntax UNSET SYSTEM LICENSE ALLDescriptionDeletes all currently installed license keys. After using this command the system will be locked downimmediately and will require a new valid license key before it can be used further. The system privilegeLICENSE ADMIN is required to execute this command.ExampleUNSET SYSTEM LICENSE ALLSession Management StatementsCONNECTSyntax CONNECT <connect_option>Syntax Elements <connect_option> ::= <user_name> PASSWORD <password> | WITH SAML ASSERTION <xml>DescriptionConnect to the database instance by specifying user_name and password or by specifying a SAML assertion.ExampleCONNECT my_user PASSWORD myUserPass1SET HISTORY SESSIONSyntax SET HISTORY SESSION TO <when>Elements<when>:User should specify an exact moment when the session is to travel <when> ::= NOW | COMMIT ID <commit id> | UTCTIMESTAMP <utc timestamp> <commit id> ::= integer <utc timestamp> ::= stringset_history_session _description DescriptionSET HISTORY SESSSION makes current session to see a previous version of history tables. User may specify theversion in COMMIT ID or UTCTIMESTAMP format, or may get back to current version by specify NOW. AfterSET HISTORY SESSION command with a COMMIT ID or UTCTIMESTAMP is issued, current session sees an oldversion of history tables, and cannot write anything to the system. If NOW option is given, current sessiongets back to a normal session, and sees current version of history tables and be able to write to the system.This command only works for history tables, and visibility on normal tables is not affected.109 2012-05-09
  • 110. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualExampleSELECT CURRENT_UTCTIMESTAMP FROM SYS.DUMMY SELECT LAST_COMMIT_ID FROMM_HISTORY_INDEX_LAST_COMMIT_ID WHERE SESSION_ID = CURRENT_CONNECTION COMMIT SETHISTORY SESSION TO UTCTIMESTAMP 2012-03-09 07:01:41.428 SET HISTORY SESSION TO NOWSET SCHEMASyntax SET SCHEMA <schema_name>Syntax ElementsSchema_nameschema name stringDescriptionYou can change the current schema of the session. The current schema is used when database object namessuch as table names are not prefixed with the schema name.SET [SESSION]Syntax SET [SESSION] <key> = <value>Syntax ElementsKeykey of a session variableValuevalue of a session variableDescriptionYou can set session variables by providing key and value pairs. With this command, session variables of thecurrent session can be set. If you have session administration privileges, you can change session variables ofother sessions by specifying the session ID using ALTER SYSTEM ALTER SESSION [session_id] SET command.There are several available predefined session variables and they are APPLICATION, APPLICATIONUSER,TRACEPROFILE.The maximum length of key is 32 characters and the maximum length of value is 512 characters.Session variables can be retrieved using SESSION_CONTEXT() function.Session variables can be unset using UNSET command.Example SET MY_VAR = dummy; SELECT SESSION_CONTEXT(MY_VAR) FROM dummy; UNSET MY_VAR;UNSET [SESSION]Syntax UNSET [SESSION] <key>Syntax ElementsKeykey of a session variableDescription110 2012-05-09
  • 111. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualYou can unset session variables by providing key. With this command, session variables of the current sessioncan be unset. If you have session administration privileges, you can change session variables of other sessionsby specifying the session ID using ALTER SYSTEM ALTER SESSION [session_id] UNSET command.There are several available read-only session variables and they are APPLICATION, APPLICATIONUSER,TRACEPROFILE.Session variables can be retrieved using SESSION_CONTEXT() function.Example SET MY_VAR= dummy; SELECT SESSION_CONTEXT(MY_VAR) FROM dummy; UNSET MY_VAR;Transaction Management StatementsCOMMITSyntax COMMITDescriptionThe system supports transactional consistency which guarantees current job to be either completely appliedto the system or disposed. If a user wants to apply current job to the system persistently, the user shouldissue COMMIT command. If COMMIT command is issued and successfully processed, any change on thesystem which current transaction has done is applied to the system and the change will be visible to otherjobs which will start in the future. The job which has already committed via COMMIT command cannot bereverted. In a distributed system, standard 2-phase-commit protocol is complied. In the first phase,transaction coordinator consults every participant whether if it is ready to commit, and sends the result tothe participants in the second phase. COMMIT command only works with autocommit disabled session.Example COMMITLOCK TABLESyntax LOCK TABLE <table_name> IN EXCLUSIVE MODE [NOWAIT]DescriptionLOCK TABLE command explicitly tries to acquire an exclusive lock for a table. If NOWAIT option is specified, itjust tries to acquire lock for the table. If it fails to acquire lock with NOWAIT option specified, an error code isreturned, but current transaction is not rolled-back.Example LOCK TABLE mytaable IN EXCLUSIVE MODE NOWAITROLLBACKSyntax ROLLBACKDescriptionThe system supports transactional consistency which guarantees current job to be either completely appliedto the system or disposed. In the middle of a transaction, it can be explicitly reverted as it has not beenperformed via ROLLBACK command. After ROLLBACK command is issued, any change on the system whichcurrent transaction has done is completely reverted and current session is to be in an idle state. ROLLBACKcommand only works with autocommit disabled session.111 2012-05-09
