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3 g networks technologies, services & benefits

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  • 1. 1 Key to Success 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits  Be on time (if you are late enter the room quietly)  Your ringer is not that great! (cell phones off or muted)  You can do without facebook/youtube/twitter/emails/sms for 1:15 - If you have to, don’t disturb your peers  Interrupt for questions – there is no dumb question  Pay attention to the training and keep extra notes  Read extra material on your own. Wealth of information available (library books, online articles, research papers)
  • 2. Rauf Akram | raufakram.wordpress.com | Skype: rauf.akram | @RaufAkram | Telecom Training Program 3G Networks Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 3. 3 Agenda 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Previous Technologies 3G Technology Review 3G Services & Application What is 3GPP ? Rel. 4 – UMTS Rel. 5 & 6 – HSPA & IMS Rel. 7 – HSPA+ IMS GSMA RCS Services 3G offloading via WLAN (4G Wifi – Hotspot 2.0)
  • 4. 4 3G Networks - Technologies, Services & Benefits Previous Technologies 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 5. 5 Previous Technologies 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Courtesy of Rich Howard • Beginning in 1918 the German railroad system tested wireless telephony on military trains between Berlin and Zossen • In 1925, the company Zugtelephonie A. G. was founded to supply train telephony equipment • Mobile telephones for automobiles became available from some telephone companies in the 1940s • In the United States, engineers from Bell Labs began work on a system to allow mobile users to place and receive telephone calls from automobiles, leading to the inauguration of mobile service on 17 June 1946 in St. Louis, Missouri • In the USSR, Leonid Kupriyanovich, engineer from Moscow, in 1957-1961 developed and presented a number of experimental models of handheld mobile phone. The weight of one model, presented in 1961, was only 70 g and could fit on a palm • Motorola was the first company to produce a handheld mobile phone. On 3rd April 1973, Martin Cooper, a Motorola engineer and executive, made the first mobile telephone call from handheld subscriber equipment in front of reporters, placing a call to Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs. The prototype weighed 1.1 kg and measured 23 cm long, 13 cm deep and 4.45 cm wide, offered a talk time of just 30 minutes and took 10 hours to re-charge. Cooper has stated his vision for the handheld device was inspired by Captain James T. Kirk using his Communicator on the television show Star Trek
  • 6. 6 Previous Technologies 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Global Mobile vs. Landline Statistics 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Landline Subs Mobile Subs (millions) Crossover has happened in May 2002 !
  • 7. 7 Previous Technologies 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 8. 8 First Generation (1G) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) – US trials 1978; deployed in Japan (’79) & US (’83) – 800 MHz band — two 20 MHz bands – TIA-553 – Still used in US and many parts of the world • Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) – Sweden, Norway, Demark & Finland – Launched 1981; now largely retired – 450 MHz; later at 900 MHz (NMT900) • Total Access Communications System (TACS) – British design; similar to AMPS; deployed in 1985 – Some TACS-900 systems still in use in Europe
  • 9. 9 Second Generation (2G) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Digital systems • Leverage technology to increase capacity – Speech compression; digital signal processing • Utilize/extend “Intelligent Network” concepts • Improve fraud prevention • Add new services • There are a wide diversity of 2G systems – IS-54/ IS-136 North American TDMA; PDC (Japan) – iDEN – DECT and PHS – IS-95 CDMA (cdmaOne) – GSM
  • 10. 10 GPRS & EDGE 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • 2.5G GPRS • 2.75G EDGE • Addition of PCU, SGSN, GGSN, DNS, IPCG nodes into GSM network Technology Theoretical Downlink Theoretical Uplink Actual Downlink Actual Uplink GPRS 171Kbps 40Kbps 64Kbps 20Kbps EDGE 384Kbps 108Kbps 217Kbps 60Kbps
  • 11. 11 3G Networks - Technologies, Services & Benefits 3G Technology Overview 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 12. 12 3G Technology Overview 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits A little about generations ……. Generation Technology Theoretical Speeds Practical Speeds 2G GSM DL: 14.4Kbps UL: 14.4Kbps DL: 9.6Kbps UL: 9.6Kbps 2.5G GPRS DL: 171Kbps UL: 40Kbps DL: 48 - 64 Kbps UL: 14 - 26 Kbps 2.75G EDGE DL: 384Kbps UL: 108Kbps DL: up to 217Kbps UL: up to 80Kbps 3G UMTS DL: 2Mbps UL: 384 Kbps DL: 384Kbps – 1 Mbps UL: 64 - 153 Kbps 3.5G HSDPA DL: 3.6 – 14.4 Mbps UL: 384Kbps – 2Mbps DL: 1 - 3 Mbps UL: 384Kbps – 1Mbps 3.6G HSUPA DL: 14.4Mbps UL: 5.76Mbps DL: 1 - 3 Mbps UL: 512kbps – 2Mbps 3.75G HSPA+ DL: 21Mbps UL: 5.8Mbps DL: 3 - 6 Mbps UL: 512kbps – 2Mbps 3.8G HSPA+ Enhanced DL: 28 – 84 Mbps UL: 5.8 – 20 Mbps DL: 3 – 10 Mbps UL: 1 – 5 Mbps 3.9G LTE DL: 100Mbps UL: 50Mbps DL: 5 – 30 Mbps UL: 3 – 15 Mbps 4G LTE-Advanced DL: 1Gbps UL: 500Mbps DL: 100 – 300 Mbps UL: 5 – 100 Mbps
  • 13. 13 Wireless Technology Evolution 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 14. 14 3G Vision 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Universal global roaming • Multimedia (voice, data & video) • Increased data rates – 144 kbps at high speed – 384 kbps while moving – 2 Mbps when stationary at specific locations Pedestrian & Office (<10km/h): bit rate 2 Mbps Outdoor (< 150 km/h): bit rate 384 Kbps Outdoor (<250 km/h): bit rate 144 Kbps • Increased capacity (more spectrally efficient) • IP architecture • Packet Oriented Services • Multiple services simultaneously • Rich Communication (Interactivity)
  • 15. 15 3G Spectrum 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • 3G requires minimum 5MHz band • 2100MHz band dedicated for 3G • Operators also use 900MHz & 1800MHz for 3G • Lower frequency, greater coverage - excellent coverage in rural areas, improves in-door coverage and augments capacity in urban areas • 900MHz re-farming solutions let operators use the GSM frequency to quickly deploy a low-cost UMTS network with wide coverage. Users get seamless 2G and 3G services with two networks integrated on the same platform. • UMTS900 combines superior performance of UMTS with coverage benefits of 900MHz spectrum • UMTS900 can co-exist with GSM900
  • 16. 16 900MHz for 3G 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 17. 17 Financial Benefits for using 900MHz for 3G 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Up to 66.4% less CAPEX required for deploying 3G using 900MHz compared to 2100MHz • 2100MHz only has one advantage – capacity • Business strategy should be to deploy 3G using 900MHz for cost effective and quick Time to Market and then if required to increase capacity, use Pico-Cells or Femto- Cells using 2100MHz 2100MHz 900MHz SAVINGS
  • 18. 18 UMTS900 Stats 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 19. 19 3G Technology Overview 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits 30 KHz 30 KHz 30 KHz 30 KHz 30 KHz 30 KHz 30 KHz 30 KHz Frequency FDMA — Frequency Division Multiple Access (1G) Frequency Time 200 KHz 200 KHz 200 KHz 200 KHz One timeslot = 0.577 ms One TDMA frame = 8 timeslots TDMA — Time Division Multiple Access (2G/GSM)
  • 20. 20 Multiple Access Technologies 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Spread spectrum modulation – Originally developed for the military – Resists jamming and many kinds of interference – Coded modulation hidden from those w/o the code • All users share same (large) block of spectrum – One for one frequency reuse – Soft handoffs possible • Every 3G Technology is based on CDMA – CDMA2000, W-CDMA and TD-SCDMA
  • 21. 21 Multiple Access Technologies 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Traffic channels: different users are assigned unique code and transmitted over the same frequency band, for example, WCDMA and CDMA2000 Traffic channels: different frequency bands are allocated to different users, for example, AMPS and TACS Traffic channels: different time slots are allocated to different users, for example, DAMPS and GSM Power Power Power FDMA TDMA CDMA
