Export bibliographies and share references Use EndNote’s CWYW tools
Citation: Broadly, a citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. [Newell84]) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Bibliographic citation: A bibliographic citation is a reference to a book, article, web page, or other published item. Citations should supply sufficient detail to identify the item uniquely. Different citation systems and styles are used in scientific citation, legal citation, the arts, The Social Sciences and the humanities.
Note systems: Note systems involve the use of sequential numbers in the text which refer to either footnotes or endnotes which gives the source detail. The notes system may or may not require a full bibliography, depending on whether the writer has used a full note form or a shortened note form. For example, an excerpt from the text of a paper using a notes system without a full bibliography could look like this: &quot;The five stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.&quot;1 The note, located either at the foot of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote) would look like this: 1. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying (New York: Macmillan, 1969) 45–60. In a paper which contains a full bibliography, the shortened note could look like this: 1. Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying 45–60. and the bibliography entry, which would be required with a shortened note, would look like this: Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. On Death and Dying. New York: Macmillan, 1969. In the humanities, many authors use footnotes or endnotes to supply anecdotal information. In this way, what looks like a citation is actually supplementary material, or suggestions for further reading. Parenthetical referencing: Parenthetical referencing is where full or partial, in-text citations are enclosed within parentheses and embedded in the paragraph, as opposed to the footnote style. Depending on the choice of style, fully cited parenthetical references may require no end section. Alternately a list of the citations with complete bibliographical references may be included in an end section sorted alphabetically by author&apos;s last name. This section may be known as: References Bibliography Works cited Works consulted
Footnotes are notes at the foot of the page while endnotes are collected under a separate heading at the end of a chapter in a book or a document. Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made To avoid repetition of the same reference in the Note, we use some old fashioned abbreviations, Like ibid, op.cit. However, it is NOT recommended to use of these old-fashioned abbreviations: ibid. (from the Latin ibidem meaning &quot;in the same place&quot;) and op. cit. (from the Latin opere citato meaning &quot;in the work cited.&quot;) while Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitled Endnotes or Notes. Unlike footnotes, endnotes have the advantage of not affecting the image of the main text, but may cause inconvenience to readers who have to move back and forth between the main text and the endnotes. Do not use both formats in a same document; you either use footnotes or endnotes
WHAT IS A BIBLIOGRAPHY? A bibliography is an alphabetical list of all materials consulted in the preparation of your assignment. WHAT IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY? An annotated bibliography is an alphabetical list of books or articles for which you have added explanatory or critical notes. The annotation is usually written in a paragraph, about 150 words, in which you briefly describe the book or article cited, then add an evaluation and a critical comment of your own. An annotated bibliography differs from an abstract which is simply a summary of a piece of writing of about 150-250 words without critical evaluation. Difference B/W Work Cited and References: Works Cited is sometimes referred to as References. The terms mean the same thing. Each is an alphabetical list of works cited, or works to which you have made reference. Works Cited is generally used when citing sources using MLA (Modern Language Association) style, while the title References is used when citing sources using APA (American Psychological Association) style. Difference b/w Work Cited/References and Bibliography Works Cited and Bibliography are not the same. In Works Cited you only list items you have actually cited. In a Bibliography you list all of the material you have consulted in preparing your essay whether or not you have actually cited the work.
When you use a citation you are giving credit to an author whose work you used in some way. For example, let&apos;s say you are researching Shakespeare. You use a book called Shakespeare&apos;s Life by an author named Edward Cullen. By making a citation and citing Cullen in the paper, you are giving him credit and letting the reader know that the idea isn&apos;t yours. To give credit to originator of text or idea. To provide source information, so reader can follow-up, if desired. Provide evidence for your arguments and add credibility to your work by demonstrating that you have sought out and considered a variety of resources citing sources is standard practice and shows that you are responding to this person, agreeing with that person, and adding something of your own
Although there are many different “styles” for citation, three of the most common are:
APA is often used for the disciplines in which the currency of a study is most important Social Sciences (sociology, psychology, anthropology, criminal justice) Business MLA is often used in fields where the currency of a text is not as important as identifying the page number of the information Humanities & Fine Arts English Education Chicago is often preferred in History and many other fields.