  • 112. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualExample ROLLBACKSET TRANSACTIONSyntax SET TRANSACTION <isolation_level> | <transaction_access_mode>Syntax Elements isolation_level ::= ISOLATION LAVEL <level> level ::= READ COMMITTED | REPEATABLE READ | SERIALIZABLE transaction_access_mode ::= READ ONLY | READ WRITEREAD COMMITTEDDefault This isolation level corresponds to the statement level read consistency. With statement levelsnapshot isolation, different statements in a transaction may see different snapshots of the system. Thestatement in a transaction sees consistent snapshots of the system. Each statement sees the changes thatwere committed when the execution of the statement started. Reading a row does not set any locks. Whenrows are inserted, updated or deleted, the system sets exclusive locks on the affected rows for the durationof the transaction. The system releases these locks at the end of the transaction. When rows are inserted,updated or deleted, the system also sets shared locks on the affected tables for the duration of thetransaction. This guarantees that the table is not dropped or altered while some rows of the table are beingupdated.REPEATABLE READ/SERIALIZABLEThis isolation level corresponds to transaction level snapshot isolation. All statements of a transaction see thesame snapshot of the database. This snapshot contains all changes that were committed at the time thetransaction started with the changes made by the transaction itself. Reading a row does not set any locks.When rows are inserted, updated or deleted, the system sets exclusive locks on the affected rows for theduration of the transaction. The system releases these locks at the end of the transaction. When rows areinserted, updated or deleted, the system also sets shared locks on the affected tables for the duration of thetransaction. This guarantees that the table is not dropped or altered while some rows of the table are beingupdated.READ WRITEDefault An SQL-transaction access mode may be explicitly set by a SET TRANSACTION statement; otherwise,it is implicitly set to the default access mode.READ ONLYWhen read only access mode is set, then only read operation with SELECT statement is allowed andexceptions will be thrown if any update is tried.DescriptionThe system uses multi-version concurrency control (MVCC) to ensure consistent read operations. Concurrentread operations see a consistent view of the system without blocking concurrent write operations. Updatesare implemented not by overwriting existing records, but by inserting new versions.The isolation level specification determines the lock operation type. The system supports both statementlevel snapshot isolation and transaction level snapshot isolation.For statement snapshot isolation use level READ COMMITTED.For transaction snapshot isolation use REPEATABLE READ or SERIALIZABLE.DDL statements always run in READ COMMITTED isolation level.Example SET TRANSACTION READ COMMITTED;Access Control StatementsALTER SAML PROVIDER ALTER SAML PROVIDER <saml_provider_name> WITH SUBJECT <subject_name> ISSUER <issuer _distinguished_name>Description112 2012-05-09
  • 113. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualThe ALTER SAML PROVIDER statement changes the property of a SAML provider known to the SAP HANAdatabase. <saml_provider_name> has to be an existing SAML provider.Only database users having the system privilege USER ADMIN are allowed to change a SAML provider.The <subject_name> and the <issuer_distinguished_name> are the corresponding names provided in thecertificate of the SAML identity provider.System and Monitoring ViewsSAML_PROVIDERS: shows all SAML providers with their subject name and issuer_name.SyntaxALTER USERSyntax ALTER USER <user_name> <alter_user_option>Syntax Elements <alter_user_option> ::= PASSWORD <password> [<user_parameter_option>] | <user_parameter_option> | IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY AS <external_identity> [<user_parameter_option>] | RESET CONNECT ATTEMPTS | DROP CONNECT ATTEMPTS | DISABLE PASSWORD LIFETIME | FORCE PASSWORD CHANGE | DEACTIVATE [USER NOW] | ACTIVATE [USER NOW] | DISABLE <authentication_mechanism> | ENABLE <authentication_mechanism> | ADD IDENTITY <provider_identity>... | ADD IDENTITY <external_identity> FOR KERBEROS | DROP IDENTITY <provider_info>... | DROP IDENTITY FOR KERBEROS <user_parameter_option> ::= <set_user_parameters> [<clear_user_parameter_option>] | <clear_user_parameter_option> <clear_user_parameter_option> ::= CLEAR PARAMETER CLIENT | CLEAR ALL PARAMETERS <authentication_mechanism> ::= PASSWORD | KERBEROS | SAML <provider_info> ::= FOR SAML PROVIDER <provider_name>DescriptionThe ALTER USER statement modifies the database user. <user_name> must specify an existing databaseuser.Each user can do the ALTER USER statement for his own. But not all of the <alter_user_option>s can bespecified by the user himself. The ALTER USER statement for other users with all <alter_user_option>s canonly be done by users having the system privilege USER ADMIN.Users created with PASSWORD cannot be changed to EXTERNALLY and vice versa: the users created withEXTERNALLY cannot be changed to PASSWORD. But their <password> or their <external_identity> can bechanged.You can change a users password with this command. Password must follow the rules defined for the currentdatabase. The password rules include the minimal password length and the definition which of the charactertypes ( lower, upper, digit, special characters ) have to be part of the password. The password for a user hasto be changed regularly according to the password policy specified for the database instance or changed bythe user himself when first connecting to the database instance.You can change the external authentication. External users are authenticated using an external system, e.g.a Kerberos system. Such users do not have a password, but , e.g. a Kerberos principal name. For detailedinformation about external identities, contact your domain administrator.113 2012-05-09
  • 114. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual<user_parameter_option> can be used to set, change or clean the user parameter CLIENT. When usingreports this user parameter CLIENT can be used to restrict the access rights of user <user_name> to infoconcerning the specified client.The <user_parameter_option> can not be specified by the user himself.If the number of MAXIMUM_INVALID_CONNECT_ATTEMPTS (see monitoring view M_PASSWORD_POLICY) isreached before a successful (correct user/password-combination) connect is done, then this user is locked forsome minutes before being allowed to connect (even with correct user/password-combination) again. Withthe commandALTER USER <user_name> RESET CONNECT ATTEMPTSa user with system privilege USER ADMIN can reset the number of invalid attempts to 0 and therefore allowthe user to connect immediately.Information on invalid connect attempts having happened can be checked in system viewINVALID_CONNECT_ATTEMPTS. With the commandALTER USER <user_name> DROP CONNECT ATTEMPTSa user with system privilege USER ADMIN or the user himself can delete the information