  • 22. 22 Multiple Access Technologies 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Defect 1. Simple Implementation 1. Frequency Reuse 2. privacy 1. Need synchronization of frame 1. Reduction of interference 2. Diversity Hand-over 3. Privacy 4. 4.2 Times the capacity of TDMA 1. Sophisticated power control for mobile 1. Privacy 2. 4 times the capacity of FDMA Advantage FDMA TDMA CDMA AMPS, TACS GSM, PDC IS95, W-CDMA Disadvantage
  • 23. 23 Multiple Access Technologies 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits FDMA/TDMA CDMA Frequency is different in each sector. Frequency is same. Need for frequency plan (Frequency Reuse) No need for frequency plan f1 f 6 f 5 f 2 f 3 f 4 f1 f 7 f 7 f 4f 6 f 7 f1 f 3 f 4 f 6 f 7 f 2 f 5 f 6 f 2 f 2f 5 f 3 f1 f 7 f 6 f 5 f 2 f 4 f1 f1 f 7 f1 f 7 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1
  • 24. 24 Duplex Technology 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Duplex technology distinguishes User’s Uplink & Downlink Signal • FDD (Frequency Division Duplex): – Identify uplink & downlink signal by using different frequencies – Adopted by GSM & 3G – Advantage - It can be easily implemented – Disadvantage – Spectrum utilization is low when uplink & downlink services are asymmetrical • TDD (Time Division Duplex): – Identifies uplink & downlink signal by using different timeslots – Adopted by TD-SCDMA (China) – Hard to implement as it need very precise synchronization, require GPS in CDMA – Difficult to control interference between uplink and downlink
  • 25. 25 Duplex Technology 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Base stationMobile Terminal Base stationMobile Terminal Up Down TS1 TS2 TS: Time slot
  • 26. 26 Signal Transmission using Codes 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits User-A A Code 1 User-B B Code 2 User-C C Code 3 User-A A Code 1 User-B B Code 2 User-C C Code 3 De-spreading Code Narrow Band Signal Wide Band Signal (Multiple Signal)Spreading Despreading Narrow Band Signal C B A (Receiver A) (Receiver B) (Receiver C)
  • 27. 27 How User Is Identified with Codes 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits  Downlink (NodeB to UE )  Scrambling Code: Identifies cell (sector).  Channelization Code: Identifies user channels in cell (Sector).  Up Link (UE to NodeB )  Scrambling Code: Identifies user terminal.  Channelization Code: Identifies channels in user terminal.
  • 28. 28 3G Modulation Schemes 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • QPSK - Quadrature Phase Shift Keying sends information by altering the phase of the carrier wave. It uses four different possible phases, making it possible to send two bits for every symbol. • Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is both an analog and a digital modulation scheme. It conveys two analog message signals, or two digital bit streams, by changing (modulating) the amplitudes of two carrier waves, using the amplitude-shift keying (ASK) digital modulation scheme or amplitude modulation (AM) analog modulation scheme.
  • 29. 29 Multipath Environment 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Time Strength of the received signal Transmitted signal
  • 30. 30 RAKE Receiver 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • A RAKE receiver is a form of radio receiver. • It is often used to overcome the effects of multipath propagation. • It uses several sub-receivers known as "fingers" which are given a particular multipath component. • Each finger then processes its component and decodes it. • The resultant outputs from the fingers are then combined to provide the maximum contribution from each path. • In this way rake receivers and multipath propagation can be used to improve the signal to noise performance.
  • 31. 31 3G Handover Types 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits “The term handover or handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one base station or cell or channel to another without loss or interruption of service. Handover occurs when coverage conditions change.” Four types of handover supported in 3G o Hard Handover: This form of handover is essentially the same as that used for 2G networks where one link is broken and another established. o Soft Handover: This form of handover is a more gradual and the mobile communicates simultaneously with more than one NodeB or base station during the handover process. o Softer Handover: Not a full form of UMTS handover, but the UE communicates with more than one sector managed by the same NodeB. o Inter-RAT Handover: This form of handover occurs when UEs have to change between Radio Access Technologies like from UMTS to GSM or GSM to UMTS
  • 32. 32 Hard Handover 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • The network decides a handover is required dependent upon the signal strengths of the existing link, and the strengths of broadcast channels of adjacent cells. • The link between the existing NodeB and the UE is broken. • A new link is established between the new NodeB and the UE. Hard handovers is used in below circumstances: • When moving from one cell to an adjacent cell that is on a different frequency. • When moving from one cell to another where there is no capacity on the existing channel, and a change to a new frequency is required.
  • 33. 33 Soft Handover 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • UE is connected simultaneously to more than one base station (up to 3 sectors) using the same frequency • The UE receives the downlink transmissions of two or more base stations and combines them using the RAKE Receiver capability available in signal processing component of UE. • In the uplink direction, uplink transmission from UE is received at both NodeBs, but the received data is then routed to the RNC for combining • The RNC selects the better frame between the two possible candidates based on frame reliability indicator • Once the soft handover has been completed, the links to the old NodeB are dropped and the UE continues to communicate with the new NodeB.
  • 34. 34 Softer Handover 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • UE is connected simultaneously to two sectors of one NodeB using the same frequency • In the uplink, the signals received by the NodeB, the signals from the two sectors can be routed to the same RAKE receiver and then combined to provide an enhanced signal. • In the downlink, it is a little more complicated because the different sectors of the NodeB use different scrambling codes. To overcome this, different fingers of the RAKE receiver apply the appropriate de-spreading or de-scrambling codes to the received signals. Once this has been done, they can be combined.
  • 35. 35 Inter-RAT Handover 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • In many instances it is necessary for the UMTS radio access network to handover to the 2G GSM network. • These handovers are given a variety of names including Inter-RAT handover as they are handing over between different forms of Radio Access Technology, Intersystem Handover, and UMTS / GSM Handover. • These handovers may be required for one of a variety of reasons including: o Limited UMTS coverage o UMTS network busy whereas spare capacity is available on GSM network • The most common form of intersystem or inter-RAT handover is between UMTS and GSM. • There are two different types of inter-RAT handover: o UMTS to GSM handover o Handover from GSM to UMTS
  • 36. 36 3G Networks - Technologies, Services & Benefits 3G Services & Applications 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 37. 37 3G Service 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits  Conversational Services – Speech service: • Real time conversational service require the low time delay from end to end , and the uplink and the downlink service bandwidth is symmetrical . • Adopt AMR ( adaptive multi rate ) technique (WCDMA). – 12.2, 10.2, 7.95, 7.40, 6.70, 5.90, 5.15 and 4.75kbps. – The bit rate of AMR voice can be controlled by the RAN according to the payload of air interface and the quality of voice service . – Video phone (WCDMA) • The requirement of time delay is similar to the voice service • The CS connection :adopt ITU-T Rec.H.324M (AMR-H.263) • The PS connection :adopt IETF SIP or H.323  Streaming Services – e.g. Telemetry (monitoring) , Audio and Video streaming  Interactive Services – e.g. Web browsing , and online games  Background Services – e.g. Email, Fax, SMS, MMS, IM, Presence etc.
