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Maximising revenues from sugar

Maximising revenues from sugar


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  • India produces 200 M tons of sugarcane and 45 M tons of bagasse / year.
  • The Honeywell’s UOP team is reporting yields in the 70 gallons per ton of biomass range with indications that it can reach 90 gallons per ton over time.Coal india Ltd ‘s price of coal =Rs.1000/ton; Imported coal is ~Rs. 3000 /ton; cost of production of coal ~ Rs.800 / ton;DRY bagasse has 60% calorific efficiency of coal; Hence, 1 ton of dry bagasse ~ 1/1.6 = 0.625 ton of coal ~ Rs.625. If 1 ton of dry bagasse is used as fuel it is worth Rs ~625; If it is used to produce fuels , it can yield > Rs. 10000 !! It is economical even w.r.to imported coal.
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    • 1. 11/15/2012 1EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FORMAXIMIZING REVENUE FROMSUGARCANE Paul Ratnasamy
    • 2. 11/15/2012 2 Indian Sugar Industry at a glance Sr. Particulars Crushing Season 200 2010 9- - 201 2011 0 Number of Sugar 1 Factories in 527 490 Operation Crushing Capacity 24.1 23. 2 (million TCD) 71 625 Sugarcane 185 239. 3 Crushed (million .54 807 tons) 8 Sugar Produced 24.3 18. 4 (million tons) 94 912 10.1 10. 5 Recovery % Cane 7 19 Yield of sugarcane 70. 6 68.6 (tons per hectare) 0
    • 3. 11/15/2012 3 Statewise Yield of Sugarcane in India [Season 2010-2011] Statewise Yield of Sugarcane in India [Season 2010-2011]
    • 4. 11/15/2012 4Maharashtra – Sugar Statistics (VSI) Sugar Statistics Maharashtra State (India) State at a glance Sr. Particulars Crushing Season 2010- 2009-2010 2011 1 Number of Sugar Factories Number of Sugar Factories (a) Installed Installed 209 199 (b) in operation in operation 167 142 Crushing Capacity Crushing Capacity 2 0.533 0.501 (million TCD) (million TCD) Sugarcane Crushed Sugarcane Crushed 80.21 3 61.390 (million tons) (million tons) 5 Sugar Sugar Produced Produced 4 9.052 7.066 (million tons) (million tons) 5 Recovery % Cane Recovery % Cane 11.31 11.55 6 Pol % Cane Pol % Cane 13.26 13.46
    • 5. 11/15/2012 5Source: VSI
    • 6. 11/15/2012 6 Elementwise Average Cost per Ton of Sugarcane Crushed of Co-operative Sugar Factories Crushing at More Than 90% Capacity( VSI) Sr. Particulars Sugar Zones of Maharashtra State South Central North-East State 1 Cane Price 2420.21 2370.92 2172.99 2359.34 2 Cane Cost Harvest and Transport 286.08 314.05 305.83 302.84 3 Purchase Tax 67.65 69.52 73.57 69.52 4 Total Cane Cost [1+2+3] 2773.95 2754.49 2552.40 2731.70 5 Power 9.66 8.98 8.41 9.12 6 Chemical and Consumable 20.85 24.43 20.43 22.56 7 Cash Salary and Wages 194.25 179.56 125.11 176.78 Conversion 8 Packing 55.25 55.91 61.05 56.43 Cost 9 Repairs and Maintenance 79.28 93.02 68.79 84.53 10 Overheads 98.38 76.49 80.20 84.86 11 Total Cash Conversion Cost [5+6+7+8+9+10] 457.67 438.39 364.00 434.29 12 Depreciation 64.93 57.36 56.04 59.94 13 Working Capital 55.26 70.61 73.39 65.53 14 Interest On Term Loan 26.93 35.28 33.74 32.00 15 Deposit 25.80 18.93 18.68 21.75 16 Total Interest [13+14+15] 107.99 124.82 125.80 119.28 17 Conversion Cost [11+12+16] 630.59 620.57 545.84 613.51 Total Cost of Production 18 3404.54 3375.06 3098.24 3345.21 per ton of cane crushed [4+17]
    • 7. 11/15/2012 7 Summary of Technical Performance of Co-operative Distilleries in Maharashtra State Sr. Particulars Financial year (Apr/Mar) 2009- 2010-2011 2010 Production Capacity (Million litres/ 1 300days) 745.5 723.0 Considering all distilleries. Number of distilleries reported 2 53 52 performance 3 Average net working days 179 149 4 Molasses consumed (million tons) 1.344 1.121 363.68 5 Alcohol produced (million litres) 302.38 6 Average Fermentation Efficiency (%) 89.70 89.53 7 Average Distillation Efficiency (%) 98.40 98.43 Recovery of Alcohol (litres/ ton of 8 molasses) 270.51 269.79 9 Capacity utilization (%) 52.25 46.45
    • 8. 11/15/2012 8Products From a 3000 tcd Sugar Mill• Sugar : 345 tons( ~9%) tpd• Molasses→ 6000 Litres /day• Bagasse: 1000 tpd ( 50% moisture)• 240 MWh electricity per day(exported); Steam~ 175 tons.• Cane trash : ~1000 tpd• Press Mud ~150 tpd• Spent wash,• CO2
    • 9. 11/15/2012 9 Questions• Can we get higher - Value Products from Bagasse ( Ethanol, Butanols, LPG, Petrol,Diesel etc) rather than Electricity/ Steam alone ?• Can we increase the efficiency of power generation from Bagasse ?• What are the Emerging Technologies that will achieve the above objectives?