of invalid connectattempts having happened.With the commandALTER USER <user_name> DISABLE PASSWORD LIFETIMEa user with system privilege USER ADMIN can exclude user <user_name> from all password-life-time-checks.This should be used only for technical users, not for normal database users. Please check the description ofconfiguration parameters concerning the password policy.With the commandALTER USER <user_name> FORCE PASSWORD CHANGEa user with system privilege USER ADMIN can force user <user_name> to change his password immediatelyafter the next connect before being allowed to work any further.With the commandALTER USER <user_name> DEACTIVATE USER NOWa user with system privilege USER ADMIN can deactivate / lock the user account of user <user_name>. Afterthe user account is deactivated / locked, the user cannot connect to the SAP HANA database. To re-activate /unlock user <user_name> a user with system privilege USER ADMIN has either to use the command ALTERUSER <user_name> ACTIVATE USER NOW or, in case of a user with PASSWORD authentication mechanism,to reset the users password with ALTER USER <user_name> PASSWORD <password>.With the commandALTER USER <user_name> ACTIVATE USER NOWa user with system privilege USER ADMIN can re-activate / unlock the user account of user <user_name>who had been deactivated before.Configuration ParameterConguration parameters concerning the password can be checked with the monitoring viewM_PASSWORD_POLICY. These parameter are stored in indexserver.ini, section password policy.The description of the parameters concerned can be found in SAP HANA Security Guide, Appendix, PasswordPolicy Parameters.System and Monitoring ViewsUSERS: shows all users, their creator, creation date and some info about their current states.USER_PARAMETERS: shows the defined user_parameters; currently only CLIENT is available.INVALID_CONNECT_ATTEMPTS: shows how many invalid connect attempts were made for each user.LAST_USED_PASSWORDS: shows info about dates of last password-changes per user.M_PASSWORD_POLICY: shows configuration parameters describing the allowed layout of the password andits lifetimes.ExampleA user with user_name NEW_USER had been created before with the possibility to connect using the givenpassword and with an assertion of the existing SAML provider OUR_PROVIDER. The <mapped_user_name>was set to ANY as the assertion will provide the database user name. CREATE USER new_user PASSWORD Password1 WITH IDENTITY ANY FOR SAML PROVIDER OUR_PRO VIDER;Now this user shall be forced to change his password. And to force him really hard, his possibility to connectusing SAML is disabled.114 2012-05-09
  • 115. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual ALTER USER new_user FORCE PASSWORD CHANGE; ALTER USER user_new DISABLE SAML;CREATE ROLESyntax CREATE ROLE <role_name>DescriptionThe CREATE ROLE statement creates a new role.Only database users having the system privilege ROLE ADMIN are allowed to create a role.The specified role name must not be identical to the name of an existing user or role.A role is a named collection of privileges and can be granted to either a user or a role. If you want to allowseveral database users to perform the same actions, you can create a role, grant the needed privileges tothis role, and grant the role to the different database users.Every user is allowed to grant privileges to an existing role, but only users having system privilege ROLEADMIN are allowed to grant roles to roles and users.There are 4 roles, which are delivered with the SAP HANA database:PUBLICEvery database user has been granted this role implicitly.This role contains read-only access to system views, monitoring views and execute privilege for someprocedures. These privileges can not be revoked.This role can be granted further privileges which can be revoked afterwards.MODELINGThis role contains all privileges required for using the information modeler in the SAP HANA studio.CONTENT_ADMINThis role contains the same privileges as the MODELING role, but with the extension that this role is allowedto grant these privileges to other users. In addition, it contains the repository privileges to work withimported objects.MONITORINGThis role contains privileges for full read-only access to all meta data, the current system status in system andmonitoring views, and the data of the statistics server.System and Monitoring ViewsROLES: shows all roles, their creator and creation date.GRANTED_ROLES: shows which roles are granted to which user or role.GRANTED_PRIVILEGES: shows which privileges are granted to which user or role.Example CREATE ROLE role_for_work_on_my_schema;CREATE SAML PROVIDER CREATE SAML PROVIDER <saml_provider_name> WITH SUBJECT <subject_name> ISSUER <issue r_distinguished_name>DescriptionThe CREATE SAML PROVIDER statement defines a SAML provider known to the SAP HANA database.<saml_provider_name> has to be different to any existing SAML provider.Only database users having the system privilege USER ADMIN are allowed to create a SAML provider. Eachuser having this privilege is allowed to drop any SAML provider.An existing SAML provider is needed to be able to specify SAML connection possibility for users.The <subject_name> and the <issuer_distinguished_name> are the corresponding names provided in thecertificate of the SAML identity provider.115 2012-05-09
  • 116. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualSystem and Monitoring ViewsSAML_PROVIDERS: shows all SAML providers with their subject name and issuer_name.SyntaxCREATE USERSyntax CREATE USER <user_name> [PASSWORD <password>] [IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY AS <external_identity>] [WITH IDENTITY <provider_identity>...] [<set_user_parameters>]Syntax Elements <provider_identity> ::= <mapped_user_name> FOR SAML PROVIDER <provider_name> | <external_identity> FOR KERBEROS <mapped_user_name> ::= ANY | <string_literal> <set_user_parameters> ::= SET PARAMETER CLIENT = <string_literal>DescriptionThe CREATE USER statement creates a new database user.Only database users having the system privilege USER ADMIN are allowed to create another database user.The specified user name must not be identical to the name of an existing user, role, or schema.There are some users, which are delivered with the SAP HANA database: SYS, SYSTEM, _SYS_REPO,_SYS_STATISTICS.Users