  • 38. 38 3G Services QoS Classes 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 39. 39 3G Services 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 40. 40 3G Services 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • For the consumer – Video streaming, TV broadcast, Video Clips (news, music, sports), Video calls, Video sharing – Enhanced gaming, location services… – Enhanced Communication – Email, chat, web surfing – Value Added Services – Information services, games, e-commerce, friend finder – Location-based applications - Navigation, traffic conditions, Airline /rail schedule, location finder, direction finder • For business – High speed teleworking / VPN access – Video conferencing, Remote Presentation – Real-time financial information – Enhanced Communications - E-mail, chat, fax, intranet/ internet access. • RCSe Services to compete OTT players – Presence – Location – Instant Messaging (voice + video) – Conferencing – File Sharing – Media Streaming / Annoucements – Multi-player gaming with voice chat • General Services – Mobile TV – Mobile Broadband – Mobile Cloud Services – SMS, EMS, MMS – VoIP w/o QoS, PoC – IP Centrex Services for Businesses
  • 41. 41 3G Services - IMS Based 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits IMS
  • 42. 42 3G Networks - Technologies, Services & Benefits What is 3GPP? 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 43. 43 What is 3GPP? 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • 3GPP Stands for 3rd Generation Partnership Project* • The Partners are Standards Developing Organizations • Contribution driven …companies participate in 3GPP through their membership of one of these “Organizational Partners” • Currently over 350 Individual Members (Operators, Vendors, Regulators) • 13 Market Representation Partners (giving perspectives on market needs and drivers) *3GPP is not constrained to 3rd Generation. It includes work on both 2nd and 4th generation technologies. (Japan) (Japan) (China) (Korea) (USA) (Europe)
  • 44. 44 What is 3GPP? 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits What does 3GPP Specify ? GSM 1G Analog technology. Deployed in the 1980s. GSM 2G Digital Technology. First digital systems. Deployed in the 1990s. New services such as SMS and low-rate data. Primary technologies include IS-95 CDMA and GSM. 3G ITU’s IMT-2000 required 144 kbps mobile, 384 kbps pedestrian, 2 Mbps indoors Primary technologies include CDMA2000 1X/EVDO, WiMAX, and UMTS-HSPA. 4G ITU’s IMT-Advanced requirements include ability to operate in up to 40 MHz radio channels and with very high spectral efficiency. No technology meets requirements today. IEEE 802.16m and LTE Advanced being designed to meet requirements. 3GPP Specified Radio Interfaces • 2G radio: GSM, GPRS, EDGE • 3G radio: WCDMA, HSPA, LTE • 4G radio: LTE Advanced 3GPP Core Network • 2G/3G: GSM core network • 3G/4G: Evolved Packet Core (EPC) 3GPP Service Layer • GSM services • IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) • Multimedia Telephony (MMTEL) • Support of Messaging and other OMA functionality • Emergency services and public warning • Etc.Text adapted from 3G Americas White Paper, September 2010
  • 45. 45 3GPP Standard Releases 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Release 10 LTE-Advanced meeting the requirementsset by ITU’s IMT-Advanced project. Also includes quad-carrier operation for HSPA+. Release 99: Enhancements to GSM data (EDGE). Majority of deployments today are based on Release 99. Provides support for GSM/EDGE/GPRS/WCDMA radio-access networks. Release 4: Multimedia messaging support. First steps toward using IP transport in the core network. Release 5: HSDPA. First phase of Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). Full ability to use IP-based transport instead of just Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) in the core network. Release 6: HSUPA. Enhanced multimedia support through MultimediaBroadcast/Multicast Services (MBMS). Performance specificationsfor advanced receivers. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) integration option. IMS enhancements. Initial VoIP capability. Release 7: Evolved EDGE. Specifies HSPA+, higher order modulation and MIMO. Performanceenhancements, improved spectral efficiency, increased capacity, and better resistance to interference. Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) enables efficient“always-on” service and enhanced uplink UL VoIP capacity, as well as reductions in call set-up delay for Push-to-Talk Over Cellular (PoC). Radio enhancements to HSPA include 64 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) in the downlink DL and 16 QAM in the uplink. Also includes optimization of MBMS capabilities through the multicast/broadcast, single-frequency network (MBSFN) function. Release 8: HSPA Evolution, simultaneous use of MIMO and 64 QAM. Includes dual-carrier HSPA (DC-HSPA) wherein two WCDMA radio channels can be combined for a doubling of throughput performance. Specifies OFDMA-based 3GPP LTE. Defines EPC. Release 9: HSPA and LTE enhancements including HSPA dual-carrier operation in combinationwith MIMO, EPC enhancements, femtocell support, support for regulatory features such as emergency user-equipmentpositioning and Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMAS), and evolution of IMS architecture.
  • 46. 46 3GPP Evolution Direction & Statistics 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Text adapted from 3G Americas White Paper, September 2010 • Radio Interfaces – Higher Data Throughput – Lower Latency – More Spectrum Flexibility – Improved CAPEX and OPEX • IP Core Network – Support of non-3GPP Accesses – Packet Only Support – Improved Security – Greater Device Diversity • Service Layer – More IMS Applications (MBMS, PSS, mobile TV, IPTV) – Greater session continuity
  • 47. 47 3G Networks - Technologies, Services & Benefits Rel. 4 - UMTS 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 48. 48 Rel. 4 UMTS 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • UMTS is Universal Mobile Telecommunication System. • It is one of the THIRD GENERATION (3G) mobile phone technology • It is standardized by 3GPP in Rel. ‘99 and Rel. 4 • First step towards all-IP vision • It is an evolution of GSM technology • UMTS, the 3G successor to GSM, utilizes the W-CDMA air interface and GSM infrastructures, so it is also called 3GSM • UMTS is an upgrade from GSM via GPRS or EDGE. • Data rates of UMTS are: – 144 kbps for rural – 384 kbps for urban outdoor – 2048 kbps for indoor and low range outdoor Different environments of UMTS
  • 49. 49 Rel. 4 UMTS Network Architecture 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 50. 50 Rel. 4 UMTS 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits UMTS network can be divided into three parts: 1) User Equipment (UE) 2) Radio Network System (RNS) 3) Core Network 4) Billing & VAS 5) Operation & Support System (OSS)
  • 51. 51 UMTS User Equipment 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits User Equipment consist of two components: 1) UMTS Device 2) USIM (Universal Subscriber Identity Module) UMTS Device(UE) o New Name for Mobile o More functionality and applications o UMTS mobile station can operate in one of three modes of operation:  PS/CS mode of operation: The MS is attached to both the PS domain and CS domain, and the MS is capable of simultaneously operating PS services and CS services.  PS mode of operation: The MS is attached to the PS domain only and may only operate services of the PS domain. However, this does not prevent CS-like services to be offered over the PS domain (like VoIP).  CS mode of operation: The MS is attached to the CS domain only and may only operate services of the CS domain.
  • 52. 52 UMTS User Equipment 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits USIM UMTS USIM has same physical characteristics as GSM SIM card. It has several functions: • Support of one User Service Identity Module (USIM) application (optionally more that one) • Support of one or more user profile on the USIM • Update USIM specific information over the air • Security functions • User authentication • Optional inclusion of payment methods • Optional secure downloading of new applications • The USIM also contains a short message storage area that allows messages to stay with the user even when the phone is changed. Similarly "phone book" numbers and call information of the numbers of incoming and outgoing calls are stored.
