Report of duhok new water treatment plant visit in khrabdeem


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Report of duhok new water treatment plant visit in khrabdeem

  1. 1. qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq Report of Duhok new water treatment plant visit inwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui Khrabdeem Faculty of medical sciences /school ofopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg nursing Prepared by : hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc Raveen Ismail vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg hjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas
  2. 2. Report of Duhok new water treatment plant visit in KhrabdeemPhysical environment of the institute: 1. Withdrawing the water from river to the main water channel by using special machines also a network barrier has been put in water entrance way to the channel to prevent entering stuffs into the channel such as stones ,wood parts ,fishes ……..etc 2. After water transferred to inside the uncovered channel for conditioning the water odors under the natural air of nature, adding chlorine for killing microorganisms. 3. Water was transferred to the pool for separating sand from water by using special sweeper inside the pool. 4. Water was transferred to the flash mixture pool in which chlorine and aluminum sulfate were added, chlorine for killing microorganisms, aluminum sulfate for sedimentation of mud and sand. 5. Water was transferred to the four pools for further cleansing and separating sand from water. 6. The Water filtered by sand filter for removing the lifted sand from water it considered as a last step of water treatment 7. Water stored in large tanks then a sample of water is taken to the lab for chemical analysis of water for example if the chlorine amount is not within normal range the team work will add chlorine or decrease concentration of chlorine within the tank water. 8. . The chlorine level should be at least 0.5 mg/L. This residual, consisting of hypochlorous acid and/or chloramines, must kill microorganisms already present in the water and must also kill any pathogens which may enter the distribution system through cross-connections or leakage. In order to ensure that the water is free of microorganisms when it reaches the customer, the chlorine residual should be about 0.2 mg/L at the extreme ends of the distribution system. This residual in the distribution system will also act to control microorganisms in the distribution system which produces slimes, tastes, or odors.
  3. 3. Report of Duhok new water treatment plant visit in Khrabdeem Water born diseases: are caused by pathogenic microorganisms that most commonly are transmitted in contaminated fresh water. Infection commonly results during bathing, washing, drinking, in the preparation of food, or the consumption of food thus infected.Protozoal infections Disease and Sources of Agent in Water Microbial Agent General Symptoms Transmission Supply ProtozoanAmoebiasis Abdominal discomfort, fatigue, (Entamoeba Sewage, non-treated drinking weight histolytica) (Cyst- water, flies in water supply(hand-to-mouth) loss,diarrhea, bloating, fever like appearance) Collects on water filters and Flu-like symptoms, watery ProtozoanCryptosporidios membranes that cannot diarrhea, loss of appetite, (Cryptosporidiumis(oral) be disinfected, animal manure, substantial loss of weight, bloating, parvum) seasonalrunoff of water. increased gas, nausea Protozoan parasite Sewage, non-treated drinking cramps, nausea, vomiting, muscleCyclosporiasis (Cyclospora water aches, fever, and fatigue cayetanensis) Untreated water, poor disinfection, pipe breaks,Giardiasis Protozoan (Giardia leaks, groundwater contaminati lamblia) Most on, campgroundswhere humans Diarrhea, abdominal(fecal-oral) common intestinal and wildlife use same source of discomfort, bloating, andflatulence(hand-to-mouth) parasite water. Beavers and muskrats cr eate ponds that act as reservoirs for Giardia. Protozoan phylum Encephalitozoon DiarrheaMicrosporidiosi Microsporidia), but intestinalis has been detected and wasting in immunocompromiss closely related in groundwater, the origin of edindividuals.. to fungi drinking water [5]
  4. 4. Report of Duhok new water treatment plant visit in KhrabdeemParasitic infections (Kingdom Animalia) Sources of Agent in Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent General Symptoms Water Supply Fresh water Blood in urine (depending on contaminated with Members of the the type of infection), rash orSchistosomiasis(immersion) certain types of snails genusSchistosoma itchy skin. Fever, chills, cough that and muscle aches carry schistosomes Stagnant water Allergic reaction, urticaria rash,Dracunculiasis (Guinea Dracunculus containing larvae, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,Worm Disease) medinensis generally in asthmatic attack. parasitised Copepoda Drinking water Intestinal disturbances, Tapeworms of theTaeniasis contaminated with neurologic manifestations, loss genus Taenia eggs of weight, cysticercosis GIT disturbance, diarrhea, liver Drinking water enlargement, cholangitis,Fasciolopsiasis Fasciolopsis buski contaminated with cholecystitis, obstructive encysted metacercaria jaundice. Drinking water Abdominal pain, severe weightHymenolepiasis (Dwarf Hymenolepis nana contaminated with loss, itching around the anus,Tapeworm Infection) eggs nervous manifestation Drinking water Liver enlargement, hydatid cystsEchinococcosis(Hydatid Echinococcus contaminated with press on bile duct and blooddisease) granulosus feces (usually canid) vessels; if cysts rupture they containing eggs can causeanaphylactic shock
