Mycoscaping in Brooklyn

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Even if you're an avid gardener - if you are only gardening plants,
you're missing out! There is a whole other kingdom to explore - and
eat.  We can incorporate delicious, nutritious fungi in our urban
veggie gardens, backyards, lawns, landscaping, balconies,
windowboxes... In this workshop, we'll explore the basics - and
not-so-basics - of mushroom cultivation, and get some hands-on
experience. We'll learn how to look at mushroom crops through a
holistic, permaculture lens, and find the niche in the landscape where
they can peform useful ecological functions, even as they produce food
and medicine for us. We'll review common and less-common mushroom
crops, and different cultivation techniques. You'll get practice
inoculating mushroom logs, and even take one home. No gardening
experience necessary!

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  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort

    Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort

    Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort

    Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort

    Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort

    Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort

    Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort

    Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort

    Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • First show up ~1.5 bil BP • Established ~400 mil BP
    Estimated 1.5 million species
    ~90,000 species named • ~7,000 species cultured
    So that’s our ancestry - let’s look at what our relationship has been like more recently
  • First show up ~1.5 bil BP • Established ~400 mil BP
    Estimated 1.5 million species
    ~90,000 species named • ~7,000 species cultured
    So that’s our ancestry - let’s look at what our relationship has been like more recently
  • First show up ~1.5 bil BP • Established ~400 mil BP
    Estimated 1.5 million species
    ~90,000 species named • ~7,000 species cultured
    So that’s our ancestry - let’s look at what our relationship has been like more recently
  • First show up ~1.5 bil BP • Established ~400 mil BP
    Estimated 1.5 million species
    ~90,000 species named • ~7,000 species cultured
    So that’s our ancestry - let’s look at what our relationship has been like more recently
  • Compared to history of domestication of other kingdoms...
    1500 vs. 10,000
    Very exciting time to be working with fungi!
  • These ants & termites use fungi the way ruminants, and other termite species use bacteria
    Endosymbiont vs. exosymbiont
    Society as an organism
  • Pc = learning from wild nature
    We diverge from wild nature because we are pushing ecosystems
    So we look for the roles that fungi play in wild ecosystems
  • Nutrient forms
    Water & phosphorous
  • Soil volume access
    Yield / reproduction / Nutrient accumulation
  • Breaking down phenols (from construction glues and coal tar)
    Protection from parasitic fungi & nematodes
    Phytohormone transport
  • Seedling establishment / understory growth
    Nutrient tranfer from dead plants
    Suppression of competing plants
    Carbon transfer
  • Partitioning nutrients
    Enhancing competition
    Reducing competition
    ECOSYSTEM DESIGN
  • PLUS MANY ‘fungi imperfecti’
    w/o fruiting bodies
    Tighten nutrient cycles • Acquire nutrients from saprophytic fungi
    Food source for vertebrates and soil food web • Contribute to soil structure, mechanically (a little) and glomulin
    Alter quantity and quality of soil carbon
  • “The decomposition of lignocellulose is probably the single most important degradative event in the Earth's carbon cycle.”
  • About 2200 acres in size
    Up to 8500 years old
    in Malheur National Forest in Eastern Oregon
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • We need to get smart like that Armillaria, smart like those termites
  • non-mycorrhizal symbiosis
  • Recalcitrant carbon - many contaminant compounds have similar bonds to lignin
    External digestion
    1. Physical: penetration, high surface-to-cell ratio
    2. Extracellular: higher concentration of toxics,
    insoluble compounds (allows fungi to chew more than they can bite off,)
    3. Signaling independent of toxin, and non-specific
  • Non-specific methods for degrading lignin
    Enzyme driven
    More well studied
  • Cellulose and hemicellulose
    Not as well studied
  • spawn or bulk substrate mixed with contaminated substrate
  • Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated phenols, nitroaromatics, dyes and many other environmental toxins have been biotransformed or mineralized by P. chrysosporium, sometimes in complex mixtures of xenobiotics
    DDT, TNT
  • Science in it’s infancy
  • BRAINSTORM: why are they suited for the urban landscape?
    creating soil -- remediating soil -- food everywhere --
    abundant waste streams --
  • DIY propagation for backyard experimentation
  • Mycoscaping in Brooklyn