  • 53. 53 UMTS Radio Network System (RNS) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits RNS interfaces to both the UE and the core network. The overall radio access network is known as the UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network). • Wide band CDMA technology was selected for UTRAN air interface. • UMTS WCDMA is a Direct Sequence CDMA system where user data is multiplied with quasi-random bits derived from WCDMA Spreading codes. • WCDMA has two basic modes of operation: Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD). RNS comprises of two main components: 1) Radio Network Controller (RNC) 2) NodeB Radio Network Controller (RNC) • Controls NodeBs that are connected to it • Radio Resource Management • Mobility Management Functions • Data encryption/decryption • Handover management • Communicates with Core Network & other RNCs • Channel Allocation • Power Control Settings • Macro Diversity • Segmentation / Reassembly • Broadcast Signaling
  • 54. 54 UMTS Radio Network System (RNS) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits NodeB • NodeB is the name of 3G base station • Communicates with UE within the cell • Air interface Transmission / Reception • Modulation / Demodulation • CDMA Physical Channel coding • Micro Diversity • Error Handing • Closed loop power control
  • 55. 55 UMTS Core Network (CN) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits UMTS Core Network is same as Rel. 4 GSM/GPRS & EDGE Core Network. Core Network has two parts: 1) Circuit Switched Core Network (CS Core) o Includes MSC, MGW, HLR, VLR 2) Packet Switched Core Network (PS Core) o Includes SGSN, GGSN, DNS, CG, BG Mobile Switching Center (MSCe) • Provides Signaling & Control functions for Mobile Network • Performs all the switching functions • Manages the necessary radio resources, controls location updating, manages RNCs • Carry out all Inter-BSC & Inter-Network communication Media Gateway (MGW) • In Rel. ‘99 MSCe & MGW were a single unit – MSC • In Rel. 4 Control & Switching functionality of MSC was incorporated in MSCe and bearer functionality & physical interfacing was incorporated in MGW • Media Gateway provides physical connectivity with external nodes like RNC, BSC, IN, SMSC, PSTN, other PLMN and International Gateways • MGWs are controlled by MSC • Converts between different transmission & coding techniques and perform Media streaming functions such as echo cancellation, DTMF, and tone sending.
  • 56. 56 UMTS Core Network (CN) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Visitor Location Register (VLR) • Dynamically stores subscriber information needed to handle incoming/outgoing calls • Assigns mobile subscriber roaming number (MSRN) to roaming number • Stores the location area in which the mobile has been registered • Stores data related to supplementary service parameters Home Location Register (HLR) • Manages the mobile subscriber database • Defines all services, features allowed to all subscribers • Every service definition is done and managed by HLR, whether it is a prepaid or postpaid, what services are allowed, how those services will be implemented etc. • In one sentence Mobile Voice Communication is defined as “HLR defines all the services allowed for subscribers in its database while MSC implements those services using MGW, BSC & BTS after balance checking from SCP and then keep informing SCP of the service status so it can charge subscriber accordingly”
  • 57. 57 UMTS Core Network (CN) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) As the name implies, this entity was first developed when GPRS was introduced, and its use has been carried over into the UMTS network architecture. The SGSN provides a number of functions within the UMTS network architecture. • Mobility management: When a UE attaches to the Packet Switched domain of the UMTS Core Network, the SGSN generates MM information based on the mobile's current location. • Session management: The SGSN manages the data sessions providing the required quality of service and also managing what are termed the PDP (Packet data Protocol) contexts, i.e. the pipes over which the data is sent. • Interaction with other areas of the network: The SGSN is able to manage its elements within the network only by communicating with other areas of the network, e.g. MSC and other circuit switched areas. • Billing: The SGSN is also responsible for billing. It achieves this by monitoring the flow of user data across the GPRS network. CDRs (Call Detail Records) are generated by the SGSN before being transferred to the charging entity (Charging Gateway, CG).
  • 58. 58 UMTS Core Network (CN) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) • Like the SGSN, this entity was also first introduced into the GPRS network. • GGSN is the central element within the UMTS packet switched network. • GGSN handles inter-working between the UMTS packet switched network and external packet switched networks, and can be considered as a very sophisticated router. • In operation, when the GGSN receives data addressed to a specific user, it checks if the user is active and then forwards the data to the SGSN serving the particular UE. Domain Name Server (DNS) A DNS server runs special-purpose networking software, features a public IP address, and contains a database of network names and addresses for other Internet hosts.
  • 59. 59 UMTS Core Network (CN) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Border Gateway (BG) • A sophisticated router with support of Firewall, Border Gateway Protocol and IPSec. • Uses GTP (GPRS Tunnel Protocol) to connect one PLMN with other. • Performs security functions to protect Intra-PLMN backbone from unauthorized users & attacks Charging Gateway (CG) • Provides charging, rating, tariffs for GPRS users • Charging can be done based on QoS or Volume • Separate charging rules for prepaid & postpaid • SGSN & GGSN generate Charging Data Records (CDR) which contains user information and Data used. These CDR are pulled by Charging Gateway to apply rating functions and then passes it on to the Billing System
  • 60. 60 UMTS Billing, VAS & OSS 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Billing • Includes IN (Intelligent Network) & Mediation systems • IN provides prepaid & postpaid billing, rating rules, invoice generation functionalities VAS • Stands for Value Added Services • Includes Voicemail Server, SMSC, RBT Server, Loyalty Server and other product servers OSS • Stands for Operation & Support System • Provides centralized network operations, monitoring, maintenance, configuration, troubleshooting platform • Supports external interfacing to send SMS/Email alerts in case of issues. • Provides Performance Statistics to help optimize the network and do proper capacity planning
  • 61. 61 UMTS Advantages & Disadvantages 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Advantages • Fast Internet • Smooth Multimedia Messaging (MMS) • Enhanced Location based services • Enhanced Communication (Email, IM, File sharing) • Increased Capacity compared to 2G • MExE (Mobile Execution Environment) – like USIM Application Toolkit, VPN, Conference Disadvantage • Poor Video Experience • Drains battery • Expensive that GSM • Still not Broadband
  • 62. 62 3G Networks - Technologies, Services & Benefits Rel. 5 & 6 – HSPA & IMS 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 63. 63 3GPP Release 5 & 6 - HSPA 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Release 5 - HSDPA • IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) • IPv6, IP transport in UTRAN • HSDPA Release 6 - HSUPA • WLAN integration (Wifi Offloading) • Multimedia broadcast and multicast • Improvements in IMS • HSUPA HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) is a combination of two technologies: • HSDPA - High Speed Downlink Packet Access: HSDPA provides improved downlink packet data support, reduced delays, and a peak raw data rate (i.e. over the air) of 14.4 Mbps. • HSUPA - High Speed Uplink Packet Access: HSUPA provides improved uplink packet data support, reduced delays and a peak raw data rate of 5.74 Mbps.
  • 64. 64 HSPA Facts 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 65. 65 HSPA Facts 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 66. 66 HSPA Network Architecture 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits SS7 IP BTS BSC MSC Server VLR HLR/HSS GMSC server BSS SGSN GGSN PSTN CN IM — IP Multimedia sub-system MRF — Media Resource Function CSCF — Call State Control Function MGCF — Media Gateway Control Function (Mc=H248,Mg=SIP) IM-MGW — IP Multimedia-MGW 2G MS (voice only) 2G+ MS (voice & data) Node B RNC RNS 3G UE (voice & data) MGW MGW IMS IP MGCF IM-MGW MRF CSCF IP Network
  • 67. 67 HSPA Key Features 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits While 3G UMTS HSPA offers higher data transfer rates, this is not the only benefit, as the system offers many other improvements as well: • Use of higher order modulation: 16QAM is used in the downlink for maximum data rates of 14.4 Mbps. QPSK is still used in the uplink where data rates of up to 5.8 Mbps are achieved. • Shorter Transmission Time Interval (TTI): The use of a shorter TTI (2 ms) reduces the round trip time and enables improvements in adapting to fast channel variations and provides for reductions in latency. • Use of shared channel transmission: Sharing the resources enables greater levels of efficiency to be achieved and integrates with IP and packet data concepts. • Use of link adaptation: It maximizes channel usage and enables the base station to operate at close to maximum cell power. • Fast Node B scheduling: The use of fast scheduling with adaptive coding and modulation (only downlink) enables the system to respond to the varying radio channel and interference conditions and provides users with most suitable channel conditions. • Node B based Hybrid ARQ: This enables 3G HSPA to provide reduced retransmission round trip times and it adds robustness to the system by allowing soft combining of retransmissions.
