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Mycoscaping in Brooklyn
 

Mycoscaping in Brooklyn

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Even if you're an avid gardener - if you are only gardening plants,...

Even if you're an avid gardener - if you are only gardening plants,
you're missing out! There is a whole other kingdom to explore - and
eat.  We can incorporate delicious, nutritious fungi in our urban
veggie gardens, backyards, lawns, landscaping, balconies,
windowboxes... In this workshop, we'll explore the basics - and
not-so-basics - of mushroom cultivation, and get some hands-on
experience. We'll learn how to look at mushroom crops through a
holistic, permaculture lens, and find the niche in the landscape where
they can peform useful ecological functions, even as they produce food
and medicine for us. We'll review common and less-common mushroom
crops, and different cultivation techniques. You'll get practice
inoculating mushroom logs, and even take one home. No gardening
experience necessary!

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  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort <br /> <br /> Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort <br /> <br /> Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort <br /> <br /> Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort <br /> <br /> Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort <br /> <br /> Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort <br /> <br /> Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort <br /> <br /> Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • Hemlock wooly adelgidNoble rot / tempeh / Roquefort <br /> <br /> Wood conditioning for musical instruments
  • First show up ~1.5 bil BP &#x2022; Established ~400 mil BP <br /> Estimated 1.5 million species <br /> ~90,000 species named &#x2022; ~7,000 species cultured <br /> So that&#x2019;s our ancestry - let&#x2019;s look at what our relationship has been like more recently
  • First show up ~1.5 bil BP &#x2022; Established ~400 mil BP <br /> Estimated 1.5 million species <br /> ~90,000 species named &#x2022; ~7,000 species cultured <br /> So that&#x2019;s our ancestry - let&#x2019;s look at what our relationship has been like more recently
  • First show up ~1.5 bil BP &#x2022; Established ~400 mil BP <br /> Estimated 1.5 million species <br /> ~90,000 species named &#x2022; ~7,000 species cultured <br /> So that&#x2019;s our ancestry - let&#x2019;s look at what our relationship has been like more recently
  • First show up ~1.5 bil BP &#x2022; Established ~400 mil BP <br /> Estimated 1.5 million species <br /> ~90,000 species named &#x2022; ~7,000 species cultured <br /> So that&#x2019;s our ancestry - let&#x2019;s look at what our relationship has been like more recently
  • Compared to history of domestication of other kingdoms... <br /> 1500 vs. 10,000 <br /> Very exciting time to be working with fungi!
  • These ants & termites use fungi the way ruminants, and other termite species use bacteria <br /> Endosymbiont vs. exosymbiont <br /> Society as an organism
  • Pc = learning from wild nature <br /> We diverge from wild nature because we are pushing ecosystems <br /> So we look for the roles that fungi play in wild ecosystems
  • Nutrient forms <br /> Water & phosphorous
  • Soil volume access <br /> Yield / reproduction / Nutrient accumulation
  • Breaking down phenols (from construction glues and coal tar) <br /> Protection from parasitic fungi & nematodes <br /> Phytohormone transport
  • Seedling establishment / understory growth <br /> Nutrient tranfer from dead plants <br /> Suppression of competing plants <br /> Carbon transfer
  • Partitioning nutrients <br /> Enhancing competition <br /> Reducing competition <br /> ECOSYSTEM DESIGN
  • PLUS MANY &#x2018;fungi imperfecti&#x2019; <br /> w/o fruiting bodies <br /> Tighten nutrient cycles &#x2022; Acquire nutrients from saprophytic fungi <br /> Food source for vertebrates and soil food web &#x2022; Contribute to soil structure, mechanically (a little) and glomulin <br /> Alter quantity and quality of soil carbon
  • &#x201C;The decomposition of lignocellulose is probably the single most important degradative event in the Earth&apos;s carbon cycle.&#x201D;
  • About 2200 acres in size <br /> Up to 8500 years old <br /> in Malheur National Forest in Eastern Oregon
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • our exosymbionts
  • We need to get smart like that Armillaria, smart like those termites
  • non-mycorrhizal symbiosis
  • Recalcitrant carbon - many contaminant compounds have similar bonds to lignin <br /> External digestion <br /> 1. Physical: penetration, high surface-to-cell ratio <br /> 2. Extracellular: higher concentration of toxics, <br /> insoluble compounds (allows fungi to chew more than they can bite off,) <br /> 3. Signaling independent of toxin, and non-specific
  • Non-specific methods for degrading lignin <br /> Enzyme driven <br /> More well studied
  • Cellulose and hemicellulose <br /> Not as well studied
  • spawn or bulk substrate mixed with contaminated substrate
  • Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated phenols, nitroaromatics, dyes and many other environmental toxins have been biotransformed or mineralized by P. chrysosporium, sometimes in complex mixtures of xenobiotics <br /> DDT, TNT
  • Science in it&#x2019;s infancy
  • BRAINSTORM: why are they suited for the urban landscape? <br /> creating soil -- remediating soil -- food everywhere -- <br /> abundant waste streams --
  • DIY propagation for backyard experimentation