  5. 5. Report of Duhok new water treatment plant visit in Khrabdeem multiceps contaminated drinkingcoenurosis increases intacranial tension multiceps water with eggs Mostly, disease is asymptomatic or accompanied Drinking water by inflammation, fever, and Ascaris contaminated with diarrhea. Severe casesAscariasis lumbricoides feces (usually canid) involve Löfflers syndrome in containing eggs lungs, nausea, vomiting, malnutrition, and underdevelopment. Drinking water Peri-anal itch, nervous EnterobiusEnterobiasis contaminated with irritability, hyperactivity vermicularis eggs and insomniaBacterial infections Disease and Sources of Agent in Water Microbial Agent General SymptomsTransmission Supply Dry mouth, blurred and/or double Bacteria can enter an open vision, difficulty swallowing, wound from contaminated water muscle weakness, difficulty sources. Can enter theBotulism Clostridium botulinum breathing, slurred gastrointestinal tract by speech, vomiting and consuming contaminateddrinking sometimes diarrhea. Death is water or (more commonly) food usually caused by respiratory failure. Produces dysentery likeCampylobacteri Most commonly caused Drinking water contaminated symptoms along with a highosis byCampylobacter jejuni with feces fever. Usually lasts 2–10 days.
  6. 6. Report of Duhok new water treatment plant visit in Khrabdeem In severe forms it is known to be one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. Symptoms include very watery Spread by the Drinking water contaminatedCholera diarrhea, nausea, cramps, no bacterium Vibrio cholerae with the bacterium sebleed, rapid pulse, vomiting, and hypovolemic shock (in severe cases), at which point death can occur in 12–18 hours. Mostly diarrhea. Can cause death Certain strains in immunocompromised indiE. Water contaminated with the of Escherichia viduals, the very young, andcoli Infection bacteria coli(commonly E. coli) the elderly due to dehydration from prolonged illness. Naturally occurs in water, most Symptoms cases from exposure include lesions typicallyM. in swimming pools or more located on the elbows, knees,marinuminfecti Mycobacterium marinum frequentlyaquariums; rare and feet (fromswimmingon infection since it mostly pools) or lesions on the infectsimmunocompromised in hands (aquariums). Lesions dividuals may be painless or painful. Caused by a number of Frequent passage species in the Water contaminated with the of feces with blood and/or muDysentery genera Shigella andSalmon bacterium cus and in some cases ella with the most common vomiting of blood. being Shigella dysenteriaeLegionellosis ( Pontiac fever produces Caused by bacteriatwo distinct milder symptoms resembling belonging to Contaminated water: theforms: acute influenza withoutpneu genus Legionella (90% of organism thrives in warmLegionnaires’ monia. Legionnaires’ disease cases caused by Legionella aquatic environments.disease and has severe symptoms such pneumophila)Pontiac fever) as fever, chills, pneumonia (with cough that sometimes
  7. 7. Report of Duhok new water treatment plant visit in Khrabdeem produces sputum), ataxia, an orexia, muscle aches, malaise and occasionally diarrhea and vomiting Begins with flu-like symptoms then resolves. The Water contaminated by the Caused by bacterium of second phase then occursLeptospirosis animal urine carrying the genusLeptospira involvingmeningitis, liver da bacteria mage (causes jaundice), and renal failureOtitis Caused by a number Swimming in water Ear canal swells causing painExterna(swim of bacterialand fungal speci contaminated by the and tenderness to the touchmer’s ear) es. responsible pathogens Drinking water contaminated Symptoms Caused by many bacteria of with the bacteria. More include diarrhea, fever,Salmonellosis genus Salmonella common as a food borne vomiting, and abdominal illness. cramps Characterized by sustained fever up to 40°C (104°F), profuse sweating, diarrhea, less commonly a rash may Ingestion of water occur. Symptoms progressTyphoid fever Salmonella typhi contaminated with feces of an to delirium and infected person the spleen and liverenlarge if untreated. In this case it can last up to four weeks and cause death. Can enter wounds from Symptoms include explosive, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio contaminated water. Also got watery diarrhea, nausea,Vibrio Illness alginolyticus, and Vibrio by drinking contaminated water vomiting, abdominal cramps, parahaemolyticus or eating undercooked oysters. and occasionally fever.
