Approaches to Understanding Motivation Adapted from Figure 14.1
Maslow’s needs hierarchy
Alderfer’s ERG theory
McClelland’s learned needs
Job & Organization Contexts
Herzberg’s two-factor theory
Job enrichment theory
Basic expectancy theory
Integrated expectancy model
Content Theories of Motivation Self- Actualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Growth Relatedness Existence Motivator--Hygiene Theory Motivators Hygienes Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation McClelland’s Learned Needs ERG Theory Needs Hierarchy Theory
Need Hierarchy Theory (Maslow) Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Esteem needs Self- actualization needs Lower-order needs Higher-order needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- actualization Esteem Belongingness Security Physiology Food Achievement Status Friendship Stability Job Friends Pension Base NEEDS General Examples Organizational Examples job Challenging title at work plan salary
Cohesive and supportive coworkers, teams, 0ther work groups, supervisors, subordinates, customers etc
Work safety, job security, health insurance
Work place conditions (air, water, temperature), base salary
Alderfer's ERG Theory
an extension of Maslow's theory
three categories of needs:
existence, - similar to Maslow's physiological and safety need categories.
relatedness, - interpersonal relationships and are comparable to aspects of Maslow's love and ego needs.
Growth - attainment of one's potential and are associated with Maslow's self-actualisation needs.
differs from Maslow in two respects. (1) It does not suggest that lower-order needs must be satisfied before upper-order needs become motivational. (2) if upper-order needs are not satisfied, an individual will regress, and lower-order needs become the major motivation determinants .
Alderfer's ERG Theory
The main contribution of ERG theory is also in drawing attention to the satisfaction of lower-order needs, but also meeting higher-order needs, like job challenge, performance, advancement, creativity, growth, training etc. Alderfer also believed that as you start satisfying higher needs, they become more intense (e.g., the power you get the more you want power), like an addiction.
Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)
Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)
Quality of supervision
Relations with others
Rate of pay
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Dissatisfaction and demotivation Not dissatisfied but not motivated Positive satisfaction and motivation
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory High Motivation High Hygienes Adapted from Figure 14.4 Low High Motivators Low Low Motivation Dissatisfaction Low Dissatisfaction 14.6
Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic
Expressed vs. Wanted
Approach vs. Avoidance
Personal vs. Interpersonal
Individual vs. Social
McClelland’s Learned Needs
desire to succeed
desire for satisfying relationships
desire to influence and control others
David McClelland’s Theory of Needs David McClelland’s Theory of Needs nAch nPow nAff
Employees need to answer these in affirmative if their motivation is to be maximized:
If I give maximum effort , will it be recognized in my performance appraisal?
If I get a good performance appraisal, will it lead to organizational rewards ?
If I am rewarded, are the rewards ones that I am personally attractive?
( Personal goals)
Work Motivation Model Smith & Cranny E X H I B I T Rewards Performance Effort or Intention Satisfaction
Patchen’s Model of Two- level Work Motivation
The motive to achieve is the basic motive for work motivation
The motive works according to the incentive value and expectancy in the situation
The motive depends on the expected approval and expected other satisfactions a person can derive as a result of achieving a goal
These in turn depend on some factors of the job and goals.
Work Motivation = Achievement Motivation X Achievement incentive X Expectancy
Integrative Expectancy Model Adapted from Figure 14.7 Role perceptions Satisfaction Perceived equity Effort-reward link Performance Effort Value of reward Abilities and traits Extrinsic rewards Intrinsic rewards 14.10
Porter & Lawler ’ s Expectancy Model
Satisfaction (work motivation) is influenced by:
Abilities and Traits
Lawler ’ s Model of Work Motivation
Motivation is determined by:
Expectancy (subjective probability that
effort will lead to performance)
Beliefs about outcomes of the performance
Valence (attractiveness) of the outcomes
Integrated Theory of Work Motivation
Work motivation can be conceived at 3 levels:
1.first level: individual needs
2. Second and third level: Individual ’ s interaction with organization