in the database can be authenticated by different mechanism, the internal authentication mechanismusing password and by external mechanism, like Kerberos or SAML. One user can be authenticated by morethan one mechanism at one time, but only one password and one external_identity can be valid at one time.In opposite to this, more than one <provider_identity> can exist for one user at one time. At least oneauthentication mechanism has to be specified to allow the user to connect and work with the databaseinstance.For compatibility reasons the syntax IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY AS <external_identity> will stay alive and dothe same as the syntax <external_identity> FOR KERBEROS.Password must follow the rules defined for the current database. The password rules include the minimalpassword length and the definition which of the character types ( lower, upper, digit, special characters )have to be part of the password. The password for a user has to be changed regularly according to thepassword policy specified for the database instance.The password provided during CREATE USER command will be taken as provided, whereas the <user_name>will be changed to upper_case as every <simple_identifier>.External users are authenticated using an external system, e.g. a Kerberos system. Such users do not have apassword, but , e.g. a Kerberos principal name. For detailed information about external identities, contactyour domain administrator.If ANY is given as mapped user name, the SAML assertion will contain the name of the database user, theassertion is valid for.<provider_name> must specify an existing SAML provider.<set_user_parameters> can be used to set the user parameter CLIENT when a user is created in thedatabase. When using reports this user parameter CLIENT can be used to restrict the access rights of user<user_name> to info concerning the specified client.For each database user a schema with the users name is created implicitly. This can not be droppedexplicitly. It will be dropped when the user is dropped. The database user owns that schema and uses it as hisdefault schema, when he does not specify a schema name explicitly.116 2012-05-09
  • 117. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualConfiguration ParameterConguration parameters concerning the password can be checked with the monitoring viewM_PASSWORD_POLICY. These parameter are stored in indexserver.ini, section password policy.The description of the parameters concerned can be found in SAP HANA Security Guide, Appendix, PasswordPolicy Parameters.System and Monitoring ViewsUSERS: shows all users, their creator, creation date and some info about their current states.USER_PARAMETERS: shows the defined user_parameters; currently only CLIENT is available.INVALID_CONNECT_ATTEMPTS: shows how many invalid connect attempts were made for each user.LAST_USED_PASSWORDS: shows info about dates of last password-changes per user.M_PASSWORD_POLICY: shows configuration parameters describing the allowed layout of the password andits lifetimes.SAML_PROVIDERS: shows the existing SAML provider SAML_USER_MAPPING: shows the users mappingnames for each SAML providerExampleA user with user_name NEW_USER shall be created with the possibility to connect using the given passwordand with an assertion of the existing SAML provider OUR_PROVIDER. The <mapped_user_name> is set toANY as the assertion will provide the database user name. CREATE USER new_user PASSWORD Password1 WITH IDENTITY ANY FOR SAML PROVIDER OUR_PRO VIDER;DROP ROLESyntax DROP ROLE <role_name>DescriptionThe DROP ROLE statement drops a role. <drop_name> must specify an existing role.Only database users having the system privilege ROLE ADMIN are allowed to drop a role. Each user havingthis privilege is allowed to drop any role. Only those roles which are delivered with the SAP HANA databasecan not be dropped: PUBLIC, CONTENT_ADMIN, MODELING and MONITORING.If a role was granted to a user or role, it is revoked when the role is dropped. Revoking a role may lead tomaking some views inaccessible or making procedures not executable any more. This will occur if a view orprocedures depends on any privilege that the role had.System and Monitoring ViewsROLES: shows all roles, their creator and creation date.GRANTED_ROLES: shows which roles are granted to which user or role.GRANTED_PRIVILEGES: shows which privileges are granted to which user or role.Example DROP ROLE role_for_work_on_my_schema;DROP SAML PROVIDER DROP SAML PROVIDER <saml_provider_name>DescriptionThe DROP SAML PROVIDER statement drops the specified SAML provider. <saml_provider_name> has to bean existing SAML provider. If the SAML provider specified is used by a SAP HANA database user, the SAMLprovider cannot be dropped.Only database users having the system privilege USER ADMIN are allowed to drop a SAML provider.System and Monitoring Views117 2012-05-09
  • 118. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualSAML_PROVIDERS: shows all SAML providers with their subject name and issuer_name.SyntaxDROP USERSyntax DROP USER <user_name> [<drop_option>]Syntax Elements <drop_option> ::= CASCADE | RESTRICTDefault = RESTRICTDescriptionThe DROP USER statement deletes a database user. <user_name> must specify an existing database user.Only database users having the system privilege USER ADMIN are allowed to drop a database user. Each userhaving this privilege is allowed to drop any user. Only those users which are delivered with the SAP HANAdatabase can not be dropped: SYS, SYSTEM, _SYS_REPO, _SYS_STATISTICS.If the <drop_option> RESTRICT is specified implicitly or explicitly then the user will not be dropped in case heis the owner of any other object than the schema with his name and other schemas created by him or in casethere is an object stored in one of his schemas which was not created by him.If the <drop_option> CASCADE is specified, the schema with the users name and the schemas belonging tothe user, together with all objects stored in them (even if they are created by other users), are deleted.Objects owned by the user, even if they are part of another schema, are deleted. Objects that are dependenton deleted objects are deleted. Even public synonyms owned by the deleted user are deleted.Privileges on deleted objects are revoked. Privileges granted by the deleted user are revoked. Revokeprivileges may cause further revokes if they had been granted further.Users created by the deleted user and roles created by him are not deleted.Audit policies created by the deleted user are not deleted.It is possible to delete a user even if an open session of this user exists.System and Monitoring ViewsThe deleted user will be deleted in any of these views:USERS: shows all users, their creator, creation date and some info about their current states.USER_PARAMETERS: shows the defined user_parameters; currently only CLIENT is available.INVALID_CONNECT_ATTEMPTS: shows how many invalid connect attempts were made for each user.LAST_USED_PASSWORDS: shows info about dates of last password-changes per user.