    • 10. 11/15/2012 10PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS
    • 11. 11/15/2012 11 Bagasse To Ethanol- Potential in MaharashtraSugar Produced ~ 8.5-9.0 M. tons(ET, march 26,2012)Cane Crushed(2011-12) ~ 90-100 Million tonsDry Bagasse ~ 15 M. tonsElectricity / Steam For sugar mill = 8 M. tons of Bagasse.“Available” Dry Bagasse = 7 M. tons;Emerging Technology 1 ton Dry bagasse → 400 Litre Anh.Ethanol(Hybrid Tech)7 M.ton bagasse → 2800 M.Litres Ethanol. = Rs. 7000 Crores(at Rs.25/Litre)-For a Single Sugar Mill of 5000 tpd crush capacity:5000 tpd cane →800 tpd Dry bagasse →320K L/day→ Rs.80lacs/day = 80X200= 160 Crores/season additional Revenue.-Scope For Using other wastes( MSW, cane trash, grainstalks,husks.. as RM)- CO2 (molasses Fermentor, cement plant etc)can be usedas Raw Material for CO in Gasifier; CO2 + C= 2CO
    • 12. 11/15/2012 12Technology Paths From Bagasse To Ethanol1. The Thermochemical path; Biomass feedstock isgasified to produce syngas (carbon monoxide,hydrogen and carbon dioxide) which is then convertedinto ethanol by a chemical reaction utilizing chemicalcatalysis.2. The Hybrid path; Bagasse is gasified to Syngas;Syngas is fermented to Ethanol.3. The Biochemical path ; Sacharification +Fermentation; Uses enzymes to convert pretreatedBagasse to Sugars which is, then,fermented toEthanol.
    • 13. 11/15/2012 13The “Hybrid” path – progress to commercialization• Three companies ‐ Ineos BIO, Coskata, Lanzatech Moving from demonstration to Commercial project;• INEOS Bio and NPE Florida to produce about 30,000 Kilo liters/year of ethanol;• Coskata commercial project ‐ Location SE US; 55 million GPY capacity; Woody biomass feedstock;
    • 14. 11/15/2012 14Advantages of new Ethanol Production ProcessesEthanol Synthesis Biochemical Thermochemical HybridTechnology (pretreat+enzyme+ (gasification+ (gasification+ fermentation) Catalysis) Fermentation)Catalysts Enzymes + Metal catalysts microorganism microorganismsFeedstock No Yes YesflexibilitySignificant feed Yes No Nopretreat requiredLow pressure Yes No YesSelective Yes No YesEthanolproductionEthanol 70-90 74-86 >100Yield(gal/ton BM) Coskata
    • 15. 11/15/2012 15Technologies For Conversion of Bagasse To“drop-in” Hydrocarbon Fuels( LPG, Petrol,Kerosene, Diesel)• Syngas – based Fischer – Tropsch Process• Pyrolysis- based Processes• Sacharification-Cum- Catalytic Reforming Processes• Synthetic Biological Processes
    • 16. The Pyrolysis Route• Slow Pyrolysis→ Char(~20- %) + Gas (~80%) [CO+ CO2, H2O, H2]• Fast Flash Pyrolysis (wt%): Gas ~ 15 Bio Oil ~ 35 Aqueous Condensate ~ 35 Char ~15• 5 - 6 tons of dry Bagasse needed per ton of Hydrocarbons.• Char & Gas used for generating process heat.OGJ Eur Mag. 32(2007)
    • 17. 17Pyrolysis Bio Oil -1 • Water Miscible, dark brown Liquid, Not miscible with hydrocarbons • Combustible; Heating Value ~ 17 MJ / Kg. • Density = 1.2 Kg/l • pH ~ 2.5; Corrosive ;Pungent Odor • Storage Instability: Viscosity increases; volatility decreases; Phase Separation; Deposits; Gums Formation; • Needs some stabilisation at point of origin.
    • 18. 18Pyrolysis Bio Oil -2• Chemical Composition : CH1.4O0.5 Water : 20-30 %; Lignin fragments: 15-30% ; Aldehydes:10-20%; Carboxylic Acids: 10-15%; Carbohydrates:5-10%; Phenols: 2-5%; Furfurals; 2-5%; Ketones : 1-5%;
    • 19. 19Stabilizing & Upgrading of Bio Oils• Physical Methods - Filtration For Char Removal - Emulsification with hydrocarbons - Solvent Addition• Chemical Methods - Catalytic Esterification - Catalytic Deoxygenation : Hydrotreating; