Culture pakistani

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Culture pakistani

  1. 1. Culture and traditions of PakistanCulture and traditions of Pakistan SpeakerSpeaker Muhammad Irfaq KhanMuhammad Irfaq Khan PhD Fellow to JAASPhD Fellow to JAAS Senior ScientistSenior Scientist Crop Breeding Division, NIFA, Peshawar, N.W.F.P.,Crop Breeding Division, NIFA, Peshawar, N.W.F.P., PakistanPakistan Supervised bySupervised by Prof. Dr. Hongxiang MaProf. Dr. Hongxiang Ma Director, Institute of Biotechnology, JAASDirector, Institute of Biotechnology, JAAS
  2. 2. BRIEF HISTORYBRIEF HISTORY  Aryan 1500 BC  Alexander the Great: 322-185 BC  Greeks  White Huns  Turks  Arabs (Muslims): 712-1200  Mughals 1200-1845  Sikh warriors: 1846-1849  British Empire: 1857-1947 Rich heritage of Different Civilizations (Indus Valley Civilization, 2800 BC – 1800 BC).
  3. 3. EXISTENCE OF PAKISTANEXISTENCE OF PAKISTAN Brief History NearBrief History Near Before 1947Before 1947 Part of the united IndiaPart of the united India (Muslims + Hindus)(Muslims + Hindus) dominated by the British Empire (1857-1947)dominated by the British Empire (1857-1947) Hindus (Not sincere to the Muslims)Hindus (Not sincere to the Muslims) Pakistan Muslim league (1906Pakistan Muslim league (1906 DaccaDacca )) Got Freedom in 1947 under the leadership ofGot Freedom in 1947 under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam, Muhammad Ali JinnahQuaid-i-Azam, Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Barrister by profession)(Barrister by profession) (1876-1948)(1876-1948)
  4. 4. GREAT LEADERS OF THE NATIONGREAT LEADERS OF THE NATION Two Nations ideology byTwo Nations ideology by Allama Muhammad IqbalAllama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938)(1877-1938) Great Philosopher and poetGreat Philosopher and poet PhD from Munich (Germany): 1906PhD from Munich (Germany): 1906 1899 1908 1929 1933 19381899 1908 1929 1933 1938
  5. 5. Muhammad Ali JinnahMuhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)(1876-1948) Quaid-I-Azam (Great Leader)Quaid-I-Azam (Great Leader) BABA-E-QAUMBABA-E-QAUM (FATHER OF THE NATION)(FATHER OF THE NATION) Barrister (lawyer ) by ProfessionBarrister (lawyer ) by Profession Graduated from Lincoln Inn
  6. 6. OTHER EARLY LEADERSOTHER EARLY LEADERS Sir Syed Ahmad Khan,Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Muhammd Ali JauharMuhammd Ali Jauhar Nawab Saleemullah KahanNawab Saleemullah Kahan Choudry Rehmat AliChoudry Rehmat Ali Liyaquat Ali Khan,Liyaquat Ali Khan, Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayum Khan,Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayum Khan, Nawab Muhsin -ul- MulkNawab Muhsin -ul- Mulk Nawab Bahadur yar Jang,Nawab Bahadur yar Jang,
  7. 7. Area and geographical conditionsArea and geographical conditions
  8. 8. LOCATIONLOCATION  SOUTH ASIASOUTH ASIA  BORDERINGBORDERING  AFGHANISTAN (WEST) : 2,430 KM,AFGHANISTAN (WEST) : 2,430 KM,  CHINA ( NORTH): 523 KM,CHINA ( NORTH): 523 KM,  INDIA (EAST): 2,912 KM,INDIA (EAST): 2,912 KM,  IRAN (SOUTH WEST): 909 KMIRAN (SOUTH WEST): 909 KM
  9. 9. NATIONAL FLAG OF ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTANNATIONAL FLAG OF ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN Muslims (SUNNI + Shia)= 97%Muslims (SUNNI + Shia)= 97% Sunni= 77 %Sunni= 77 % Shia= 20%Shia= 20% Christians + Hindus + Sikhs and others = 3%Christians + Hindus + Sikhs and others = 3%
  10. 10. President: Gen. Pervez Musharraf (2001-) Prime minister: Yousaf Raza Gilani (2008-)
  11. 11. Land Area: 300,664 sq Miles = 778,220 sq kmLand Area: 300,664 sq Miles = 778,220 sq km Total Area: 310,401 = 803,940 sq milesTotal Area: 310,401 = 803,940 sq miles