* The deletion of objects may influence all of the system views describing objects, like TABLES, VIEWS,PROCEDURES, ... .The deletion of objects may influence the view describing privileges like GRANTED_PRIVILEGES and all of themonitoring views like M_RS_TABLES, M_TABLE_LOCATIONS, ...ExampleA user with user_name NEW_USER was created before and will now be dropped, together with all of hisobjects; DROP USER new_user CASCADE;GRANTSyntax GRANT <system_privilege>,... TO <grantee> [WITH ADMIN OPTION] | GRANT <schema_privilege>,... ON SCHEMA <schema_name> TO <grantee> [WITH GRANT OPT ION] | GRANT <object_privilege>,... ON <object_name> TO <grantee> [WITH GRANT OPTION] | GRANT <role_name>,... TO <grantee> [WITH ADMIN OPTION]118 2012-05-09
  • 119. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manual | GRANT STRUCTURED PRIVILEGE <privilege_name> TO <grantee>Syntax Elements anchor system_privilege <system_privilege> ::= AUDIT ADMIN | BACKUP ADMIN | CATALOG READ | CREATE SCENARIO | CREATE SCHEMA | CREATE STRUCTURED PRIVILEGE | DATA ADMIN | EXPORT | IMPORT | INIFILE ADMIN | LICENSE ADMIN | LOG ADMIN | MONITOR ADMIN | OPTIMIZER ADMIN | RESOURCE ADMIN | ROLE ADMIN | SAVEPOINT ADMIN | SCENARIO ADMIN | SERVICE ADMIN | SESSION ADMIN | STRUCTUREDPRIVILEGE ADMIN | TRACE ADMIN | USER ADMIN | VERSION ADMIN | <identifier>.<identifier> <schema_privilege> ::= CREATE ANY | DEBUG | DELETE | DROP | EXECUTE | INDEX | INSERT | SELECT | TRIGGER | UPDATE <object_privilege> ::= ALL PRIVILEGES | ALTER | DEBUG | DELETE | DROP | EXECUTE | INDEX | INSERT | SELECT | TRIGGER | UPDATE | <identifier>.<identifier> <grantee> :: = <user_name> | <role_name> <object_name> ::= <table_name> | <synonym_name> | <view_name> | <procedure_name> | <sequence_name>DescriptionGRANT is used to grant privileges and structured privileges to users and roles. GRANT is also used to grantroles to users and other roles.The specified users, roles, objects, and structured privileges have to exist before they can be used in theGRANT command.Only users having a privilege and being allowed to grant that privilege any further can grant a privilege. Eachuser having ROLE ADMIN system privilege is allowed to grant roles to other roles and users.A user can not grant a privilege to himself.User SYSTEM has at least all system privileges and the role PUBLIC. All other users have the role PUBLIC.These privileges and roles can not be revoked from them.Although user SYSTEM has many privileges, he is not able to select or change data in other users tables if heis not granted the privilege to do so explicitly.User SYSTEM and all other users do have the privilege to create objects in their own default schema, whichhas the same name as the user itself.For tables created by themselves, users have all privileges and may grant all of them to users and roles.119 2012-05-09
  • 120. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualFor other objects which are dependent on objects like views being dependent on tables, it may happen, thateven the owner of the dependent object does not have all privileges if he does not have them on theunderlying objects. Or it may happen, that he has privileges, but is not allowed to grant them any further.Then he cannot grant those privileges.WITH ADMIN OPTION and WITH GRANT OPTION specifies that the granted privileges can be granted furtherby the specified user or by those user having the specified role.The grantee can be a user or a role. In case a privilege or role is granted to a role, then all user being grantedthat role, will have the specified privilege or role.System privileges are used to restrict administrative tasks. The following system privileges are defined:AUDIT ADMINThis privilege controls the execution of the following auditing-related commands: CREATE AUDIT POLICY,DROP AUDIT POLICY and ALTER AUDIT POLICY.BACKUP ADMINThis privilege authorizes the ALTER SYSTEM BACKUP command to define and initiate a backup process or toperform a recovery process.CATALOG READThis privilege authorizes all users to have unfiltered read-only access to all system and monitoring views.Normally, the content of those views is filtered based on the privileges of the accessing user. The CATALOGREAD privilege enables users to have read-only access to the full content of all system and monitoring views.CREATE SCENARIOThis privilege controls the creation of calculation scenarios and cubes (calculation database).CREATE SCHEMAThis privilege authorizes the creation of database schemas using the CREATE SCHEMA command. Each userowns one schema. With this privilege he is allowed to create further ones.CREATE STRUCTURED PRIVILEGEThis privilege authorizes the creation of Structured Privileges (Analytical Privileges). Note that only the ownerof an Analytical Privilege can further grant it to other users or roles and revoke it again.DATA ADMINThis powerful privilege authorizes to read all data in the system and monitoring views as well as execute allDDL (Data Definition Language) � and only DDL � commands in the SAP HANA database. This means, thata user having this privilege can not select or change data stored in other users tables, but can modify thetable definition or even drop the table.EXPORTThis privilege authorizes the export activity in the database via the EXPORT TABLE commands. Note that,beside this privilege, the user still needs the SELECT privilege on the source tables to be exported.IMPORTThis privilege authorizes the import activity in the database using the IMPORT commands. Note that, besidethis privilege, the user still needs the INSERT privilege on the target tables to be imported.INIFILE ADMINThis privilege authorizes different methods to change system settings.LICENSE ADMINThis privilege authorizes the SET SYSTEM LICENSE command install a new license.LOG ADMINThis privilege authorizes the ALTER SYSTEM LOGGING [ON|OFF] commands to enable or disable the log flushmechanism.MONITOR ADMINThis privilege authorizes monitoring all activities done using the various ALTER SYSTEM MONITOR commandsas well as the ALTER SYSTEM SET MONITOR LEVEL <level> command.OPTIMIZER ADMINThis privilege authorizes the ALTER SYSTEM commands concerning SQL PLAN CACHE and ALTER SYSTEMUPDATE STATISTICS commands, which influence the behavior of the query optimizer.120 2012-05-09