    1. 1. Mycoscaping Mushrooms in the Urban Landscape Rafter Sass • E C O P H I L O S for Port Quincy Bedford-Stuyvesant, NY September 26, 2009 Ecological Learning Institute • E C O P H I L O S • Liberation Ecology Project Permaculture Across Borders • Food Security Roundtable
    2. 2. Mycoscaping Mushrooms in the Urban Landscape Rafter Sass • E C O P H I L O S for Port Quincy Bedford-Stuyvesant, NY September 26, 2009 Ecological Learning Institute • E C O P H I L O S • Liberation Ecology Project Permaculture Across Borders • Food Security Roundtable
    3. 3. why mushrooms?
    4. 4. f u n g a l alchemy
    5. 5. f u n g a l WASTE INPUTS alchemy
    6. 6. f u n g a l WASTE INPUTS alchemy
    7. 7. f u n g a l WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS alchemy
    8. 8. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS f u n g a l alchemy
    9. 9. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management f u n g a l alchemy
    10. 10. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production alchemy
    11. 11. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry alchemy
    12. 12. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture alchemy
    13. 13. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated waste mgt. alchemy
    14. 14. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated waste mgt. alchemy Waste from beer industry
    15. 15. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated waste mgt. alchemy Waste from beer industry Waste from coffee industry
    16. 16. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated waste mgt. alchemy Waste from beer industry Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ?
    17. 17. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated waste mgt. alchemy Waste from beer industry Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ?
    18. 18. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated Ecological waste mgt. alchemy Restoration Waste from beer industry Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ?
    19. 19. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Animal feed Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated Ecological waste mgt. alchemy Restoration Waste from beer industry Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ?
    20. 20. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Animal feed Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated Ecological waste mgt. alchemy Restoration Waste from beer industry Ecological Synergy Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ?
    21. 21. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Animal feed Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture FOOD Waste from integrated Ecological waste mgt. alchemy Restoration Waste from beer industry Ecological Synergy Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ?
    22. 22. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Animal feed Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture FOOD Waste from integrated Ecological waste mgt. alchemy Restoration Waste from beer industry Ecological Synergy Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ? What else?
    23. 23. Other SustainableYields...
    24. 24. Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols
    25. 25. Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing
    26. 26. Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing Plant crop symbiosis
    27. 27. Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing Plant crop symbiosis Blight protection
    28. 28. Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing Plant crop symbiosis Blight protection Degradation of toxins
    29. 29. Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing Plant crop symbiosis Blight protection Degradation of toxins Dyes
    30. 30. Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing Plant crop symbiosis Blight protection Degradation of toxins Dyes Fabric & paper
    31. 31. Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing Plant crop symbiosis Blight protection Degradation of toxins Dyes Fabric & paper Tinder
    32. 32. The Basics fruiting body
    33. 33. The Basics pileus fruiting body
    34. 34. The Basics pileus fruiting body stipe
    35. 35. The Basics pileus annulus fruiting body stipe
    36. 36. The Basics
    37. 37. The Basics mycelium
    38. 38. The Basics mycelium on substrate
    39. 39. The Basics
    40. 40. The Basics
    41. 41. The Basics
    42. 42. Family Ties
    43. 43. Family Ties
    44. 44. Family Ties
    45. 45. Family Ties
    46. 46. Family Ties
    47. 47. Modern Industrial Cultivation Last 20-80 Years Button Mushroom
    48. 48. Modern Industrial Cultivation Last 20-80 Years Reishi Shitake
    49. 49. Modern Industrial Cultivation Last 20-80 Years Oyster
    50. 50. Button Mushroom Agaricus bisporus France, 1600
    51. 51. Shitake Lentinula edodes China, ~1000 AD
    52. 52. Paddy Straw Mushroom Volvariella volvaceae ~600 AD
    53. 53. this moment in history
    54. 54. Lepiota Termitomyces by leaf-cutter ants by termites ~50 million YBP?
    55. 55. Niche Analysis
    56. 56. mycorrhizal fungi the root zone conspiracy
    57. 57. mycorrhizal fungi the root zone conspiracy Steering succession
    58. 58. chanterelles and associates most truffles many gilled mushrooms porcini and many other boletes
    59. 59. saprophytic fungi the recomposers
    60. 60. Armillaria sp.
    61. 61. Armillaria ostoyae
    62. 62. our symbiotic partners
    63. 63. Shitake Lentinula edodes
    64. 64. Elm Oyster Hypsyzigus ulmarius
    65. 65. Shaggy Mane Coprinus comatus
    66. 66. Reishi Ganoderma lucidum
    67. 67. Lions Mane Hericium erinaceus
    68. 68. Morel Morchella esculenta
    69. 69. Winecap Stropharia rugosoannulata
    70. 70. Chicken mushroom Laetiporeous sulfureus
    71. 71. Oyster Pleurotus complex
    72. 72. WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Animal feed Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture FOOD Waste from integrated Ecological waste mgt. alchemy Restoration Waste from beer industry Ecological Synergy Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ? What else? smart like a honey mushroom...
    73. 73. ‘Conventional’ Cultivation Lifecycle
    74. 74. Isolating and growing a pure culture
    75. 75. Creating a grain master
    76. 76. Growing spawn
    77. 77. Multiplying spawn
    78. 78. Inoculation of bulk substrate
    79. 79. INCREASING VOLUME
    80. 80. INCREASING VOLUME DECREASING NUTRIENTS
    81. 81. INCREASING VOLUME DECREASING NUTRIENTS DECREASING STERILITY
    82. 82. Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production
    83. 83. Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production log culture
    84. 84. Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production stump culture
    85. 85. Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production stump culture?
    86. 86. Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production patch culture
    87. 87. Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production garden bed polyclture
    88. 88. Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production straw bale culture
    89. 89. Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production living tree culture
    90. 90. Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production container culture: sawdust
    91. 91. Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production container culture: waste paper
    92. 92. Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production ...and assorted others....
    93. 93. Remediation & Restoration
    94. 94. Remediation & Restoration white rot and delignification
    95. 95. Remediation & Restoration brown rot and cellulose digestion
    96. 96. Remediation & Restoration Hydrocarbons Pleurotus sp.
    97. 97. Remediation & Restoration PCBs Phanerochaete chrysosporium
    98. 98. Remediation & Restoration Dyes Trametes versicolor
    99. 99. Remediation & Restoration Munitions Psilocybe cyanescens
    100. 100. Remediation & Restoration Dairy effluent and agricultural run-off Stropharia rugusoannulata
    101. 101. Remediation & Restoration
    102. 102. why mushrooms in the city?
    103. 103. From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild
    104. 104. From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low
    105. 105. From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High
    106. 106. From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High
    107. 107. From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High High Capital & Infrastructure Low
    108. 108. From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High High Capital & Infrastructure Low High Energy Inputs Low
    109. 109. From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High High Capital & Infrastructure Low High Energy Inputs Low High Amount of Management Required Low/None
    110. 110. From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High High Capital & Infrastructure Low High Energy Inputs Low High Amount of Management Required Low/None High Predictability / Reliability Low
    111. 111. From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High High Capital & Infrastructure Low High Energy Inputs Low High Amount of Management Required Low/None High Predictability / Reliability Low High Yields for Human Use Low
    112. 112. From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild MYCOSCAPING High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High High Capital & Infrastructure Low High Energy Inputs Low High Amount of Management Required Low/None High Predictability / Reliability Low High Yields for Human Use Low
    113. 113. Principles and Directives
    114. 114. Principles and Directives I N N OVAT I O N Experiment and document Find the sweet spot on sterile-wild spectrum
    115. 115. Principles and Directives I N N OVAT I O N Experiment and document Find the sweet spot on sterile-wild spectrum BIOCONVERSION Fungal exosymbionts: Intercept a local surplus or ‘waste’ stream
    116. 116. Principles and Directives I N N OVAT I O N Experiment and document Find the sweet spot on sterile-wild spectrum BIOCONVERSION Fungal exosymbionts: Intercept a local surplus or ‘waste’ stream GO REGIONAL Support local spawn producers Propagate regional strains
    117. 117. Principles and Directives I N N OVAT I O N Experiment and document Find the sweet spot on sterile-wild spectrum BIOCONVERSION Fungal exosymbionts: Intercept a local surplus or ‘waste’ stream GO REGIONAL Support local spawn producers Propagate regional strains LANDSCAPE SYNERGY Integrate components to tighten nutrient cycles Accelerate decomposition Produce food and medicine everywhere
    118. 118. ...

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