  • 68. 68 HSPA Link Adaptation 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • UE informs the Node B regularly of its channel quality by CQI messages (Channel Quality Indicator) • Adaptive modulation and higher order modulation (16/64QAM) with HSDPA 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time [number of TTIs] QPSK1/4 QPSK2/4 QPSK3/4 16QAM2/4 16QAM3/4 InstantaneousEsNo[dB] Channel Quality Information (CQI) transmitted on HS-DPCCH HS-DSCH link adaptation Node B Terminal
  • 69. 69 NodeB HSPA Fast Retransmission 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Packet RLC ACK/NACK Retransmisson Packet Layer 1 ACK/NACK Retransmisson UMTS HSPA RNC UE RNC UE
  • 70. 70 HSDPA Channels 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • DCH (Dedicated Transport Channel) – Carries Signaling for data traffic & carrier voice service traffic • HS-DPCCH (High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel) – It carries Channel Quality Information and Radio Link ACK/NACK • HS-SCCH (High Speed Shared Control Channel) – It carries UE identity, HARQ and Transmission Format information • HS-DSCH (High Speed Downlink Shared Channel) – It carries downlink traffic Hybrid automatic repeat request is a combination of high-rate forward error-correcting coding and ARQ error-control. In standard ARQ, redundant bits are added to data to be transmitted using an error-detecting code such as a cyclic redundancy check Node B Terminal
  • 71. 71 HSUPA Channels 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • E-DCH (Enhanced Dedicated Channel) – Carries user data in uplink direction. Further divided into two channels. • EDPDCH (Enhanced Dedicated Physical Data Channel) – Carries User data • EDPCCH (Enhanced Dedicated Physical Control Channel) – Carries user control data • E-AGCH (Enhanced Absolute Grant Channel) – Provide absolute grant of power resources for large data session. • E-RGCH (Enhanced Relative Grant Channel) – Provide grant for relatively small resources for small changes in ongoing data session • E-HICH (Enhanced HARQ Indicator Channel) – Provides acknowledgement that UE data is received at NodeB NodeB UE E-RGCH E-AGCH E-HICH DPCCH E-DPCCH E-DPDCH
  • 72. 72 HSPA Speeds 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits 5 codes QPSK # of codes Modulation 5 codes 16-QAM 10 codes 16-QAM 15 codes 16-QAM 1.8 Mbps Max data rate 3.6 Mbps 7.2 Mbps 14.4 Mbps 2 x SF4 2 ms 10 ms # of codes TTI 2 x SF2 10 ms 2 x SF2 2 ms 2 x SF2 + 2 x SF4 2 ms 1.46 Mbps Max data rate 2.0 Mbps 2.9 Mbps 5.76 Mbps Downlink  Theoretical up to 14.4 Mbps  Practical 1.8 – 3.6 Mbps Uplink  Theoretical up to 5.76 Mbps  Practical up to 1.46 Mbps
  • 73. 73 3G Networks - Technologies, Services & Benefits Rel. 7 – HSPA+ 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 74. 74 3GPP Release 7 – HSPA+ 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits  Both HSPA and HSPA+ are defined in 3GPP  HSPA+ is backward compatible with HSPA  Just need Software upgrade from HSPA, one new card in RNC, one card and new MIMO antenna in NodeB
  • 75. 75 HSPA+ Key Features 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Achieve performance close to LTE in 5MHz of spectrum. • Provide smooth internetworking between HSPA and LTE, thereby facilitating the operation of both technologies. • Allow operation in a packet-only mode for both voice and data. • Facilitate migration from current HSPA infrastructure to HSPA+ infrastructure. • Higher-order modulation can be supported in both uplink (16QAM) and downlink (64QAM). • 16QAM modulation enables peak data rates of 12 Mbit/s in the uplink, while 64QAM modulation enables peak data rates of 21 Mbit/s in the downlink. • It introduces antenna array technologies such as beam-forming and Multiple- input multiple-output communications (MIMO).
  • 76. 76 3G Device Categories 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Category Modulation Maximum Data rate 1 16QAM 1.2 2 16QAM 1.2 3 16QAM 1.8 4 16QAM 1.8 5 16QAM 3.6 6 16QAM 3.6 Category Modulation Maximum Data rate 7 16QAM 7.2 8 16QAM 7.2 9 16QAM 10.2 10 16QAM 14.4 14 64QAM 21.1 16 16QAM + MIMO 2x2 28 Category Modulation Maximum Data rate 20 64QAM + MIMO 2x2 42.2 21 16QAM + Dual Cell 23.4 22 16QAM + Dual Cell 28 24 64QAM + Dual Cell 42.2 26 16QAM + Dual Cell + MIMO 2x2 55.9 28 16QAM + Dual Cell + MIMO 2x2 84.4
  • 77. 77 Dual Cell HSDPA (DC-HSDPA) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Primary Carrier Frequency 1 Second Carrier Frequency 2 Dual cells covers the same geographical area Downlink peak rate up to 42Mbps Use 2 adjacent carriers to transmit simultaneously data to the same user
  • 78. 78 Dual Cell HSDPA (DC-HSDPA) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits + Downlink Peak Data Rate 14.4 21 28 42 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 RAN10.0 RAN11.0 RAN11.0 RAN12.0 DownlinkPeakDataRateMbps 64QAM 16QAM + DC 64QAM + DC + DIGICEL OPTIONS
  • 79. 79 Dual Cell HSDPA (DC-HSDPA) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Dual-cell HSDPA (DC-HSDPA) enables users to receive HSDPA data from two inter-frequency DL cells under the same coverage at the same time. • DC-HSDPA has best coverage and better throughput in cell edges compared to all other features of HSPA+ due to double frequency resource utilization. • Primary frequency (Anchor) F1 is used for Uplink and R’99 services (Voice over CS) • Secondary frequency F2 is used for Downlink (High Speed Data Services) • Compared with the traditional HSPA technology, DC-HSDPA brings the following gains: o Reduce the HTTP service delay. As the user peak rate is increased, the HTTP service response delay can be greatly reduced, and user service experience can be improved. o Improving the user experience of cell edge users and enhancing the DL coverage. o Fully utilizing spectrum resources of telecom operators to improve the capacity.
  • 80. 80 MIMO Introduction to HSPA+ 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Multiple Input Multiple Out – Use of multiple antenna • Very few handsets support MIMO (mainly for Dongles or Modem/Routers) 64 QAM • Only users at the center of a cell can enjoy the increase of peak data rate MIMO • All users in a cell can enjoy the increase in the peak data rate DC-HSDPA • DC-HSDPA has best coverage and better throughput in cell edges compared to all other features of HSPA+ due to double frequency resource utilization. Downlink MIMO Introduction
  • 81. 81 Downlink DC-HSDPA + 64QAM + MIMO 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 82. 82 HSPA/HSPA+ One Tunnel Architecture 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 83. 83 3G Networks - Technologies, Services & Benefits IP Multimedia System (IMS) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 84. 84 What is IMS? 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • IMS stands for IP Multimedia System • 3GPP standard – started in Release 5 along with HSDPA • IMS is an evolved Core Network Architecture to enable operators to provide IP Services • IMS provides natural convergence of various access networks 2G/3G/4G/Wifi/WiMAX/Cable/Fixed Line – Access Independence • Terminal & User Mobility • IMS (IP Multimedia System) is the new Core Network that provides a mobile service provider leverage over others by enabling it to deliver rich suit of services including both fixed line & mobile services, VoIP, IPTV etc. • IMS also enables to use Voice over LTE for LTE networks
  • 85. 85 Why IMS? 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 86. 86 IMS – the way forward ….. 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • IMS, IP Multimedia Subsystem, is a main future architecture for operators offering end-user services in the packet domain • IMS is a generic architecture for offering multimedia services (not just VoIP) • IMS is defined in 3GPP/3GPP2 standards. Embraced in ETSI TISPAN • IMS is delivering services over multiple access networks • IMS is a service Enabler !!!!
  • 87. 87 IMS – End User Perspective 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Voice Chat Instant Messaging Video Telephony Pre-IMS Communication 1 > Decide on communication mode/media 2 > Create content 3 > Send/call the chosen person 4 > Disconnect and reconnect if changing media IMS Communication 1 > See who is available beforehand (presence) 2 > See which mode/media to use 3 > Contact and create content 4 > Change media in real time Voice Chat Instant Messaging Video Telephony
  • 88. 88 IMS – Operator Perspective 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 89. 89 Rich IMS Services – Increase ARPU 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 90. 90 IMS Drivers 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Societal and Business trends • Internet is becoming a major enabler of communications • Consumers are embracing computing, mobile and digital technology in their everyday life • Evolution of Business models require increased levels of personal mobility Convergence • Converged devices (Mobile, WLAN, Internet etc.)  Connectivity • Converged services  Ease of use • Converged networks  Reliability, Security, Reduced OPEX/CAPEX • Converged business models  Increased margins, Avoidance of twin pitfalls risk Access Technology Enhancements • HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) – evolved WCDMA • OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) – 3GPP LTE, WiMAX, MBWA, ADSL/VDSL, DVB-T/H, IPTV etc. • MIMO – Wifi, WiMAX, LTE
  • 91. 91 IMS Evolution for Applications 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Image SMS MMS Presence & IM Active phonebook Push-To-Talk Text Voice Voice Sharing Video Person-to-Person dominates traffic growth Movies Photos Internet Text/Pictures SMS/MMS HTTP Streaming Download Video Music Ring tone Person-to-Content known usability patterns Gaming
  • 92. 92 Service Convergence in Quadruple Play 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Fixed Mobile Convergence = Converged Service Architecture Industry consolidation and alliances = Convergence at Service Provider level. End User experience = Access to subscribed services from any device in the bundle Common service and subscriber management Common provisioning, mgmt and billing Setup of the appropriate QoS and resources Service continuity
  • 93. 93 IMS Architecture 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 94. 94 Why all this excitement ? 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Imagine starting a voice call on you home phone and transferring it seamlessly to your mobile as you drive to work. • Imagine sending a multimedia message from your car that later appears on your TV screen. • Imagine watching a movie on that same TV, pausing it in mid-show and then watching it on a wireless PDA as you relax in the garden. • Imagine having a cell phone conversation with two or three friends and simultaneously sharing a video of the football match you are attending. • Imagine that all of the above can be done with a single account, on a single log-in with multiple devices over any number of access networks • This is just one example (out of many) of seamless multimedia service that IMS will allow users to access “anywhere” at “anytime”
  • 95. 95 IMS – An everyday Scenario 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Daniel Jacqueline In a taxi from the airport... Walking to the office... Mobile phone call Mobile phone call Mobile phone Mobile phoneVincente Gerry
  • 96. 96 IMS – An everyday Scenario 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Daniel Jacqueline In a taxi from the airport... Walking to the office... Activates Video mode Views Images on his mobile Mobile phone Mobile phoneVincente Gerry
  • 97. 97 IMS – An everyday Scenario 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Vincente Daniel Gerry Jacqueline In a taxi from the airport... Walking to the office... Mobile phone Mobile phone Buddy list > select project work group Initiate PTT session In the office... In the office...Office PC Join PTT session Join PTT session Join PTT session Fixed line phone
  • 98. 98 IMS – An everyday Scenario 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Daniel Jacqueline At the hotel... Walking to the office... Laptop Computer Mobile phone Buddy list > personal list Invite others to Videoconference In the office... In the office...Office PC Fixed line phone Join Videoconference Join VideoconferenceJoin Videoconference Vincente Gerry
  • 99. 99 IMS – An everyday Scenario 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Daniel Jacqueline At the hotel... Walking to the office... Laptop Computer Mobile phone Participates in Videoconference In the office... In the office...Office PC Fixed line phone Participates in Videoconference Participates in VideoconferenceOpens presentation and shares it with his colleagues Vincente Gerry
  • 100. 100 IMS – An everyday Scenario 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Vincente Daniel Gerry Jacqueline At the hotel... Arrived in the office... Laptop Computer Office PC In the office... In the office...Office PC Fixed line phone Switches from Mobile to PC Participates in Videoconference Participates in VideoconferenceParticipates in Videoconference
  • 101. 101 3G Networks - Technologies, Services & Benefits RCS (Rich Communication Serices) 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 102. 102 Rapid Popularity of Smartphones 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Smartphone vs. Feature Phone
  • 103. 103 OTT Fragmented Market 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 104. 104 OTT Services Are Changing Consumer Habits 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Apple iMessage • Sends short messages (SMs), videos, images, and other files. • iMessage/FaceTime embedded in mobile phones • iOS devices only Whatsapp • IM, video share, audio share, file share, image share, location share, group chat • Android, iPhone, Blackberry, Symbian, Windows Phone • 400 million users Viber • IM, audio chat, video chat • Stickers, location share, file share • Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Nokia, Bada, PC • 250 million users Skype • IM, video share, audio share, file share, image share, group chat/calls • PC, Linux, iOS, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, WinPhone • 360 million users Line • IM, Audio/Video message, Audio/Video call, group chat, games, timelines • iPhone, Android, PC, MAC • 300 million users WeChat • IM, audio/video calls, group chat, look around, facebook connect • 600 million users BBM • IM, video conversation • Android, iPhone, Blackberry • 40 million users Facebook Messenger • IM, facebook, audio call • Android, iPhone, PC, Linux, MAC • 240 million users Gtalk/Hangouts • IM, file share, audio call, video call, conferencing, location share • Android, iPhone, PC, Linux, MAC, Blackberry, Nokia • 325 million users Others • ChatON – 100 million users • Kik – 90 million users • Kakao Talk – 130 million • ooVoo – 75 million users • Tango – 150 million users
  • 105. 105 Traditional Service Revenue are affected 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Traditional value chain Content Device New value chain Network provider Value Network provider Content Cloud / Apps Device In the current intense competition, operators are losing control over the value chain.
  • 106. 106 OTT Threat Assessment 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 107. 107 Relationship between Operators & OTT Providers 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Cooperation Attack + + + RCS  Blocking OTT services provided by other vendors and improving the PS tariff are double-edged swords, which will lead to loss of subscribers (KPN example)  Technologiesemerging in an endless stream will continueto break all kinds of blockades.  Led by G5, European operatorsunite to promote rapid deployment of RCS services.  Operators competeagainst OTT for subscribers by deploying services the same as OTT services in a customized terminal.  The subscriberloyalty may be maintained in a short term.  In a long term, operatorswill gradually lose basic communication services and be completely reduced to pipeline operators. KPN summarizesthe cause of revenue decline as that more and more consumers use instant messaging and VoIP applications, leading to a reduction in making calls and sending SMs. In response to this trend, KPN decides to improve the PS tariff. Restriction Many Operators like Sprint, Verizon, H3G, VimpleCom cooperate with OTT in installing VoIP software such as Skype, Gtalk and Whatsapp in a customized terminal. VDF view on RCS: The RCS is not a service or framework. It is an overall communicationstrategy for the VDF and an important strategic measure for ensuring that the VDF can obtain more than 80% revenues in the field of basic communications. +
  • 108. 108 RCS Initiative 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits The RCS Initiative is the joint effort of leading industry players to speed up and facilitate the adoption of applications and services that provide an interoperable, convergent, rich communication experience. The RCS Initiative includes network operators, network and device vendors. — RCS1.0 Func Desc  The RCS initiative was established in May 2007 and belongs to the GSM association (GSMA). It includes operators, network device vendors, and mobile phone vendors, and independent RCS AS and RCS client vendors.  The RCS initiative aims to promote RCS interworking, instead of formulating RCS specifications. The RCS service specification architecture part reuses the OMA and GSMA specifications, and the technical details are defined by using a large number of IETF specifications.