  • 121. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualRESOURCE ADMINThis privilege authorizes different commands concerning resources, like ALTER SYSTEM RECLAIMDATAVOLUME and ALTER SYSTEM RESET MONITORING VIEW and it authorizes many of the commands inthe Management Console.ROLE ADMINThis privilege authorizes the creation and deletion of roles using the CREATE ROLE and DROP ROLEcommands. It also authorizes the granting and revocation of roles using the GRANT and REVOKE commands.SAVEPOINT ADMINThis privilege authorizes the execution of a savepoint process using the ALTER SYSTEM SAVEPOINTcommand.SCENARIO ADMINThis privilege authorizes all calculation scenario-related activities (including creation).SERVICE ADMINThis privilege authorizes the ALTER SYSTEM [START|CANCEL|RECONFIGURE] commands, intended foradministering system services of the database.SESSION ADMINThis privilege authorizes the ALTER SYSTEM commands concerning sessions to stop or disconnect a usersession or to change session variables.STRUCTUREDPRIVILEGE ADMINThis privilege authorizes the creation, reactivation, and dropping of structured privileges.TRACE ADMINThis privilege authorizes the ALTER SYSTEM [CLEAR|REMOVE] TRACES commands for operations on databasetrace files.USER ADMINThis privilege authorizes the creation and changing of users using the CREATE USER, ALTER USER, and DROPUSER commands.VERSION ADMINThis privilege authorizes the ALTER SYSTEM RECLAIM VERSION SPACE command of the multi-versionconcurrency control (MVCC) mechanism.<identifier>.<identifier>Components of the SAP HANA database may create privileges for their own needs. Those use the component-name as first identifier of the system privilege and the component-privilege-name as the second identifier.Currently, the repository uses this feature. For description of the privileges named REPO.<identifier>, pleasesee the manual of the repository.Schema privileges are used to restrict the access and modifications on a schema and the objects stored inthis schema. The following schema privileges are defined:CREATE ANYThis privilege allows the creation of all kinds of objects, in particular, tables, views, sequences, synonyms, SQLScript functions, or database procedures in a schema.DELETE, DROP, EXECUTE, INDEX, INSERT, SELECT, UPDATEThe specified privilege is granted on every object stored in the specified schema currently and in future. Fordetailed description of the privileges please see the part describing object privileges below and please checkbelow, which privileges are applicable for which kind of object.Object privileges are used to restrict the access and modifications on database objects like tables, views,sequences, procedures and the like. Not all of these privileges are applicable to all kinds of database objects.For object types allowing which privilege, see table below.The following object privileges are defined:ALL PRIVILEGESThis privilege is a collection of all DDL (Data Definition Language) and DML (Data Manipulation Language)privileges that on the one hand, the grantor currently has and is allowed to grant further and on the otherhand, can be granted on this particular object. This collection is dynamically evaluated for the given grantorand object. ALL PRIVILEGES is applicable to a table or view.121 2012-05-09
  • 122. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualALTERThis DDL privilege authorizes the ALTER command for that object.DEBUGThis DML privilege authorizes the debug-functionality for that procedure or calculation view or for theprocedures or calculation views in that schema.DELETEThis DML privilege authorizes the DELETE and TRUNCATE commands for that object.DROPThis DDL privilege authorizes the DROP commands for that object.EXECUTEThis DML privilege authorizes the execution of a SQL Script function or a database procedure using the CALLSor CALL command, respectively.INDEXThis DDL privilege authorizes the creation, changing, or dropping of indexes for that object.INSERTThis DML privilege authorizes the INSERT command for that object. The INSERT and the UPDATE privilegetogether are needed for one object to allow the REPLACE and UPSERT command for that object.SELECTThis DML privilege authorizes the SELECT command for that object or the usage of the sequence,respectively.TRIGGERThis DDL privilege authorizes the CREATE TRIGGER / DROP TRIGGER command for the specified table or thetables in the specified schema.UPDATEThis DML privilege authorizes the UPDATE command for that object. The INSERT and the UPDATE privilegetogether are needed for one object to allow the REPLACE and UPSERT command for that object.<identifier>.<identifier>Components of the SAP HANA database may create privileges for their own needs. Those use the component-name as first identifier of the privilege name and the component-privilege-name as the second identifier.Currently, the repository uses this feature. For description of the privileges named REPO.<identifier>, pleasesee the manual of the repository. Privilege Schema Table View Sequence Function/Procedure ALL PRIVILEGES --- YES YES --- --- ALTER YES YES --- --- YES CREATE ANY YES --- --- --- --- DEBUG YES --- YES --- YES DELETE YES YES YES --- --- DROP YES YES YES YES YES EXECUTE YES --- --- --- YES INDEX YES YES --- --- --- INSERT YES YES YES --- --- SELECT YES YES YES YES --- TRIGGER YES YES --- --- --- UPDATE YES YES YES --- ---DELETE, INSERT and UPDATE on views are valid for updatable views only, meaning such views complying tosome restrictions as there are: no join included, no UNION included, no aggregation and some furtherrestrictions.DEBUG is only valid for calculation views, not for other kinds of views.For synonyms those restrictions are valid, which are valid for the object this synonym stands for.122 2012-05-09
  • 123. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualA role is a named collection of privileges and can be granted to either a user or a role.If you want to allow several database users to perform the same actions, you can create a role, grant theneeded privileges to this role, and grant the role to the different database users.When granting roles to roles, a tree of roles can be build. When granting one role (R) to a role or user (G), Gwill have all privileges directly granted to R and all privileges granted to roles which had been granted to R.With GRANT STRUCTURED PRIVILEGE <structured_privilege_name> a previously defined analytical privilege(based on a generic structured privilege) is granted to a user or role. This analytical privileges is used torestrict the access for read operations to certain data in Analytic, Attribute, and Calculation Views by filteringthe attribute values.System and Monitoring ViewsUSERS: shows all users, their creator, creation date and some info about their current states.ROLES: shows all roles, their creator and creation date.GRANTED_ROLES: shows which roles are granted to which user or role.GRANTED_PRIVILEGES: shows which privileges are granted to which user or role.ExampleAssuming a user owning schema myschema is connected. He has the privilege to create roles and users.He creates one new role and one user. Then he grants the privilege to SELECT on any object in his schema tothis new role. Additionally he grants the privilege to INSERT into one specific table to this new role.Afterwards he grants this role to that new user. CREATE USER worker PASSWORD His_Password_1; CREATE ROLE role_for_work_on_my_schema; CREATE TABLE myschema.work_done (t TIMESTAMP, user NVARCHAR (256), work_done VARCHA R (256); GRANT SELECT ON SCHEMA myschema TO role_for_work_on_my_schema; GRANT INSERT ON myschema.work_done TO role_for_work_on_my_schema; GRANT role_for_work_on_my_schema TO worker;The currently connected user has the privilege TRACE ADMIN with the possibility to grant further. He grantsit to the new user with the option to let him grant it further. At least the user worker is granted the privilegeto DELETE in table myschema.work_done with the option to grant this privilege further. GRANT TRACE ADMIN TO worker WITH ADMIN OPTION; GRANT DELETE ON myschema.work_done TO worker WITH GRANT OPTION;REVOKESyntax REVOKE <system_privilege>,... FROM <grantee> | REVOKE <schema_privilege>,... ON SCHEMA <schema_name> FROM <grantee> | REVOKE <object_privilege>,... ON <object_name> FROM <grantee> | REVOKE <role_name>,... FROM <grantee> | REVOKE STRUCTURED PRIVILEGE <privilege_name> FROM <grantee>Syntax ElementsFor the definition of syntax elements, please refer to GRANT.DescriptionThe REVOKE statement revokes the specified roles or structured privileges or the privileges for the specifiedobjects from the specified users or roles.Only users having granted a privilege can revoke that privilege. This is true even for users having ROLEADMIN and the revoke of roles.User SYSTEM has at least all system privileges and the role PUBLIC. All other users have the role PUBLIC.These privileges and roles can not be revoked from them.If a user was granted a role, it is not possible to revoke some of the privileges belonging to that role. In thiscase, the whole role has to be revoked and those privileges needed by that user granted to him.Revoking a privilege or role may lead to making some views inaccessible or making procedures notexecutable any more. This will occur if a view or procedures depends on the privilege revoked or on one ofthe privileges the role had.123 2012-05-09
  • 124. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualRevoking a privilege which had been granted with WITH GRANT OPTION or with WITH ADMIN OPTION willresult in revoking that privilege not only from the user specified in the command, but from all the users androles having been granted that privilege by this user directly and indirectly.As privileges can be granted to one user or role by different users, revoking of this privilege by one user doesnot necessarily mean, that this user will loose that privilege. For the description of syntax elements andprivileges, please refer to GRANT.System and Monitoring ViewsUSERS: shows all users, their creator, creation date and some info about their current states.ROLES: shows all roles, their creator and creation date.GRANTED_ROLES: shows which roles are granted to which user or role.GRANTED_PRIVILEGES: shows which privileges are granted to which user or role.*ExampleAssuming that the following statements had been executed by the user currently connected. CREATE USER worker PASSWORD His_Password_1; CREATE ROLE role_for_work_on_my_schema; CREATE TABLE myschema.work_done (t TIMESTAMP, user NVARCHAR (256), work_done VARCHA R (256); GRANT SELECT ON SCHEMA myschema TO role_for_work_on_my_schema; GRANT INSERT ON myschema.work_done TO role_for_work_on_my_schema; GRANT role_for_work_on_my_schema TO worker; GRANT TRACE ADMIN TO worker WITH ADMIN OPTION; GRANT DELETE ON myschema.work_done TO worker WITH GRANT OPTION;The user having granted privileges is allowed to revoke those privileges. He revokes the privilege from therole and therefore implicitly revokes it from all users being granted that role. Additionally the user workershould not have the privilege TRACE ADMIN any more. It is revoked causing the revocation to occur for allthe users, worker had granted this privilege to. REVOKE SELECT ON SCHEMA myschema FROM role_for_work_on_my_schema; REVOKE TRACE ADMIN FROM worker;Data Import Export StatementsEXPORTSyntax EXPORT <table_name_list> AS <export_format> INTO <path> [WITH <export_option_list>]Syntax ElementsWITH <export_option_list>:EXPORT options can be passed in using "WITH" clause. <table_name_list> ::= <table_name>,... | ALL <export_import_format> ::= BINARY | CSV <path> ::= full_path <export_option_list> ::= <export_option> | <export_option_list> <export_option> <export_option> ::= REPLACE | CATALOG ONLY | NO DEPENDENCIES | SCRAMBLE [BY <password>] | THREADS <number_of_threads>DescriptionThe EXPORT command exports tables, views, column views, synonyms, sequences, or procedures in thespecified format as BINARY or CSV. Data for temporary tables and “no logging” tables cannot be exportedusing EXPORT.REPLACE With REPLACE option, previously exported data will be removed and newly exported data will be124 2012-05-09
