Child and adult food care & food pyramid Prepared by: Raveen Ismail Heyman Ahmed Viyan Mourad Warveen Abid Wdyan Jondi
ObjectivesAt the end of the presentation the students will know:• Difference between nutrients, nutrition, food.• food pyramid ,food groups .• The classification of foods ,nutrients .• The daily calorie intake for adults ,children .• The affect of inadequate food, nutrients intake on our bodies .• the nursing role in (children ,adult) food care .
Introduction to nutrition• Nutrition is the intake of food, according to the body’s dietary needs required by organisms and cells to stay alive.• Essential nutrients include protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins, minerals and electrolytes,.• Normally 85% of daily energy use is from fat and carbohydrates and 15% from protein.• Nutrition is essential for growth and development, health and wellbeing. Eating a healthy diet contributes to preventing future illness and improving quality and length of life.
Whats nutrition ?• It is a Science which investigates the metabolic &physiological responses of the body to diet .
Whats food• is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients , such as (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals)
Foods classification according to their general physical properties • solid primary • semisolid • liquid foods • fibrous, secondary • gelatinous, • starchy, oleaginous, crystalline, and albuminous foods.
Foods classification according to their sources Animal foods Vegetable foods meats ,fish cereals, vegetables Shellfish, proper , fruits, crustaceans, eggs, sugars, vegetable milk and its products, oils. animal fats, gelatin.
Food classification according to their compositions •the majority of the Nitrogenous foods animal substances belong• carbon ,• hydrogen , to the nitrogenous, and• oxygen , the majority of vegetable• nitrogen substances to the non- Non -nitrogenous nitrogenous group. foods• carbon• oxygen• hydrogen
Whats nutrients• a substance that provides nourishment essential for the maintenance of life and for growth : for example :fish is a source of many important nutrients, including protein, vitamins, and minerals
Classification of nutrients CarbohydratesMacronutrients Fats Proteins Water VitaminsMicronutrients Minerals
Function of nutrients in food• Provide energy (carbohydrate ,fat ,protein)• Build tissue (proteins )• Regulate metabolic processes ,(water is base of all metabolic processes .
Difference between food ,nutrients, nutrition Food Nutrition Nutrients• is any substance • Is taking in and the • a substance that consumed to provide utilization of food provides nourishment nutritional support for substances by which essential for the the body growth, repair and maintenance of life and maintenance of the for growth . body are accomplished .• It is usually of plant •Food origin • food is a source of or animal origin nutrients for e.g.. fish is a source of many important nutrients, including protein, vitamins, and minerals• contains nutrients for •Utilizing food nutrients •Are food components fore.g. Carbohydrate through process of e.g. carbohydrate ingestion, digestion, absorption and assimilation.
Factors affecting food intake• Age• Emotional factors• Sensory factors• Personal Preference• Social situations• Income (poverty )• Nutritional knowledge• Intolerance & allergies
Food Security The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as existing :• “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life”Food security is built on three pillars:• Food availability• Food access• Food use
Whats food pyramid• Is an outline of what to eat each day , It is not a rigid prescription, but a general guide that lets you choose a healthful diet thats right for you, shows a range of serving for each major group .• The first food pyramid was published in Sweden in 1974.
Whats serving ?• The amount of food that counts as a serving.• For example If you eat one plate of rice, that would be two servings. If you eat a smaller portion, count it as part of a serving.
Daily Calorie Intake• Recommended daily calorie intake varies from person to person• Calories also play a role in weight control• Calories are a measure of energy and are commonly used to describe the energy content of foods.
Factors affecting daily calories intake• age.• Gender .• Body size (height and weight).• Physical state (pregnancy ,lactation)• Type of work (sedentary .moderate, heavy)
Lack of insufficient food intakePoor nutrition can lead to:• reduced immunity.• increased susceptibility to disease.• impaired physical and mental development
For examples• Protein deficiency leads to Kwashiorkor..etc• Calories deficiency leads to Starvation, marasmus..etc• Vitamins deficiency leads to Pellagra ,Beri Beri, scurvy, rickets ..etc.• Minerals deficiency leads to Osteoporosis, tetany, laryngospasm ,cardiac arrhythmias ..etc.
MalnutritionMalnutrition intake of nutrients insufficient to meet daily energy requirements as a result of inadequate food intake or improper digestion & absorption of food.S&S• The most common symptom is a notable weight loss. For example, those who have lost more than 10% of their body weight in the course of three months and are not dieting could be malnourished.• Growth failure in children• Muscle wasting and lack of strength in the muscles.• Swelling of the abdomen and legs.• Increased susceptibility to infections• Skin and hair becomes dry.
Role of nurseAssessing :• Usual eating patterns & habits• Allergies & intolerances• Food frequency record• Brief personal & family history• Height/weight• Ideal body weight• Body mass index ( weight in kilograms over height in meters squared – Weight/height (in m)2) and mid arm circumference. (18.5_24.9)• Manifestations of malnutrition• Social, economic, ethnic, religious factors• Other risk factors for altered nutrition
Role of nurseTo stimulate appetite• Relieve illness symptoms that depress appetite prior to mealtime• Select small portions• Avoid unpleasant or uncomfortable treatments or activity immediately before/after meals• Provide tidy, clean environment• Encourage or provide oral hygiene before mealtime• Reduce psychological stress
Role of nurseAssisting with Meals• Help client feed self when possible• Assist client to sit on side of bed or chair if possible• Check tray for client’s name, type of diet, & completeness• “which order would you like to eat?”• Do not rush client; allow ample time• Offer fluids every 3 or 4 mouthfuls of food if client unable to communicate• Use adaptive feeding aids as needed• For blind person, identify placement of food as you would describe time on a clock