Mycoscaping in Brooklyn Mycoscaping in Brooklyn Presentation Transcript

  • Mycoscaping Mushrooms in the Urban Landscape Rafter Sass • E C O P H I L O S for Port Quincy Bedford-Stuyvesant, NY September 26, 2009 Ecological Learning Institute • E C O P H I L O S • Liberation Ecology Project Permaculture Across Borders • Food Security Roundtable
  • Mycoscaping Mushrooms in the Urban Landscape Rafter Sass • E C O P H I L O S for Port Quincy Bedford-Stuyvesant, NY September 26, 2009 Ecological Learning Institute • E C O P H I L O S • Liberation Ecology Project Permaculture Across Borders • Food Security Roundtable
  • why mushrooms?
  • f u n g a l alchemy
  • f u n g a l WASTE INPUTS alchemy
  • f u n g a l WASTE INPUTS alchemy
  • f u n g a l WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS alchemy
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS f u n g a l alchemy
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management f u n g a l alchemy
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production alchemy
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry alchemy
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture alchemy
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated waste mgt. alchemy
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated waste mgt. alchemy Waste from beer industry
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated waste mgt. alchemy Waste from beer industry Waste from coffee industry
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated waste mgt. alchemy Waste from beer industry Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ?
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated waste mgt. alchemy Waste from beer industry Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ?
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated Ecological waste mgt. alchemy Restoration Waste from beer industry Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ?
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Animal feed Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated Ecological waste mgt. alchemy Restoration Waste from beer industry Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ?
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Animal feed Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture Waste from integrated Ecological waste mgt. alchemy Restoration Waste from beer industry Ecological Synergy Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ?
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Animal feed Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture FOOD Waste from integrated Ecological waste mgt. alchemy Restoration Waste from beer industry Ecological Synergy Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ?
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Animal feed Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture FOOD Waste from integrated Ecological waste mgt. alchemy Restoration Waste from beer industry Ecological Synergy Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ? What else?
  • Other SustainableYields...
  • Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols
  • Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing
  • Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing Plant crop symbiosis
  • Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing Plant crop symbiosis Blight protection
  • Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing Plant crop symbiosis Blight protection Degradation of toxins
  • Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing Plant crop symbiosis Blight protection Degradation of toxins Dyes
  • Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing Plant crop symbiosis Blight protection Degradation of toxins Dyes Fabric & paper
  • Other SustainableYields... Pest biocontrols Food processing Plant crop symbiosis Blight protection Degradation of toxins Dyes Fabric & paper Tinder
  • The Basics fruiting body
  • The Basics pileus fruiting body
  • The Basics pileus fruiting body stipe
  • The Basics pileus annulus fruiting body stipe
  • The Basics
  • The Basics mycelium
  • The Basics mycelium on substrate
  • The Basics
  • The Basics
  • The Basics
  • Family Ties
  • Family Ties
  • Family Ties
  • Family Ties
  • Family Ties
  • Modern Industrial Cultivation Last 20-80 Years Button Mushroom
  • Modern Industrial Cultivation Last 20-80 Years Reishi Shitake
  • Modern Industrial Cultivation Last 20-80 Years Oyster
  • Button Mushroom Agaricus bisporus France, 1600
  • Shitake Lentinula edodes China, ~1000 AD
  • Paddy Straw Mushroom Volvariella volvaceae ~600 AD
  • this moment in history
  • Lepiota Termitomyces by leaf-cutter ants by termites ~50 million YBP?
  • Niche Analysis
  • mycorrhizal fungi the root zone conspiracy
  • mycorrhizal fungi the root zone conspiracy Steering succession
  • chanterelles and associates most truffles many gilled mushrooms porcini and many other boletes
  • saprophytic fungi the recomposers
  • Armillaria sp.
  • Armillaria ostoyae
  • our symbiotic partners
  • Shitake Lentinula edodes
  • Elm Oyster Hypsyzigus ulmarius
  • Shaggy Mane Coprinus comatus
  • Reishi Ganoderma lucidum
  • Lions Mane Hericium erinaceus
  • Morel Morchella esculenta
  • Winecap Stropharia rugosoannulata
  • Chicken mushroom Laetiporeous sulfureus
  • Oyster Pleurotus complex
  • WASTE USEFUL INPUTS OUTPUTS Waste from forest management Medicine Waste from grain and hay f u n g a l production Animal feed Waste from animal husbandry Waste from other agriculture FOOD Waste from integrated Ecological waste mgt. alchemy Restoration Waste from beer industry Ecological Synergy Waste from coffee industry Wastes from... ? What else? smart like a honey mushroom...
  • ‘Conventional’ Cultivation Lifecycle
  • Isolating and growing a pure culture
  • Creating a grain master
  • Growing spawn
  • Multiplying spawn
  • Inoculation of bulk substrate
  • INCREASING VOLUME
  • INCREASING VOLUME DECREASING NUTRIENTS
  • INCREASING VOLUME DECREASING NUTRIENTS DECREASING STERILITY
  • Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production
  • Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production log culture
  • Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production stump culture
  • Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production stump culture?
  • Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production patch culture
  • Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production garden bed polyclture
  • Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production straw bale culture
  • Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production living tree culture
  • Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production container culture: sawdust
  • Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production container culture: waste paper
  • Sustainable, DIY, and Homescale Production ...and assorted others....
  • Remediation & Restoration
  • Remediation & Restoration white rot and delignification
  • Remediation & Restoration brown rot and cellulose digestion
  • Remediation & Restoration Hydrocarbons Pleurotus sp.
  • Remediation & Restoration PCBs Phanerochaete chrysosporium
  • Remediation & Restoration Dyes Trametes versicolor
  • Remediation & Restoration Munitions Psilocybe cyanescens
  • Remediation & Restoration Dairy effluent and agricultural run-off Stropharia rugusoannulata
  • Remediation & Restoration
  • why mushrooms in the city?
  • From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild
  • From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low
  • From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High
  • From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High
  • From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High High Capital & Infrastructure Low
  • From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High High Capital & Infrastructure Low High Energy Inputs Low
  • From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High High Capital & Infrastructure Low High Energy Inputs Low High Amount of Management Required Low/None
  • From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High High Capital & Infrastructure Low High Energy Inputs Low High Amount of Management Required Low/None High Predictability / Reliability Low
  • From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High High Capital & Infrastructure Low High Energy Inputs Low High Amount of Management Required Low/None High Predictability / Reliability Low High Yields for Human Use Low
  • From Sterile to Wild Culture Sterile Wild MYCOSCAPING High Fragility Low Low Resilience High Low Species & Genetic Diversity High High Capital & Infrastructure Low High Energy Inputs Low High Amount of Management Required Low/None High Predictability / Reliability Low High Yields for Human Use Low
  • Principles and Directives
  • Principles and Directives I N N OVAT I O N Experiment and document Find the sweet spot on sterile-wild spectrum
  • Principles and Directives I N N OVAT I O N Experiment and document Find the sweet spot on sterile-wild spectrum BIOCONVERSION Fungal exosymbionts: Intercept a local surplus or ‘waste’ stream
  • Principles and Directives I N N OVAT I O N Experiment and document Find the sweet spot on sterile-wild spectrum BIOCONVERSION Fungal exosymbionts: Intercept a local surplus or ‘waste’ stream GO REGIONAL Support local spawn producers Propagate regional strains
  • Principles and Directives I N N OVAT I O N Experiment and document Find the sweet spot on sterile-wild spectrum BIOCONVERSION Fungal exosymbionts: Intercept a local surplus or ‘waste’ stream GO REGIONAL Support local spawn producers Propagate regional strains LANDSCAPE SYNERGY Integrate components to tighten nutrient cycles Accelerate decomposition Produce food and medicine everywhere
  • ...