Harvard Referencing System CBE - Council of Biology Editors AIP-American Institute of Physics AMA- American Medical Association ACS- American Chemical Society
Whatever the style you use, the basic bibliographic information remains the same. However, there may be difference in the order of presenting this information in different styles.
Information required for citing the Book: Author of the Book Title of the Book Place of Publication Name of Publisher Year of Publication In APA: Author name is inverted Year (date of publication) is mentioned after the author and enclosed in paranthesis Title of the Source is Italic In MLA: Author is inverted Year (date of publication) is mentioned in the last without paranthesis Title is underlined In Chicago/ Turabian: Title is italic And the year of publication at the end
Information required for citing the article of a journal: Author of the article Title of the article Title of the journal And Year of Publication Volume Number Issue Number Page Numbers (Page Range: Start Page and End page numbers in APA and MLA)
Reference management software, citation management software or personal bibliographic management software is software for scholars and authors to use for recording and utilising bibliographic citations (references). Once a citation has been recorded, it can be used time and again in generating bibliographies, such as lists of references in scholarly books, articles and essays. The development of reference management packages has been driven by the rapid expansion of scientific literature. These software packages normally consist of a database in which full bibliographic references can be entered, plus a system for generating selective lists of articles in the different formats required by publishers and scholarly journals.
Most of the open source alternatives are citation generators, which means they don’t store the citations for you, but they do automatically format them in a particular citation style after you’ve entered all the relevant information (author, title, etc.). A few others are markup languages, and one, Zotero, allows you to cite and store sources within your web browser.
EndNote is an online search tool—it provides a simple way to search online bibliographic databases and retrieve the references directly into EndNote. (EndNote can also import data files saved from a variety of online services, CD-ROMs, and library databases.) EndNote is a reference and image database—it specializes in storing, managing, and searching for bibliographic references in your private reference library. You can organize images-including charts, tables, figures, and equations-and assign each image its own caption and keywords. EndNote is a bibliography and manuscript maker—it formats citations, figures, and tables in Microsoft® Word with the Cite While You Write™ feature. Watch the reference, figure, and table lists grow as you insert citations in your manuscript. Microsoft Word templates guide you through the exacting manuscript requirements of publishers.
The Reference List pane displays individual references on a single line, showing first a paper clip icon for references that have a file attached to the File Attachments field, and then the first author’s last name, the year, the title, the journal name or secondary title, the reference type, the URL, and finally the Last Updated date. See The Reference List Pane for information about how to navigate in the reference list, how to change the display fields, and how to sort the list. You can Change Display fields in the Ref List Pane: Edit menu&gt; Preferences&gt; Display Fields&gt; The Groups pane allows you to display subsets of references from your library. See The Groups Pane for information about Automatic Groups( Both Permanent & Temporary groups) , Custom groups, Smart Groups, and Online Search favorites. To control whether Online Search groups are displayed, see The Display Modes. Permanent Groups All References: This displays all of the references in the current library The Tab pane includes several tabs to easily access common library tasks. See The Tab Pane for a description of the Preview and Search tabs. You cane Hide/ Display the Tab Pane (right bottom corner and see the icon)
Creating a new library: File menu&gt; New&gt; Enter a name for your new library. If you include an extension, use the extension &quot; ENL” which stands for &quot;EndNote Library.&quot; Back-up your Library: it is imperative that you back up your libraries, along with any other important documents. Each library is made up of a file with the extension . ENL plus a corresponding .DATA folder. Always back up both the . ENL file and the .DATA folder Saving a Copy of a library: File mneu&gt; save a copy&gt; Name the new library and choose where to save it. Saving a compressed copy of a library: Open the library in EndNote. From the File menu, select Compressed Library (. enlx) to display a Compressed Library dialog Setting a Favorite Library: To assign or change the favorite library: 1. Open the library (or libraries) that you would like to set as your favorite 2. Goto Edit Menu&gt; Preferences&gt; Libraries&gt; select “Open the specified libraries “ from drop-down list&gt; Click Add Open Libraries &gt; Click OK To remove a library from the list of favorite libraries: 1. Edit menu&gt; preferences&gt; libraries&gt; select the library from the list&gt; click Remove Library&gt; click ok
four tabs. The Library tab determines the font and size of the references listed in the Reference List pane of the Library window. The General tab changes the font used to display most text that is typed into EndNote such as in the Reference or Style windows. The General font is also used for most of the previews and information panels in EndNote, as well as for bibliographies that are printed or copied directly from EndNote. The Labels tab determines the font and size used for the Reference window field labels. The Search tab determines the font and size applied to user-entered text on the Search tab.
Integrated Library & Online Search Mode In this Mode All groups and menu commands are available. When you perform an online search, the found references are downloaded directly into the currently open library. Local Library Mode Local Library Mode does not display Online Groups. It displays automatic groups, Custom groups, Smart groups, and EndNote Web groups. It keeps you from inadvertently searching an online database and downloading references into your currently open library. Online Search Mode Select Online Search Mode if you do not want to automatically download found references directly into your open library. You may prefer to peruse the downloaded references and then copy only specific references into your permanent EndNote library. When you retrieve references from an online database in Online Search Mode, the references are downloaded into a temporary library. If you want to save the references you have downloaded, you must copy them to an existing EndNote library.
Before proceeding, it would be useful to ask if there are any questions. That way they can feel a little more confident when answering the following four questions.
2. 2 2
With Endnote Software
NIFA, P. O. 446, Peshawar
3. 3 3
•Citation, Bibliography, Footnote and Endnotes
•Various referencing styles
• EndNote and other reference management tools
•How EndNote can help you to manage your literature
search in the library
4. 4 4
citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source.
A short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted
A bibliographic citation is a reference to a book, article,
web page, or other published item.
Both Citations and Bibliographies should supply sufficient
details to identify the item uniquely.
5. 5 5
In-text CitationsIn-text Citations
when you provide information about the source in the text ofwhen you provide information about the source in the text of
A brief acknowledgement within the paper wherever another’sA brief acknowledgement within the paper wherever another’s
words, facts, or ideas have been incorporated, his name mustwords, facts, or ideas have been incorporated, his name must
be located at the end of the quoted or borrowed information.be located at the end of the quoted or borrowed information.
Must refer to a specific work listed under the “Works Cited”Must refer to a specific work listed under the “Works Cited”
page or “References” Page at the end of the paper.page or “References” Page at the end of the paper.
6. 6 6
Note system: A passage selected from a larger work
bearing numerical designations or Take out of a literary
work in order to cite. The note for which must be
located either at footnote or endnote.
Parenthetical System: when author name is
placed in parenthesis soon after his saying in your work.
At the end of your work under Bibliography, or under
Works Cited page completed reference is provided.
7. 7 7
Note System Example
An excerpt from the text of a paper using a notes system would
look like this:
"The five stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining,
depression, and acceptance."1
The note, located either at footnote or endnote would look like
Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying
(New York: Macmillan, 1969) 45–60.
8. 8 8
Parenthetical System Example
In your paper you write:
In their Preface, the authors point out that "Learning Hypertext
Markup Language (HTML) and Extensible Hypertext Markup
Language (XHTML) is like learning any new language, computer
or human" (Musciano and Kennedy xi).
In your Bibliography, or on your Works Cited page, you
Musciano, Chuck, and Bill Kennedy. HTML and XHTML: The
Definitive Guide. 4th ed. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly, 2000.
9. 9 9
Footnote and Endnote
A note placed at the bottom of a page of a book or
manuscript that comments on or cites a reference
for a designated part of the text.
A note of reference, explanation, or comments
usually placed at the end of chapter of a book,
They are intended to refer readers to the exact
pages of the works listed under the Works Cited,
References, or Bibliography section
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Work Cited, References & Bibliography
Works Cited/ References– A list of citations that
appears at the end of the paper. The citations listed are
only those referred to in the paper, not everything that was
Bibliography- An alphabetical list of all materials
consulted in the preparation of your assignment
Entries in Works Cited, References, or Bibliography are
put in alphabetical order by last names of authors, editors,
translators, etc. or by first words of titles.
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Why cite sources?
