William shakespeare was an english poet and playwright


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William shakespeare was an english poet and playwright

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  2. 2. William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright widelyregarded as the greatest writer in English language. He is often called asEngland’s national poet and the “Bard of Avon”. Shakespeare was bornon or about 23 April in 1564. His father, John Shakespeare, was a gloverand commodities merchant and his mother, Mary Arden, was from agentry class. His parents, John and Mary, were married about 1557.Shakespeare grew up in the Tudor market town of Stratford-on-Avon, alovely village surrounded by extensive, unspoiled woods. He was theeldest son and had several sisters and one brother. By 1568, John hadrisen through the rank of town government and he held he position ofhigh bailiff, similar to the mayor. William Anne HathawayWilliam did his primary schooling in the local grammar school inStratford where he lived with his parents. At the age of 18, in 27thNovember 1582, William married Anne Hathaway, a local farmer’sdaughter who was eight years his senior. Six months after theirmarriage, their first daughter Susanna was born and baptized on 26thMay 1583. Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost twoyears later and were baptized on 2nd February 1585.William’s life can be divided into three periods, his first 20 years inStratford, which includes his schooling, early marriage and fatherhood;the next 25 years as an actor and playwright in London; and the last 5years in retirement back in Stratford where he enjoyed moderate wealthgained from his theatrical successes. The first two periods are referredto as the “dark years” due to lack of information about Shakespeare.
  3. 3. William ShakespeareShakespeare left his school at his 15th age and took some sort of job,since this was the period of his father’s financial difficulty. At somepoint during the “dark years”, William began his career with a Londontheatrical company, probably in 1589, for he was already an actor andplaywright of some note in 1592. Shakespeare wrote and acted forPembroke’s Men as well as numerous others, in particular Strange’sMen, which later became the Chamberlain’s Men, with whom Williamremained for the rest of his career.In 1592, the Plague closed the theaters for about two years. At this timeShakespeare started writing narrative poetry. The most notable were“Venus and Adonis” and “The Rape of Lucrece”. Both were dedicated tothe Earl of Southampton, whom scholars accept as Shakespeare’sfriend.During this same year Shakespeare also started to write sonnets. Againwhen the theaters reopened in 1594, he returned to play writing andstopped publishing poetry. Shortly before his retirement, his sonnetswere published without his consent in the year 1609.In the year 1596, Shakespeare’s only son, Hamnet died at the age of 11.This was of great loss to Shakespeare. But this did not interruptShakespeare’s career. In 1599, in London, he became one of thepartners in the new Globe Theater which was built by the Chamberlain’sMen.When King James of Scotland, cousin of Queen Elizabeth succeededher after her death in 1603, the Chamberlain’s Men was renamed theKing’s Men. Shakespeare’s popularity and productivity continueduninterrupted. He also invested in real estate and , one year after hisretirement, he purchased a second theater, the Black friars Gatehouse,in partnership with his actors.Most of Shakespeare’s plays had never been published in anythingexcept pamphlet form, and were simply extant as acting scripts storedin the Globe. The efforts of two of his company, John Heminges andHenry Condell, preserved Shakespeare’s 36 plays in the First Folio.Pericles which was the thirty seventh play was not included in the FirstFolio.
  4. 4. William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare died on April 23, 1616, and was buried two dayslater in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church where he was baptizedexactly 52 years earlier. The cause of his death was not reported. In1623the same year when Shakespeare’s widow, Anne HathawayShakespeare, died, the first collection of Shakespeare’s works waspublished. The published collection was known as the First Folio. (Theword “folio” refers to a book made up of sheets of paper folded once toform two leaves of equal size, or four pages.)The First Folio did not include Pericles, Prince of Tyre or The Two NobleKinsmen. The First Folio contained eighteen plays which had neverbeen previously published. These eighteen plays included: All’s WellThat Ends Well; Antony and Cleopatra; As You Like It; The Comedy ofErrors; Coriolanus; Cymbeline; Henry VI, Part One; Henry VIII; JuliusCaesar; King John; Macbeth; Measure for Measure; The Taming of theShrew; The Tempest; Timon of Athens; Twelfth Night; Two Gentlemen ofVerona; and The Winter’s Tale. The other eighteen plays which wereincluded in the First Folio had been published before. It was publishedas a quarto edition. (The word “Quarto” refers to a book made up ofsheets of paper folded twice to form four leaves of equal size, or eightpages.)In 1632, the Second collected edition of Shakespeare’s plays waspublished as the Second Folio. It was a reprint of the First Folio butmany changes were made in order to modernize the spellings andcorrect stage directions and names.The Third Folio was published in 1663 and it contained corrections tothe text of the Second Folio. It also introduced errors that were notfound in the previous editions. The Third Folio was again reprinted inthe year 1664 and it included within it seven new plays. One of theseplays, Pericles, is generally accepted as Shakespeare’s work eventhough some believe another dramatist may have collaborated.The Fourth Folio was published in 1685 and it was the last of the Folioeditions of the plays.
  5. 5. William Shakespeare Famous William Shakespeare quotes----------------------------------------------------------------- 1. Life every man holds dear; but the dear man holds honor far more precious dear than life. 2. I may neither choose who I would, nor refuse who I dislike; so is the will of a living daughter curbed by the will of a dead father. 3. Let every eye negotiate for itself and trust no agent. 4. I would be better to be eaten to death with rust than to be scoured to nothing with perpetual motion. 5. I will praise any man that will praise me. 6. It is not in the stars to hold our destiny but in ourselves. 7. I say there is no darkness but ignorance. 8. I see that the fashion wears out more apparel than the man. 9. When I first saw you I fell in love and you smiled because you knew. 10. Maybe love wont let you down. All of your failures are training grounds and just as your backs turned youll be surprised...as your solitude subsides 11. Speak low, if you speak love. 12. An overflow of good converts to bad.” 13. “Whats done cant be undone.” 14. “If music be the food of love, play on; give me excess of it, that, surfeiting, the appetite may sicken and so die.” 15. “Say as you think and speak it from your souls.” 16. “Give thy thoughts no tongue.”