  8. 8. Report of Duhok new water treatment plant visit in KhrabdeemViral infectionsDisease and Sources of MicrobialTransmissio Agent in Water General Symptoms Agent n SupplySARS (Sever Manifests itself Symptomse Acute Coronavirus in improperly include fever, myalgia, lethargy, gastrointestinal symptoms, coRespiratory treated water ugh, and sore throatSyndrome) Can manifest Symptoms are only acute (no chronic stage to the virus) and Hepatitis AHepatitis A itself in water include Fatigue, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, virus (HAV) (and food) weight loss, itching, jaundice and depression. Enters water 90-95% of patients show no symptoms, 4-8% have minorPoliomyelitis through symptoms (comparatively) with delirium, headache, fever, and Poliovirus the feces of occasional seizures, and spastic paralysis, 1% have symptoms(Polio) infected of non-paralytic aseptic meningitis. The rest have serious individuals symptoms resulting in paralysis or death Two of Very Polyomavirs widespread, BK virus produces a mild respiratory infection and can infect : can manifest the kidneys of immunosuppressed transplant patients. JC virusPolyomaviru itself in water, infects the respiratory system, kidneys or cans infection JC ~80% of the cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in virus and population thebrain (which is fatal). hasantibodies t BK virus o Polyomavirus
  9. 9. Report of Duhok new water treatment plant visit in KhrabdeemHealth and safety hazards presented in the physicalenvironment of work setting : Unstable chlorine room temperature. Risk for gas Inhalation and Fire. Uncovered pools increase the incidence of living pathogens in the poolsHealth services provided for workers 1. Lack of health assurance for team workers in institute. 2. Lack of health center . 3. Lack of first aid trainings for workers .Preventive measures in institute : Automatic chlorine gas leakage detective system prevent incidence of occurring gas inhalation in chlorine room. Using heaters inside chlorine room for preventing gas freezing.Negative points of institute Not using to much preventable measurements such as gown ,gloves ,gas masks…et Lack of health assurance and health centers. Uncovered pools increase the incidence of becoming contaminated again .Positive points of institute Clean environment Using filter back wash system Automatic chlorine gas leakage detective system prevent incidence of occurring gas inhalation in chlorine room. Sending a sample of water to the lab before distributing to the homes. Using chlorine gas and aluminum sulfate for water treatment.My Suggestions Covering the pools with fine networks. Using gas masks – a canister type with a full face piece and a self contained breathing apparatus. Protective clothing. Emergency showers and eye-wash stations Putting health assurance for workers & building health center nearby the plant .
  10. 10. Report of Duhok new water treatment plant visit in Khrabdeem Educating the team workers about first aids such as in case of :chlorine gas Inhalation 1. Remove the injured party to an uncontaminated outdoor area. Use appropriate respiratory equipment during rescue—do not become another victim. 2. Check for breathing and pulse. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, have trained personnel administer oxygen as soon as possible. If no pulse, perform CPR. 3. Call for medical assistance as soon as possible. 4. Check for other injuries. 5. Keep the injured party warm and at rest.