Guide readers to towards the sources you consulted
Show the depth and scope of your research
Give credit to the time & creative effort of those whose information you
Cting sources is standard practice
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Different Styles of Citation
APA (American Psychology Association)
MLA (Modern Language Association)
Chicago StyleChicago Style – Chicago Manual of Style– Chicago Manual of Style
Turabian StyleTurabian Style – based on Chicago Style– based on Chicago Style
and a lot more. . . .and a lot more. . . .
13. 13 13
Which Style Should You Use?
APA: The Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association, 6th ed. is the authority used by
writers in social sciences and natural sciences.
MLA: The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers,
6th ed. is the authority used by writers in many disciplines
in Arts/ literature and humanities.
Chicago: The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. is the
authority used by writers in many disciplines in
humanities and social sciences.
Turabian: A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses,
and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian (This is a
simpler version of The Chicago Manual of Style.)
14. 14 14
Biology: The CBE Manual for Authors
Chemistry: ACS Style Guide
Geography: Annals of the Assoc. of the Amer. Geographers Stylesheet
Law: The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation
Linguistics: Language Style Sheet
Medicine: AMA Manual of Style
Physics: AIP Style Manual
Anthropology: American Anthropological Association Style Guide
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Information Needed for All Citation StylesInformation Needed for All Citation Styles
Author or corporate Body responsible for literary workAuthor or corporate Body responsible for literary work
Title of the workTitle of the work
place of publicationplace of publication
Publisher of the workPublisher of the work
Date of publicationDate of publication
Title of the Source, if work is part of something else, i.e.. journal,Title of the Source, if work is part of something else, i.e.. journal,
encyclopedia, websiteencyclopedia, website
Location information within the Source, i.e.. Volume, issue #, page orLocation information within the Source, i.e.. Volume, issue #, page or
paragraph numbersparagraph numbers
Retrieval date, if electronic formatRetrieval date, if electronic format
Reference entries should be double-spaced (5.18), Indent all lines except
the first line of each reference (5.18). Place one space after periods,
commas, and colons (5.11). Example:
Shahab, Q. (2005). Shahab Nama, an autobiography. Lahore: Meel,
Shahab, Qudrat Ullah, Shahab Nama, an autobiography. Lahore: Meel,
Shahab, Qudrat Ullah. Shahab Nama, an autobiography. Lahore:
Sange-e-Meel publication. 2005.
Examples of a Citation for a Book
Examples of a Citation for a Journal Article
Spaulding, J. (1996). Yosemite and Ansel Adams: Art,
commerce and western tourism. Pacific Historical Review
Spaulding, Jonathan “Yosemite and Ansel Adams: Art,
Commerce and Western Tourism.” Pacific Historical
Review 65 (Nov 1996): 616-625
Spaulding, Jonathan. “Yosemite and Ansel Adams: Art,
Commerce and Western Tourism.” Pacific Historical
Review 65 (Nov 1996): 616-625
Examples of Citing an Online Article
Euban, D. (2005). Court restricts free speech for college students.
Academe, 91, 189-236. Retrieved July 15, 2007, from Academic
Search Premier database.
Euban, Donna. “Court Restricts Free Speech for College Students.”
Academe. 91(2005): 189-236. Academic Search Elite.
EBSCO. California State University Fullerton, Pollak Library. July
Euban, Donna. Court Restricts Free Speech for College Students.
Academe, 91, no. 5 (2005):189-236
(accessed July 15, 2007).
19. 19 19
Reference management Softwares
These softwares enable you to:
Download and store references
Organizes citations for a bibliography and puts it into aOrganizes citations for a bibliography and puts it into a
specific stylespecific style
Include abstracts, keywords and notes with the references &
also full texts.
Produce lists of references for yourself or others
Automatically insert citations of references while typing (Cite
While You Write)
Create a bibliography while typing (Cite While You Write)
20. 20 20
21. 21 21
Free, open source alternatives to
KnightCite Citation Creation Tool - this site
generates citations in APA, MLA, and Chicago citation
EasyBib - this site generates citations in MLA and
NoodleBib (requires free registration) - this site
generates citations for APA and MLA citation styles
22. 22 22
Free, open source alternatives to
Tech4Learning's Citation Maker (requires free
registration) - choose "Tools," then "Citation Maker" to
generate citations for MLA and APA
Scribe – this markup language is an ancestor of
HTML and LaTeX (a citation system used by
mathematicians, engineers, and scientists)
23. 23 23
Free, open source alternatives to
LaTeX - this document preparation system is for technical
and scientific work. Click here to download it for free.
BibTeX - an off-shoot of LaTeX, this markup language is
supported by Google Scholar
Zotero - as an extension of Firefox, this program allows
you to import citations from web pages into a personal
filing system (Firefox 2.0 is required to use this)
24. 24 24
Reference Management Software
25. 25 25
What is EndNote?
The software contain mechanize forms of citations,
bibliographies, search bibliographic databases on net,
organize references, images, PDF(s) and have the
facility of built-in templates for constructing good
research papers, thesis/ dissertation etc.
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Includes 50 different reference types each with 52 fields
More than 4500 different output styles available
Access over 300 Internet libraries (z39.50 sites) to search from
within EndNote using connection files
Access over Different databases to search from within EndNote
There is no limit to the number of references you can create in an
There is no limit to the number of libraries you can create.
27. 27 27
Requirements for Installation of
Compatible PC require
Win 7 or Win Vista or Win XP
450- MHz or Faster Processor
A minimum of 256 MB of available Ram
HD with at least 180 MB of Free Space
Microsoft office 2003, 2007 or 2010 must be installed so as to
enable EndNote to install CYWY commands in word.
Start EndNote Installation
Double click the installer file to start the EndNote Setup
Program. Make sure that no applications are running, including
virus protection software, Microsoft Word, or any other
Accept the License Agreement.
Select the Typical from installation type it installs the most
popular 100 output styles, most popular 100 filters, and most
popular 100 connection files.
By default, EndNote is installed in the C drive. The Demo version
is installed in the C:Program FilesEndNote X4 Demo folder.
The component you can select for installation include.
EndNote Application. Program, Sample files, Help.
Word Templates/Add-ins. Templates for Word, CYWY .
Additional Styles. Formats for creating bibliographies .
Additional Connections. Files for directly retrieving
references from online reference databases.
Additional Filters. Files for importing text files of reference
Spelling Dictionaries. For the spelling checking.
Backing Up or Replacing Files. Gives two options “Back up
older files” or “Remove older Files”.
See details on page 2 of Help File.
To start the EndNote program and
open the sample library:
1. From the Start menu, choose Programs > EndNote >EndNote
Program. If this is the first time you have used the program, a
dialog appears prompting you to open a reference library.
To Start the EndNote….
2. Click the File Cabinet icon next to “Open an existing EndNote
3. In the file dialog, locate and open a reference library. Use the
Look in: menu to find the EndNote X4/Examples folder.
Choose the C: drive and Open.
Choose Program Files and Open.
Choose the EndNote X4 folder and Open. Choose the Examples
folder shortcut and Open.
4. The example library is shipped as a single compressed file. Open
the Sample_Library_X4.enlx file and EndNote extracts the
uncompressed library files (Sample_Library_X4.enl and
Sample_Library_X4.Data) and opens them for viewing.
5. If you have previously opened the compressed sample library,
select Sample_Library_X4.enl, and then click Open.
32. 32 32
Reference List Pane
Library Window Structure
Reference List pane: Displays a multi-column list of references. By
default, the first column in the reference list shows a paper clip icon for
references that include an attached file in the File Attachments field. This
is followed by Author, Title etc.
Tab pane: Displays a Preview tab to view formatted references, a
Search tab for searching either the current library or an online database,
and a Quick Edit tab allowing you to quickly edit a reference.
Groups pane: Displays various group sets that contain groups.
Groups make it easy to break a large library into subsets for later
viewing. A group simply points to a subset of references that
already exist in the library. You can further organize your
references by storing multiple groups in custom Group Sets.
34. 34 34
Creating a Library in Endnote
Sample Library (Default Library)
Creating and opening a Library
Back-up your Library
Saving a Copy of a library
Saving a compressed copy of a library
Deleting a Library
35. 35 35
Creating a new library
File menu> New>dialog box open
Enter a name for your new library. If
you include an extension, use the
extension " ENL” which stands for
Using the "Save in" list, choose the
location where you would like to save
Click Save and the new library
appear as an empty EndNote library,
"Showing 0 out of 0 references.”
On disk, each EndNote library is
made up of both an . ENL file and
a .DATA folder.
36. 36 36
Opening an existing Library
File Menu> Open> Click on the name of your needed
Library or Click Open and then in the “Select a
Reference Library” box and Look in menu, navigate
to the folder in where you have saved your library>
Select your library and click Open.
37. 37 37
Back-up your Library
It is imperative that you back up your libraries, along with any
other important documents. EndNote automatically saves
changes to your library as you work with it, so there is no Save or
Save As command for the library. You can, however, use the Save
a Copy command to create an exact copy of your library.
Saving a Copy of a library:
Open the library> File Menu> Save a copy> Dialog Box open>
Name the new library and choose where to save it.
Saving a compressed copy of a library: Open the library in
EndNote. > File menu> Compressed Library> Dialog box
Displays> Use the radio buttons to determine different options as
listed in the dialog box > Click Next> save the file
Note. EndNote libraries larger than 4 gigabytes (GB) or 65,535 files (64 K)
cannot be compressed with EndNote’s Compressed Library commands.
Deleting a Library
EndNote library can be deleted in two ways One option is by dragging
the library file with extension ENL file and and its associated .DATA
folder to the Recycle Bin on the Windows desktop.
The other is to delete a library from within EndNote: Close the library,
but keep EndNote open.
From the File menu, select Open and then click Open Library
instead of clicking on name of library.
In the file dialog, highlight the libraryname.enl file, right click
your mouse, and click Delete.
Next, highlight the libraryname.DATA folder, right click your
mouse, and click Delete.
Click Cancel to close the file dialog
40. 40 40
Setting Endnote Preferences
This session covers:
Set a favorite library to open each time you
Change the display fonts.
Change the Display Fields and many more.
41. 41 41
To Set a Favorite Library
1. Go to the Edit menu and choose Preferences.
2. In the list on the left, click Libraries.
3. Choose Open the specified libraries from the
When EndNote Start options.
42. 42 42
To Change the Display Font
In the list on the left, click Display Fonts to display a dialog
with four tabs.
The Library tab: Determines the font and size of the
references listed in the Reference List pane
The General tab: Determines the display of all text entered in the
Plain Font and Plain Size.
The Labels tab: Determines the font and size used for the
Reference window field labels.
The Search tab: Determines the font and size applied to
user-entered text on the Search tab in Tab Pane.
43. 43 43
44. 44 44
To Change the Display Fields
To access these settings:
Click on Display Fields in the list of preferences
Choose the desired field from each Field list. You may
select up to eight fields to be displayed in the Library
To show fewer than eight fields, select “Do not display”
instead of a field name
To change the name of the Column Heading in Library
window, enter a new name in the Heading column next
to the chosen field.
45. 45 45
46. 46 46
Merging Endnote Libraries
Three ways to merge libraries:
Import one library into another
Copy references from one library into
47. 47 47
Importing EndNote Libraries
1. Open the library into which you want to import the
2. From the File menu, choose Import> Click the File
option next to it to see a dialog box.
3. Click the chose button on the dialog box to select your
desired library for import.
4. From the Import Options list, select EndNote
48. 48 48
Steps for import…
4. Select an option from the Duplicates list:
Import All: Imports the references, including duplicates.
Discard Duplicates: Imports the references, except duplicates.
Import into Duplicates Library: Duplicate references are imported into
a library called File-Dupl.enl, where "File" is the name of the library into
which you are importing.
5. By default, a reference is considered a duplicate when the Author,
Year, Title, and Reference Type match a reference already in the
6. Set the Text Translation option to No Translation. Extended
characters, saved as Unicode in EndNote, will transfer correctly.
7. Click Import to import the file.
49. 49 49
Adding and Editing References
Three ways to add reference to the Library
Creating new References manually
Add references using online databases to
retrieve references from them directly
Import text files of references that have
been downloaded from online bibliographic
Attaching a File to a Reference
Working with Output Styles
Creating new References manually
Click in the reference list, and then from the References menu,
choose New Reference (CTRL+N) to display an empty Reference
Add references using online
This section covers the following topics:
Connections and Filters.
The Library Window Display Modes
Connect to an online database.
Find and attach the full text article for a
Search the database and download the
references into an EndNote library.
What is a Connection File?
A connection file contains all the information necessary to
connect to, search, and import references from an online
database or online library catalog. Each connection file represents
a different online database .
Go to Edit menu> Connection Files> Open Connection Manager
to view all connections.
To make any connection as favorite, click the check box next to it
and select “favorite” from Find by button. All connection files
that are marked as favorites (up to 500) appear as an Online
Search group in the Library window. This gives you easy access to
the files you use most often.
To modify a connection file, select it in the list and click Edit. See
the Related Topics list below for topics about how to work with
What are filters?
Filters map downloaded references to corresponding fields in EndNote.
By default, the 100 most popular filters are stored as individual files in
the Filters folder in your EndNote program folder. A filter is selected
during the import process to show EndNote exactly how to interpret the
information in your data file (the records downloaded or saved from an
online or CD-ROM database).
Go to Edit menu> Import Filters > Open filters Manager to view all
filters. Here you can make favorite filters, edit filters and get more filters
Many of the filters include a Comments section with tips about
how to best download references for importing into EndNote.
The list of information providers given in help file on pages 27-31,
with their recommended output formats and import filters, is
simply a subset of those services that are supported.
To install additional filters
Steps for Using the EndNote installer to install additional
During EndNote installation program as you would for a new
installation. Or Go to Control Panel. Then, choose Add or
Remove Programs. In the list, click on EndNote X4 and then
Change to resume to installation setup.
On the “Application Maintenance” dialog, select the Modify
option and click Next.
On the “Select Features” dialog, click the plus sign (+) next to
For each set of filters you would like to install, click the triangle
and select either "Will be installed on local hard drive" or "Entire
feature will be installed on local hard drive."
Click Next to continue with the installation.
The filters will be copied to the EndNote Filters folder.
To install additional filters from web
To download individual filters:
From the Edit menu in EndNote, choose Import Filters and then
Open Filter Manager.
Click Get More on the Web to start your default browser and go to
the appropriate page on the EndNote web site.
Browse through an alphabetical listing of the available filter files,
and Download those files you want to install.
Copy the downloaded files to your Filters folder, which is typically
located at Program FilesEndNote X4Styles .
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The Library Window Display Modes
Modes of Library
In Integrated Library & Online Search Mode: It contain all
groups and commands. When you download references from an
online database, they are saved directly into the open library.
In Local Library Mode: the Online Search groups are not
available. All local library commands are available. If you initiate
an online search from the Tools menu, the display switches to
Online Search Mode.
In Online Search Mode: It contain only the Online Search
groups. When you download references from an online database,
the references are stored in a temporary library until you save
them to a permanent EndNote library. This allows you to
download references from online databases and review them
without affecting your local library. Many library commands are
not available in Online Search Mode. When you close Online
Search Mode, the display changes to Local Library Mode.
Steps to connect to an Online
On the Groups pane, under Online Search,
select the online database you want to
search. That initiates the online
If the database you want to search is not
listed under Online Search in the Groups
pane, choose Tools > Online Search, select
the desired database, and click Choose to
initiate the connection.
This window displays the connection files
available in your Connections folders. A
Typical installation installs the 100 most
popular connection files, but more than
4,100 connection files are available with
When connection has been made, the
following Search tab is automatically
opened with the online database selected
Steps to connect to an Online
Set the search strategy and click search button.
EndNote sends the search request off to the selected
online database and a summary of the search results is
The dialog displays the number of references that were
found to match your search request, and gives you the
option to retrieve them.
How to Find and Retrieve Full Text
The Find Full Text command can attempt to find full text
documents for up to 1000 records at a time.
Select the reference(s) to which you want to add full text.
From the References menu, choose Find Full Text > Find Full
use the default EndNote settings to search public sources that
do not require authentication for access.
Full text downloading happens in the background, References
appear in groups under a Find Full Text group set.
If you got DC, you may go to the References menu, select Find
Full Text and then Authenticate to restore access to the site.