  12. 12. MANAGEMENTAL PARTITIONMANAGEMENTAL PARTITION Capital: Islamabad Number of Provinces: 4 Punjab: pop: 72585,430, Area:150220 sq km Sindh: pop:29991, 161: Area: 129500 sq km North West Frontier Province (NWFP): Pop: 17,554,676, Area: 106,200 sq km Balochistan: Pop: 65,11,358, Area: 347,000 sq km
  13. 13. LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN PAISTANLANGUAGES SPOKEN IN PAISTAN 1.1. National language: Urdu: 8%National language: Urdu: 8% (official)(official) 2.2. Official language: EnglishOfficial language: English 3.3. Punjabi (48%)Punjabi (48%) 4.4. Sindhi (12%)Sindhi (12%) 5.5. Pashto (15%)Pashto (15%) 6.6. Siraiki (Variant of punjabi) (12%)Siraiki (Variant of punjabi) (12%) 7.7. Balochi. (3%)Balochi. (3%) 8.8. Hindko(2%)Hindko(2%) 9.9. Brahui (1%)Brahui (1%) 10.10. Brushaski and others (8%)Brushaski and others (8%)
  14. 14. Economic summary GDP/PPP (2005 est.)Economic summary GDP/PPP (2005 est.) $384.9 billion; per capita $2,400.$384.9 billion; per capita $2,400. Real growth rate: 7.8%Real growth rate: 7.8% Inflation: 9.2%.Inflation: 9.2%. Unemployment: 6.6% plusUnemployment: 6.6% plus substantial underemploymentsubstantial underemployment..
  15. 15. WEATHERSWEATHERS 1. Spring :(Mid of Feb to1. Spring :(Mid of Feb to Mid of MayMid of May 2. Summer: Mid of May2. Summer: Mid of May to mid of Julyto mid of July 3. Rainy season Mid of3. Rainy season Mid of July to Mid of OctoberJuly to Mid of October 4. Mid of October4. Mid of October 5. Autumn: November5. Autumn: November December and JanuaryDecember and January
  16. 16. Main sources of incomeMain sources of income Agriculture: 42%Agriculture: 42% A huge population is living in villages (rural) : 75%A huge population is living in villages (rural) : 75% Cultivated (Arable ) Land: 25%Cultivated (Arable ) Land: 25% Population engaged in Agriculture: 42%Population engaged in Agriculture: 42% Irrigation System: Canal Water (45%)Irrigation System: Canal Water (45%) Rain fed: 65%Rain fed: 65%
  17. 17. IMPORTANT CROPS, FRUITS AND VEGETABLESIMPORTANT CROPS, FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Major Crops:Major Crops: Cotton, Wheat, Rice, Maize, SugarcaneCotton, Wheat, Rice, Maize, Sugarcane Minor Crops:Minor Crops: Chickpea, mumgbea, beans, Oilseed cropsChickpea, mumgbea, beans, Oilseed crops Fruits:Fruits: Mango, Citrus, Guava, Banana, Apricot, Fig etc. and dry fruitsMango, Citrus, Guava, Banana, Apricot, Fig etc. and dry fruits Dairy and poultry products:Dairy and poultry products: Milk, Beef, Mutton Chickens and eggsMilk, Beef, Mutton Chickens and eggs Vegetables:Vegetables: Onion, brigels, cabbage, cauliflower, Okra, tomato,Onion, brigels, cabbage, cauliflower, Okra, tomato, potato etc.potato etc.
  18. 18. OTHER SOURCES OF INCOMEOTHER SOURCES OF INCOME Industries: (20%)Industries: (20%) Textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticalsTextiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals construction materials, paper products, fertilizer,construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimpshrimp services 38%services 38% : Government departments Natural resources:Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
  19. 19. Exports: $14.85 billionExports: $14.85 billion Textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice,Textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures,leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs.carpets and rugs. Imports: $14.01 billionImports: $14.01 billion petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics,petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper andtransportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea.paperboard, iron and steel, tea.