  • 109. 109 RCS Release Evolution 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Version Feature RCS Release 1.0 The RCS Release 1 effort focuses on a core service set comprising of enhanced address book, enhanced messaging and enriched call. • Enhanced Address Book, (EAB) • Content Sharing • File Transfer • Enhanced Messaging Release 2.0 The main purpose of the RCS Release 2 was to provide the user with access to RCS service features from a wider range of devices, making it possible to use RCS from a PC, for instance via broadband wire-line access. • Broadband Access to RCS features • Multi-device environment • Network Address Book • Provisioning and configuration of RCS devices/clients Release 3.0 The RCS Release 3 effort focuses on consolidating the Release 2 features and adds some enhancements such as the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Primary Device feature, which allows customers to use the Broadband Access (BA) as the primary device in the case where there are not mobile devices. • Broadband Access Enhancement • Social Presence Information Enhancements • Content Sharing Enhancement • Messaging Enhancement • NVAS Network Value Added Service (NVAS)
  • 110. 110 RCS Release Evolution 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Version Feature RCS Release 4.0 The RCS Release 4 (RCS R4) main focus is to support Long Term Evolution (LTE) and enhance the messaging services. • Video share with our without a call • Larger text message size, Multiple recipients of text messages, Backwards compatibility with SMS • Enhanced MMS capabilities • Multi device handling and network message storage • Shared image manipulation, Video share with pause and resume • VIP contacts • PIM synchronization Release 5.0 RCS 5.0 is completely backward compatible with RCS-e V1.2 specifications and also includes features from RCS 4 and exciting new features such as IP video call, IP voice call and Geo-location exchange. Global interoperability is a key aspect of these specifications, and RCS5.0 supports both OMA CPM and OMA SIMPLE IM. RCS 5.0 includes following features listed below. • Standalone Messaging • 1-2-1 Chat • Group Chat • File Transfer • Content Sharing • Social Presence Information • IP Voice call (IR.92 and IR.58) • IP Video call (IR.94) • Geolocation Exchange • Capability Exchange based on Presence or SIP OPTIONS
  • 111. 111 RCS Market Opportunity 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 112. 112 RCS - joyn 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 113. 113 RCS joyn – OEM Commitement 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 114. 114 Benefits of joyn 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 115. 115 Interworking – RCS Future 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Market opportunities for interworking with services similar to RCS services Within one year, the IM traffic increases by 30 times. Within one year, the number of active subscribers increases by 6 times.  The RCS, as a basic communication service, has the same interworking capability with the voice and SMS services.  The RCS introduces new interworking requirements, including signaling interworking over SIP, IM interworking over MSRP, video sharing interworking over RTP, and Presence information interworking over XCAP. RCS user RCS user 3GPP SIP 3GPP SIP Country A / Operator A Country B / Operator B IM, Presence, Video Sharing, File Transfer IM, Presence, Video Sharing, File Transfer IPXIMS Core IMS CorePS Core PS Core CS Core CS Core RCS AS RCS AS
  • 116. 116 RCS Services 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits More RCS Capability discovery RCS-e IM (1-1 & 1-N) File transfer Image / Video share Offline store and forward Presence NAB VoLTE integration * QoS Voice / Video over PS Voice / Video over WiFi Firewall Traversal Location share Voice chat IM interworking with OTT * Integrate SNS * IM interworking with SMS Automatic friend findingPush
  • 117. 117 RCS Services 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 118. 118 RCS Services 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Video call IM File transfer Enhanced Address Book
  • 119. 119 RCS Services 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Location shareVoice chatSharing SMS
  • 120. 120 Operator’s Call to Action 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 121. 121 RCS Network Architecture 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 122. 122 Hosted RCS Solutions 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Many vendors offer HOSTED RCS SOLUTION • Hosted RCS Solution means that RCS platform will be hosted in Vendor datacenter • Hosted Solution offers flexible investment option for operators. • Pay as you grow model • In future, if operator decide to host the platform in their own datacenter then service can be migrated seamlessly
  • 123. 123 3G Networks - Technologies, Services & Benefits MBMS & IPTV 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 124. 124 MBMS 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service • Technology for Video delivery over Cellular Networks. • MBMS along with IMS allow IPTV, Mobile TV services on HSPA networks. • Natural enabler for Triple Play services opportunities for Mobile Operators.
  • 125. 125 MBMS 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 126. 126 IPTV 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Internet Protocol Televison: The TV programs transferred through IP network and in IP data packages Alternative and Open Audio and Video News and Games TVIP • Generation 1 - “Cable Look Alike” - 50 to 1000 Channels - 20 - 50 Video on Demand - Three to 5 Tier Service Plans • Generation 2 - “More Content” - 10k+ Channels (International Content+) - Thousands of Video on Demand - Personal TV Guides and Channels • Generation 3 - “Interactive TV” - Interactive Advertising - Television Commerce - T-Commerce
  • 127. 127 Why IPTV ? 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Different Operators has the different motives to develop IPTV. Some of them include: – Promoting the broadband network developing, and increase broadband subscriber’s number – Improving the existent broadband network value, increase ARPU – Transforming existing legacy TV systems into modernize Revenue Generating paltform – Following the newest trend of technique & service, attract consumers and increase revenue – Transforming the role from the Basic Network Carrier to that of a Comprehensive Service Provider
  • 128. 128 IPTV provide Opportunities to Operators 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits All Services Model - Convergent Network & Convergent Service Revenue & Transform To increase the revenue and improve competition ability Contents & Application To build the value chain and attract the consumer Legacy IPTV Solution / IMS Based IPTV Based on the networks (Fixed & Mobile) Build Value chain Fixed phone sets PCs/Hand PCs Household application TV / Consoles Smartphones & Tablets
  • 129. 129 Why IPTV ? 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Extended TV VoD, TSTV, nPVR, TVOD, NVOD, ... Enrich Video Service Convergent TV TV Sharing, Video Call, Caller ID, IM, … Interactive Ability Applications Standardization TV Games on Demand TV Shopping Media & AD Services Service Convergence & Experience Convergence Walled Garden
  • 130. 130 Entertainment Lifestyles are Realized 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits ICE lifestyle is cool! ICE : Information + Communication + Entertainment Video IP Data Entertainment Mobile HomeLifestyle Online Guessing Video Comm TV Photo TV Shopping Life Magazine Multi-Screen Experience Online Education Interactive Games Interactive Ad Service Shape Based on Convergence
  • 131. 131 Why it is Revolutionary? 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits o True interactive television, using EPG. • Program schedule, Information • Customized favorites • Customized home screen • Video Trailers • EBIF, Tru2way (formerly OCAP) o See anything you want to see, any time, also possible on a mobile device. (content delivered through 3gp/MP4 conversion) o Reduced infrastructure costs, works with existing connection. o Infinite number of channels. o Even works with wireless connections. o 100% digital transmission
  • 132. 132 Why it is Revolutionary? 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits o Up to 1080p format, High definition DVD quality. o Embedded 7.1 channel DTS AC3 audio, multiple audio languages, multiple language subtitles. o Live TV Pause, resume and record is possible. o Video on Demand, Radio on Demand, Movies on Demand. (Content stored on servers) o On demand advertising o Interactive applications – • Satellite maps • Online shopping, ticket booking etc.