Import text files of references that have been
downloaded from online bibliographic databases
In this part you will learn about:
Downloading data in a tagged output format.
Selecting an import filter and importing data
Direct Export and Importing
The information provider includes an option to save
directly to EndNote. You simply direct the references
to the appropriate EndNote library. The systems listed
on page 32-39 of help file provide instructions for
direct export of references into EndNote.
When an information provider does not provide direct
export to EndNote.Save references from the
information provider to a text file in a tagged format.
Then, use the File>Import feature to select the tagged
text file for import, choose the appropriate import
filter, and then start the importing process. A list of
Information providers with downloading instructions
and import option is given on pages 27-31.
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Working with Output Styles
• Output Styles (or .ENS files) are sets of instructions that
tell EndNote how to format the bibliographic entries and
citations it creates from references in a library.
• Several hundred styles are included with EndNote;
however, when new versions of the styles you use are
released, you will need to download them from the
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Checking the Output Style
To get information on a style:
Click the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and then click
Open Style Manager. More than 4,500 styles are available.
Scroll to the style you wish to use and click on the style
Inof./Preview button to show the information associated
Check to see whether the style is the version you need or
The Style Manager includes a Get More on the Web button to
easily locate and download individual styles. Or, you can
install entire categories of styles with the EndNote during its
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Applying an Output Style
To apply a style:
• Click the Current Style dropdown box located at the
top of the library window.
• If the style you want to use appears in the dropdown
list, choose it; otherwise, click Select Another Style
• In the Choose a Style dialog box, either scroll or use
the Quick Search box find the style you want, then
click the Choose button.
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To export a formatted bibliography:
• If references in the Library window are selected,
the EndNote export dialog gives you the option of
exporting just those selected references.
• To export all of the references in the Library,
choose Show All References from the References
menu. If any references are selected, be sure to
uncheck the “Export Selected References” check
box in the export dialog.
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Cite While You Write Feature
CYWY Feature enables you to insert formatted citations and
build formatted lists of works cited within your documents
with a click of a button. Once EndNote is installed, the CWYW
tools appear in a toolbar at the top of the MS Word window,
or Word 2003 displays C YWY commands on a Tools>EndNote
X4 submenu. Word 2007 displays Cite While You Write
commands on an EndNote tab.
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How to Cite While You Write with
• Open the EndNote library or libraries that contain the references you wish
• Start Microsoft Word and open the paper you are writing. position the
cursor in the text where you would like to put the citation.
• Word 2003 displays C YWY commands on a Tools>EndNote X4 submenu.
Word 2007 displays C YWY commands on an EndNote tab.
• Select “Find Citation(s)” on the toolbar, the following dialog appears.
How to Cite While You Write with
• Enter identifying text in the ‘Search box” This could be an
author’s last name, a year, a keyword, or any other combination
of terms found in the reference .
• Click Find and EndNote compares the identifying text to your
EndNote references and then lists the matching reference(s).
Identify and highlight the appropriate reference(s).
Use the Insert button triangle to display a menu, and select
Insert to insert the citation and format it as defined by the
currently selected output style
Insert & Exclude Author, Insert & Exclude Year, Insert &
Exclude Author & Year
Click Insert Instead the triangle to quickly Insert the desired
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Formatting a citation/ Bibliography
When you have finished inserting citations in your paper. Keep your
document open in order to select a bibliographic style
Use format bibliography option on the toolbar EndNote X4 submenu
The following Format Bibliography dialog appears where you can
change, or simply verify, the style and layout of the bibliography.
Click Ok the EndNote will appends a bibliography to the end of
Formatting a citation/ Bibliography
As you can see, there are other formatting options available here;
you can make changes that supersede the settings in the current
Click the Browse button next to “With output style” to display the
list of output styles supplied with EndNote.
Select the APA 6th style, and then click OK.
Click OK to leave the Format Bibliography dialog EndNote
automatically updates the existing citations and regenerates the
bibliography in the APA style.
Edit Individual Citation
• Highlight the citation and click on click Edit & Manage Citation's
from EndNote X4 submenu, and then Make desired changes on
the dialog box.
• Click OK to update the citation in your paper
• Select Remove citation from the edit reference triangle to delete