  20. 20. FESTIVALSFESTIVALS 1.1.Religious FestivalsReligious Festivals Eid-ul-fittarEid-ul-fittar (After Ramadan)(After Ramadan) Eid-ul-AzhaEid-ul-Azha ((In the memory ofIn the memory of the deed of prophetthe deed of prophet Abraham ( 3000BC )Abraham ( 3000BC ) Eid-e-MiladEid-e-Milad ((Birth and death of the last prophet Muhammad PBH)Birth and death of the last prophet Muhammad PBH) Muharram (Ashura)Muharram (Ashura) In Pakistan, the first ten days of Muharram are observed officially. The 10th ofIn Pakistan, the first ten days of Muharram are observed officially. The 10th of Muharram is celebrated in the memory of Hussain, the grandson ofMuharram is celebrated in the memory of Hussain, the grandson of Muhammad, who was killed, along with 72 family members, friends andMuhammad, who was killed, along with 72 family members, friends and followers during the Battle of Karbala. It is celebrated mainly among the Shiafollowers during the Battle of Karbala. It is celebrated mainly among the Shia community of Pakistancommunity of Pakistan 2. Non religious: Basanth (Spring festival)Basanth (Spring festival) Kite flyingKite flying
  21. 21. NON RELIGIOUS FESTIVALSNON RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS INDIPENDENCE DAY (23 March, 1940)INDIPENDENCE DAY (23 March, 1940) PAKISTAN DEFENCE DAYPAKISTAN DEFENCE DAY September 6 is another patriotic day, when the Army of Pakistan is put on display for the general public to show Pakistan arms. All Government officials attend the ceremony and medals and recognitions are awarded to special people for their work. In March of 2008, Pakistan Airforce (PAF) put on display the new joint manufactured Chinese- Pakistani aircraft called the JF-17 Thunder. BASANTHBASANTH (Kite flying at the beginning of Spring season)
  22. 22. NATIONAL DRESSNATIONAL DRESS Shalwar kameez, Dupatta, Sherwani, Achkan, and Karakul (hat).Shalwar kameez, Dupatta, Sherwani, Achkan, and Karakul (hat). Among the most familiar sights in Pakistan is men wearing theAmong the most familiar sights in Pakistan is men wearing the traditional Shalwar Kameez. They come in many different styles,traditional Shalwar Kameez. They come in many different styles, fabrics, colours and patterns. Pakistani women also wearfabrics, colours and patterns. Pakistani women also wear shalwar kameez no matter what province they are from.shalwar kameez no matter what province they are from. However, many women from the Sindh province wear ghagra orHowever, many women from the Sindh province wear ghagra or Sari varying from different styles and colours. Pakistani womenSari varying from different styles and colours. Pakistani women also wear an elaborate and heavily embroidered dress known asalso wear an elaborate and heavily embroidered dress known as gharara on their wedding days. The Sherwani or Achkan withgharara on their wedding days. The Sherwani or Achkan with Karakuli hat is the national dress of Pakistan for men, as it is notKarakuli hat is the national dress of Pakistan for men, as it is not specifically associated with any of the provinces.specifically associated with any of the provinces. Most government officials wear the formal black sherwani onMost government officials wear the formal black sherwani on state occasions.state occasions.
  23. 23. MERRAGESMERRAGES Arranged marriage:Arranged marriage: decided by the parents anddecided by the parents and elders of boy and girlelders of boy and girl Marriage by choice: Boy and girl choose each otherMarriage by choice: Boy and girl choose each other Love marriage:Love marriage: Boy and girl love each otherBoy and girl love each other Jahaiz:Jahaiz: (urdu/arabic): Daily used items, ornaments(urdu/arabic): Daily used items, ornaments and cash given by parents to theirand cash given by parents to their daughter Waleema: invitation of relativesdaughter Waleema: invitation of relatives and friends for dinnersand friends for dinners
  24. 24. GamesGames Hockey (National game)Hockey (National game) Cricket,Cricket, VolleyballVolleyball Basketball,Basketball, Polo (The game were the players make use ofPolo (The game were the players make use of horses)horses) Squash,Squash, BadmintonBadminton Long tennis, Table tennisLong tennis, Table tennis Golla throw,Golla throw, Disk throwDisk throw Swimming ,Swimming , WrestlingWrestling Kabaddi, Laye Lewanaye, Yenda (regional)Kabaddi, Laye Lewanaye, Yenda (regional)
  25. 25. Pakistani Society & CulturePakistani Society & Culture ISLAMISLAM Islam is practiced by the majority of Pakistanis and governsIslam is practiced by the majority of Pakistanis and governs their personal, political, economic and legal lives.their personal, political, economic and legal lives. PRAYERPRAYER Among certain obligations for Muslims are to pray five timesAmong certain obligations for Muslims are to pray five times a day - at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening.a day - at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening. Holy Day:Holy Day: Friday is the Muslim holy day. Everything is closed.Friday is the Muslim holy day. Everything is closed. KEEPING FASR:KEEPING FASR: During the holy month of Ramadan all Muslims must fastDuring the holy month of Ramadan all Muslims must fast from dawn to dusk and are only permitted to work six hoursfrom dawn to dusk and are only permitted to work six hours per day. Fasting includes no eating, drinking, cigaretteper day. Fasting includes no eating, drinking, cigarette smoking, or gum chewing.smoking, or gum chewing.