  • 133. 133 IPTV Transmission 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • Live Broadcasts: Live TV content is delivered to the user. Pause and resume will be available for a fixed window time decided by the provider. The content is sent to multiple users at a time. • On-demand videos: Arranged like a playlist. Episodes or clips are arranged by title or channel or in categories like news, sports or music videos. You choose exactly what you want to watch, when you want. • Media delivery – IP, UDP, RTP, TCP, etc. • Control/Signaling – RTSP, RTCP, IGMP(v2,v3), SDP • Codecs for video delivery – MPEG2, MPEG4/H.264, MPEG2-TS, FLV, AVI, RM, WMV, ASF, MOV • Network Speed – – Can be a minimum of 1 Mbps to maximum of 40 Mbps
  • 134. 134 IPTV Economics 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Revenue Sources • Subscription • Pay Per View • Advertising - (up to 20x higher revenue due to ad targeting) • T-Commerce - (direct order transaction via TV - over $100 per month transaction revenue) Costs  Content  35% to 50% for traditional  TV programs  Operations  System Equipment and software licensing  Data Transmission (Delivery Network)
  • 135. 135 Converged IPTV – Infinite Choices 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 136. 136 Converged IPTV Infrastructure 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 137. 137 3G Networks - Technologies, Services & Benefits 3G Offloading via WLAN 4G Wifi & Hotspot 2.0 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 138. 138 What is WLAN/WiFi? 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits • WLAN stands for Wireless Local Area Network • WiFi stands for Wireless Fidelity • WiFi is the term used for Service which is based on WLAN standards. • WLAN standards include 802.11 a/b/g/n/h/i/j/k/l/m/ac/ad/ah/au etc. • The most relevant of these additions are: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n and 802.11ac
  • 139. 139 WLAN Evolution 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 140. 140 The Landscape is Changing 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Consumer demand Smart Phones Consumer Demand more applications Consumer demand Convenient application Customer demand more data MBB traffic is growing quickly FY 10/11eFY 08/09 FY 09/10 252423 140 82 41 +70% +100% Data Voice Europe operator (PB) Source: Huawei MI report 2010 2014 MBB user 0.4 Billion 4 Billion Average traffic/user/month 100 MB 5GB Speed to access 1 Mbps 100 Mbps Customer demands in various aspects is changing voice centric traffic to data centric traffic
  • 141. 141 MBB Challenge & Opportunity 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Curve A: ARPU Curve C: Cost Curve B: Bandwidth Source: Huawei Analysis Worse Margin Overall light network traffic volume with limited congestion High cost of building & operating pipeline Continuous Increase in traffic volume with stagnant profitability prospectA Good Margin Sustainable Margin MBB GrowthMBB Initiation C B Ubiquitous MBB Era 2009 2010 2011 2012 (yan) (1)Voice ARPU (2)Packet ARPU Aggregate ARPU((1)+(2)) Halt decline of aggregate ARPU Aggregate ARPU rebound Packet ARPU overtake voice APPU ¥2,540 ¥2,530 Source: Docomo fiscal MBB needs new business models.
  • 142. 142 Where is Real Data Traffic 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Hotspot Traffic 20% Hot sites carry 80% Traffic Continuous Macro cell capacity Real Demand SuburbanUrban Rural o Most MBB traffic come from indoor o Indoor coverage by outdoor site is bad because of high penetration loss o Site acquisition for indoor coverage is difficult o Femto is about 5 times more expensive than AP, too costly Indoor coverage by cellular network is not a cost-effective way
  • 143. 143 WiFi meets High Bandwidth Requirement 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits 802.11ac 802.11ad Future 802.11 1997 802.11a/b 1999 802.11g 2003 802.11n 2*2 MIMO 2009 2Mbps 54/11Mbps 54Mbps 300Mbps 1Gbps Bandwidth comparison Cost/MB comparison 802.11n 3*3,4*4 MIMO 2012 450/600Mbps WiFi has an advantage over current cellular technology in bandwidth & cost WiFi is complement ray for cellular network to offload the data traffic
  • 144. 144 … and Mobile Operators are Looking at WiFi as the Solution! 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits “WiFi is a very important technology for us and it will be considered as a factor in our network plans in the future.“ Mark Siegel, AT&T Feb 12, 2010 "We use a lot of WiFi, especially in Germany, to offload data traffic as early as we can...” Olivier Baujar, CTO Deutsche Telekom Feb 24, 2010 "The price points of femtocell technology still make it a bit beyond consumer pricing. The ability to use Wi-Fi is much more industrial grade." Vivek Badrinath, CTO Orange Feb 24, 2010 "WiFi offloading is a huge topic. It could significantly reduce the load on the mobile network, [reduction of around 30%]" Dr Hans Ametsreiter, CEO Mobilkom Austria Feb 17, 2010 WLAN
  • 145. 145 WLAN Improve User Experience 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Access WiFi with (U)SIM, no need for username/password Encrypt in the air and using 802.1x authentication CellularWLAN Access PS services through WiFi network, and seamless handover for cellular/WiFi. Much higher speed than 3G, 802.11 achieves 600Mbps Convenience Security ConsistencyHigh speed OFF ON
  • 146. 146 Hotspot 1.0 vs. Hotspot 2.0 Hotspot 2.0 Turn it on and Get Access Hotspot 1.0 Turn it on and Look for SSID • Future of Wireless Connectivity • WiFi integrated with Cellular for data offloading • User turn on device WiFi and seamlessly get access • No manual end-user interaction • Digicel Tonga current setup • Hotspot system is not integrated to Cellular • User have to look for appropriate SSID • User can get credential by using SMS or buying vouchers ? Operator XYZ 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 147. 147 Hotspot 2.0 Subscriber with Wi-Fi Data Plan Seamlessly Connects to Hotspot when Mobile Network Coverage is not good or Mobile Network is congested Subscriber Without Data Plan Gets Prompt to buy data plan or Hotspot access 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 148. 148 WLAN & Cellular Interworking Architectures 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Open Coupling WLAN & Cellular Loose Coupling WLAN & Cellular SIM Based Authentication EAP-SIM for seamless connectivity
  • 149. 149 WLAN & Cellular Interworking Architectures 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits Tight Coupling WLAN & Cellular • Seamless Connectivity • Vertical Handover between 2G/3G & WLAN • Same PS Services over Cellular & WLAN Very Tight Coupling WLAN & Cellular • All features of Tight Coupling • Mobility • Both CS & PS Services over WLAN
  • 150. 150 Seamless Connectivity 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits 3G/WiFi Converged Network Architecture • Smartphones/Tablets can seamless handover from 3G to WiFi automatically, and return to 3G network when WiFi signal is disappear. • Use of EAP-SIM authentication and WPA2-AES encryption.
  • 151. 151 Unified Service Solution 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits HLR/HSS AP WiFi AC 3GPP AAA Server UE  Solution feature  Subscribers can use operator’s PS services through WiFi network, like MMS, WAP, etc.  Advantage  Reuse GGSN, save cost, unified core network  Resue UE which support EAP-SIM/AKA, do not need IPSec feature.  New equipment  TGW, 3GPPP AAA  Upgrade  AC should support setup GRE by domain, send UE MAC in radius message.  GGSN support Gn’ which differentiate WiFi and cellular billing (optional) PS service or Internet TGW GGSN GRE GTP(Gn’) Radius Wm
  • 152. 152 Hotspot 2.0 (WLAN & Cellular Integration) SGSN GGSNBSC/RNC HLR3GPP AAAAC PS Service/ Internet PCRF S2a (GTP/PMIP) NMS WiFi AP WiFi AP WiFi AP WiFi AP WiFi Flow 2G/3G Flow Physical Link WiFi /2G/3G Flow Switch Base Station Internet Pico + WiFi AG  Solution feature  Balance two network traffic, AC/BSC/RNC trigger UE whether handover base on policy (BS and AP load, etc )  Advantage  Full use WiFi & cellular resource, higher user experience  Upgrade AC support EAP-SIM/AKA, support data flow local retransmit or route to gateway TGW support S2a (GTP/PMIP) GGSN support WiFi access PCRF support traffic offload policy BSC/RNC support WiFi hotspot discovery and traffic offload controll  UE APP software and EAP-SIM/AKA authentication TGW UE 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits
  • 153. 153 Thank you! 3G Networks I Technologies, Services & Benefits