“Relying on test items that are proxies for genuine and worthy performance challenges that try to measure performance indirectly….well, instead…we should routinely assess students’ ability to perform on complex tasks at the heart of each subject, scaffolding the task.”
Wiggins, Educative Assessment
How could the validity of these assessments be improved?
The teacher taught how to setup, focus, identify and draw pictures of objects on glass slides .
As the end of the unit assessment, students labeled parts of a diagrammed microscope and answered multiple choice questions about the history of the microscope.
What about this third grade example?
Oral reading skills are strongly emphasized in this classroom, and a great deal of energy is spent helping students use proper phrasing, vocal expression, and clear pronunciation when they read aloud.
The teacher uses paper-and-pencil tests that assess pupils' reading comprehension and word recognition.
How about this health class?
The CPR were introduced to the concept and shown a movie. An EMT came to class with a practice dummy and instructed each student on the technique.
The end of the unit test had 25 true-false questions over all the information they had learned.
Performance Tasks . . .
. . . generally occur over time
. . . result in tangible products or observable performances
. . . involve meaning-making
. . . encourage self-evaluation and revision
. . . require judgment to score
. . . reveal degrees of proficiency based on criteria established and made public prior to the performance
. . . sometimes involve students working with others
-Marzano, Pickering, & McTighe
Analyze these situations with a partner and be prepared to discuss them in 5 minutes.
Traditional vs Performance Taken from the book, A Teacher’s Guide to Performance-Based Learning and Assessment
To define valued outcomes for students
To capture students' time and attention
To generate appropriate student learning activities
To help students internalize the discipline’s standards
To identify opportunities for improvement
“ At the risk of sounding overly simplistic, the use of student work as the unrelenting focus of adult conversations can be the catalyst of fundamental changes in the educational experience of adolescents, and the transformation of teaching and learning at the high school level.” --- Aspen Report on Reforming High Schools
Let’s look at more examples…you keep tabs on commonalities between all the following tasks
(In view of the class, place 10 caterpillars in a box. Place a flashlight at one end, while darkening the other by folding over the box top.) “Do caterpillars move more to the light or more to the dark? Make a graph that shows how many caterpillars move to the light and how many move to the dark part of the box. Your graphs will be displayed at Open House.”
(At several specified times during the school day, students observe and count, for a set length of time, the number of cars and other vehicles going through an intersection near the school.) “The police department is considering a traffic light or a crossing guard at the intersection near your school. Your help is needed to make graphs that show how many vehicles go through that intersection at certain times of the day. Excellent graphs will be sent to the Chief of Police.”
Middle or High School Example
(Provide the students with a copy of a speeding ticket that shows how the fine is determined.) “How is the fine for speeding in our state determined? Make a graph that shows teenagers in our town how much it will cost them if they are caught speeding. Excellent graphs will be displayed in the Driver's Education classroom.”
Students will communicate information and ideas effectively.
Students will demonstrate the ability to write clear, concise explanation of concepts, using correct grammar, syntax, spelling and word usage.
Write a summary report on an article.
This assignment will require you to demonstrate your ability to write clear, concise explanation of concepts, using correct grammar, syntax, spelling and word usage.
You will select an article related to our current class topic. After reading the article, you will write a report that summarizes the major concepts of the article .
This summary should be at least 3 pages long and should be submitted to Blackboard by Friday. Using the rubric, it will be scored based on your explanation of the concepts and the quality of your written work.
Did you see common elements?
Make a list of those elements
Not new form
Bloom called this application and synthesis
Strengths and Limitations of Performance Assessments
5 Common Domains for Performance Assessment Psychomotor Skills Affective Skills Concept Acquisition Athletic Activities Communication Skills Performance Assessment
Constructing Tasks…. Has this ever happened to you?
You have to ask yourself (and make yourself answer) questions like these!!!
Does the task truly match the outcome(s) you're trying to measure?
Does the task require the students to use critical thinking skills?
Consider Bloom’s Taxonomy
Is the task a worthwhile use of instructional time?
Does the assessment use engaging tasks from the "real world”?
Are the tasks fair and free from bias?
Will the task be credible?
Is the task feasible?
Is the task clearly defined?
“ Authenticity is essential, but authenticity alone is insufficient to create an effective assessment task….most important, the tasks must tell us how students are doing in relation to specific achievement targets. Thus, assessment tasks are not instructional activities . Wiggins, Educative Assessment .
Is having a trial of the wolf from Little Red Riding Hood or Socrates from Plato’s Apology using sound assessment principles?
Consider and discuss the following
A fifth grade teacher wants to assess student understanding of the Civil War by having each student build a diorama of a key battle.
A second grade teacher wants to assess students’ emerging literacy by having them pick a book, read it aloud, and say if they like the book.
A 10 th grade history teacher wants to assess his Russian history unit with a debate. A key objective was to know and explain the rise/fall of the Communist empire, so the debate is to center on “Who Blew it ?” Students are to simulate Yeltsin, Gorbachev, Khrushchev, Stalin, Lenin, Trotsky, Catherine the Great and Tolstory.
Now you design a task…..
To ensure clarity, task descriptions for students should include:
Learning target to be measured
Format of response (e.g., oral report, written report)
And yet to come in the last part of performance assessment
What practices must we adopt to achieve this kind of assessment?
Design interactive assessments
Use reiterative core performance tasks to measure if ability to apply information is becoming more sophisticated
In the light of student misconceptions, use assessment tasks that will reveal if they have corrected those misconceptions.