  26. 26. The extended family is the basis of the socialThe extended family is the basis of the social structure and individual identity.structure and individual identity. It includes the nuclear family, immediate relatives,It includes the nuclear family, immediate relatives, distant relatives, tribe members, friends, anddistant relatives, tribe members, friends, and neighbours.neighbours. Loyalty to the family comes before other socialLoyalty to the family comes before other social relationships, even business.relationships, even business. Nepotism is viewed positively, since it guaranteesNepotism is viewed positively, since it guarantees hiring people who can be trusted, which is crucial inhiring people who can be trusted, which is crucial in a country where working with people one knows anda country where working with people one knows and trusts is of primary importance.trusts is of primary importance. The family is more private than in many otherThe family is more private than in many other cultures.cultures. Female relatives are protected from outsideFemale relatives are protected from outside influences. It is considered inappropriate to askinfluences. It is considered inappropriate to ask questions about a Pakistani's wife or other femalequestions about a Pakistani's wife or other female relatives.relatives. Families are quite large by western standards, oftenFamilies are quite large by western standards, often having up to 6 children.having up to 6 children. THE FAMILY SYSTEMTHE FAMILY SYSTEM
  27. 27. Hierarchical SocietyHierarchical Society Pakistan is a hierarchical society. People arePakistan is a hierarchical society. People are respected because of their age and position.respected because of their age and position. Older people are viewed as wise and are grantedOlder people are viewed as wise and are granted respect. In a social situation, they are served firstrespect. In a social situation, they are served first and their drinks may be poured for them. Elders areand their drinks may be poured for them. Elders are introduced first, are provided with the choicest cutsintroduced first, are provided with the choicest cuts of meat, and in general are treated much likeof meat, and in general are treated much like royalty.royalty. Pakistanis expect the most senior person, by age orPakistanis expect the most senior person, by age or position, to make decisions that are in the bestposition, to make decisions that are in the best interest of the group.interest of the group. Titles are very important and denote respect. It isTitles are very important and denote respect. It is expected that you will use a person's title and theirexpected that you will use a person's title and their surname until invited to use their first name.surname until invited to use their first name. SOCIETYSOCIETY
  28. 28.  Greetings are therefore often between members of the same sex; however, when dealing with people in the middle class, greetings may be across sex lines.  Men shake hands with each other. Once a relationship is developed, they may hug as well as shake hands.  Women generally hug and kiss. Pakistanis take their time during greetings and ask about the person's health, family, and business success.  Pakistani names often include a name that denotes a person's class, tribe, occupation, or other status indicator.  They may also include two names that have a specific meaning when used together, and the meaning is lost if the names are separated. . It is best to ask a person how they wish to be addressed.  In general, this is not a culture where first names are commonly used, except among close friends. Meeting and GreetingMeeting and Greeting
  29. 29. GIFT GIVING ETIQUETTEGIFT GIVING ETIQUETTE  If invited to a Pakistani's home, bring the hostess a smallIf invited to a Pakistani's home, bring the hostess a small gift such as flowers or good quality chocolates.gift such as flowers or good quality chocolates.  Men should avoid giving flowers to women.Men should avoid giving flowers to women.  Do not give white flowers as they are used at weddings.Do not give white flowers as they are used at weddings.  If a man must give a gift to a woman, he should say thatIf a man must give a gift to a woman, he should say that it is from his wife, mother, sister, or some other femaleit is from his wife, mother, sister, or some other female relative.relative.  Do not give alcohol.Do not give alcohol.  Gifts are not opened when received.Gifts are not opened when received.  Gifts are given with two hands.Gifts are given with two hands.
  30. 30. ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY, PESHAWAE 1906ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY, PESHAWAE 1906
  31. 31. ISLAMABAD 1660ISLAMABAD 1660
  32. 32. KARACHI The mausoleum ofKARACHI The mausoleum of Muhammad AliMuhammad Ali JinnahJinnah
  33. 33. Lahore, Minar-e-Pakistan (23 March 1940)Lahore, Minar-e-Pakistan (23 March 1940)
  34. 34. QuettaQuetta
  35. 35. Badshahi Masque Lahore 1656Badshahi Masque Lahore 1656 by Mughal emperorby Mughal emperor AurangzebAurangzeb in Lahorein Lahore
  36. 36. Tomb of Bahauddin Zakariya (Multan)Tomb of Bahauddin Zakariya (Multan)
  37. 37. Basanth (Spring Festival)Basanth (Spring Festival)
  38. 38. Polo Groun (Lahore)Polo Groun (Lahore)

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