  • 125. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference Manualsaved. If REPLACE option is not specified, an error will be thrown if there exists a previously exported dataalready in the specified directory.CATALOG ONLY With CATALOG ONLY option, only database catalog will be exported without data.NO DEPENDENCIES With NO DEPENDENCIES option, it will not export underlying objects of an object to beexported.SCRAMBLE Export in CSV format has an additional option to scramble sensitive customer data usingSCRAMBLE [BY <password>]. When the optional password is not specified, a default scramble password isused. Only character string data can be scrambled. When imported, scrambled data will be imported asscrambled so that end users cannot read the data and it is not possible to unscramble the data.THREADS Indicates the number of threads that can be used for concurrent export.To export all tables you should use the keyword ALL. If you want to export/import tables of a specific schema,you should use the schema name with the asterisk:You can monitor the progress of the export using M_EXPORT_BINARY_STATUS system views.You can abort the export session using the connection ID from the corresponding view in the followingcommand:ALTER SYSTEM CANCEL [WORK IN] SESSION connectionIdThe detailed result of the export is stored in session-local temporary tables. #EXPORT_BINARY_RESULT.Example EXPORT "SCHEMA"."*" AS BINARY INTO <path> WITH REPLACE SCRAMBLE THREADS 10IMPORTSyntax IMPORT <table_name_list> AS <import_format> FROM <path> [WITH <import_option_list>]Syntax ElementsWITH <import_option_list>:IMPORT options can be passed in using "WITH" clause. <table_name_list> ::= <table_name>,... | ALL <import_format> ::= BINARY | CSV <path> ::= full_path <import_option_list> ::= <import_option> | <import_option_list> <import_option> <import_option> ::= REPLACE | CATALOG ONLY | NO DEPENDENCIES | THREADS <number_of_threads>DescriptionThe IMPORT statement imports tables, views, column views, synonyms, sequences, or procedures. Data fortemporary tables and “no logging” tables cannot be imported using IMPORT command.REPLACE With REPLACE option, the specified table will be dropped and created and data will be imported. IfREPLACE option is not specified, an error will be thrown if there exists a table with the same name in thesame schema.CATALOG ONLY With CATALOG ONLY option, only database catalog will be imported without data.NO DEPENDENCIES With NO DEPENDENCIES option, it will not import underlying objects of an object to beimported.THREADS Indicates the number of threads that can be used for concurrent import.To import all tables you should use the keyword ALL. If you want to import tables of a specific schema, youshould use the schema name with the asterisk:125 2012-05-09
  • 126. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualYou can monitor the progress of the import using M_IMPORT_BINARY_STATUS system views.Also, you can abort the import session using the connection ID from the corresponding view in the followingcommand:ALTER SYSTEM CANCEL [WORK IN] SESSION connectionIdThe detailed result of the import is stored in session-local temporary tables. #IMPORT_BINARY_RESULT.Example IMPORT "SCHEMA"."*" AS BINARY FROM <path> WITH REPLACE THREADS 10IMPORT FROMSyntax IMPORT FROM [<file_type>] <file_path> [INTO <table_name>] [WITH <import_from_option _list>]Syntax ElementsWITH <import_from_option_list>:IMPORT FROM options can be passed in using "WITH" clause. <file_type> ::= CSV FILE | CONTROL FILE <file_path> ::= <character>... <table_name> ::= [<schema_name>.]<identifier> <import_from_option_list> ::= <import_from_option> | <import_from_option_list> <imp ort_from_option> <import_from_option> :: = THREADS <number_of_threads> | BATCH <number_of_records_of_each_commit> | TABLE LOCK | NO TYPE CHECK | SKIP FIRST <number_of_rows_to_skip> ROW | COLUMN LIST IN FIRST ROW | COLUMN LIST ( <column_name_list> ) | RECORD DELIMITED BY <string_for_record_delimiter> | FIELD DELIMITED BY <string_for_field_delimiter> | OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY <character_for_optional_enclosure> | DATE FORMAT <string_for_date_format> | TIME FORMAT <string_for_time_format> | TIMESTAMP FORMAT <string_for_timestamp_format> |DescriptionThe IMPORT FROM statements imports external data from a csv file into an existing table.THREADS Indicates the number of threads that can be used for concurrent import. Default value is 1 andmaximum allowed value is 256.BATCH Indicates the number of records to be inserted in each commit.THREADS and BATCH can be used to achieve high loading performance by enabling parallel loading andcommitting many records at once. In general, for column tables, a good setting is to use 10 parallel loadingthreads, with a commit frequency of 10.000 records or greater.TABLE LOCK Locks table for fast import into column store tables. If NO TYPE CHECK option is specified, thenthe record is inserted without checking the type of each field.SKIP FIRST <int> ROW Skips to insert first n rows.COLUMN LIST IN FIRST ROW Indicates the column list that is in the first row of CSV file.COLUMN LIST ( <column_name_list> ) Indicates the column list to be insertedRECORD DELIMITED BY <string> Indicates the record delimiter of the CSV fileFIELD DELIMITED BY <string> Indicates the field delimiter of the CSV fileOPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY <character> Indicates the optional enclosure of field data126 2012-05-09
  • 127. SAP HANA Database - SQL Reference ManualDATE FORMAT <string> Indicates the string of date format. If there is date type in CSV file, it will use thespecified format for date type field.TIME FORMAT <string> Indicates the string of time format. If there is time type in CSV file, it will use thespecified format for time type field.TIMESTAMP FORMAT <string> Indicates the string of timestamp format. If there is timestamp type in CSVfile, it will use the specified format for timestamp type field.Example IMPORT FROM CSV FILE /data/data.csv INTO "MYSCHEMA"."MYTABLE" WITH RECORD DELIMIT ED BY n FIELD DELIMITED BY ,127 2012-05-09

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