Require student to self-evaluate their previous as well as current work.
Conduct assessment along a continuum, using longitudinal rubrics, not merely task specific rubrics.
Criteria— defines the kinds of evidence you are going to collect and makes sure it matches your purpose
Grading your students?
Diagnosing student learning?
Helping students realize the important steps in a performance or product?
Providing concrete evidence of student work
What is a Rubric?
A set of explicit expectations or criteria
Description of varying levels of performance
Systematic method of scoring student work
Increases reliability and validity of course assessments
Rubrics can prevent this!!!
Criteria — specific aspects a student should perform to properly carry out the task
Identify the expected elements within this task
Identify possible levels of performance
3-5 are typical
Five Reasons to Use Rubrics
Rubrics tell students they must do a careful job. Information on the expected quality of the task performed is given to students.
Rubrics set standards. Students know in advance what they have to do to achieve a certain level.
Rubrics clarify expectations. When levels are described in clear language, everyone knows what is required. The quality of student work will improve.
Rubrics help students take responsibility for their own learning. Students use rubrics to help study information the teacher values.
Rubrics have value to other stakeholders. Anyone (including colleagues, parents and community members) seeing a rubric and a student score based on that rubric knows what content was mastered by that student.
Holistic or Analytical Trait Rubrics
Holistic rubric gives a single score or rating for an entire product or performance based on an overall impression of a student’s work
Analytical trait rubric divides a product or performance into essential traits or dimensions so that they can be judged separately—one analyzes a product or performance for essential traits
Holistic Rubric The presentation does not address the assigned genre. Characteristics or subcategories of the genre are not clearly identified. Examples and instructional suggestions are not included. A genre bibliography is missing. The presentation addresses the assigned genre. Characteristics or subcategories are identified. The presentation lacks examples or instructional suggestions. A partial bibliography is provided. The presentation addresses the assigned genre. The genre is defined. Characteristics and subcategories are identified. An example of the genre is presented. A suggestion for classroom use is included. A bibliography of less than10 books is provided. The presentation addresses the assigned genre. The genre is defined. Characteristics and subcategories are identified and explained. At least 2 examples of the genre are presented. At least 2 suggestions for classroom use included. A bibliography of 10 books is provided. The presentation addresses the assigned genre. The genre is introduced with a clear definition. All characteristics of the genre and any subcategories are identified and explained. Multiple examples are used to illustrate the genre. A variety of suggestions are provided regarding use of the genre in the classroom. A bibliography 10 books from the genre is provided in correct APA format. The presentation is well- organized, well-written and visually attractive. Unacceptable = 16 Weak= 18 Acceptable= 20 Proficient = 22 Exemplary = 24
Analytic Rubric Thread and responses late Thread or two responses late. One thread and one response on time. One response late One thread and two responses posted within time frame Timeliness Professional vocabulary and writing style are not used. Professional vocabulary and writing style are used occasionally throughout the discussion. Professional vocabulary and writing style are used frequently throughout the discussion. Professional vocabulary and writing style are used consistently throughout the discussion. Professional Language Responds to the discussion facilitator only. No interaction with peers Limited interactions or responses to other members of the online community. Responds to other members of the online community. Reflects on own practices. Encourages and facilitates interaction among members of the online community. Reflects and evaluates own practices. Encourages colleagues to evaluate their teaching. Collaboration Does not respond to questions pose by the facilitator. Responds to questions but does not engage in premise reflection Some critical thinking and reflection is demonstrated in discussion by the writer/responder Enhances the critical thinking process consistently through reflection and questioning of self and others; is a quality response that advances thoughts forward; adds to the discussion/ is a critical response. Critical Thinking Information has little or nothing to do with the main topic or simply restates the main concept. It does not advance the discussion. Does not provide documentation for sources. Information clearly relates to the main topic. No details and/or examples are given. Provides documentation when requested. Information clearly relates to the main topic. It provides at least 1 supporting detail or example. Occasionally provides documentation. Information clearly relates to the main topic and adds new concepts, information. It includes several supporting details and/or examples . Consistently establishes source documentation for ideas. Quality of Information (Unacceptable) 1 (Marginal) 2 (Good) 3 (Exemplary ) 4 Category
Don’t let the rubric stand alone:
provide specific “Comments” on your rubric and/or on the student product itself.
Generic or Task-Specific Rubrics
Can be used across similar performances. You’d use the same rubric for judging all open-ended mathematics problems, all writing, all oral presentations, all critical thinking, or all group interaction.
Task-specific rubrics: each one can only be used for a single task.
Andrade, H., & Du, Y. (2005). Student perspectives on rubric-referenced assessment. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 10, 3.
Andrade, H. (2000). Using rubrics to promote thinking and learning. Educational Leadership, 57,5 . 13-18.
Arter, J., & McTighe, J. (2001). Scoring rubrics in the classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Montgomery, K. (2001). Authentic tasks and rubrics: Going beyond traditional assessments in college teaching. College Teaching, 50, 1. 34-39.
Stevens, D. & Levi, A. (2005). Introduction to rubrics. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Make sure you reflect because…
Rubrics are hard to design.
Rubrics are time-consuming to design.
“ A rubric is only as useful as it is good. Using a bad rubric is a waste of time…”
-- Michael Simkins in “Designing Great Rubrics”
how to design a “good” rubric
Bottom line: Is it working for you and for your students?
These are the quick ones.
Fewer criteria and shorter descriptions of quality
Describe proficient level of quality and leave other boxes for commentary during grading.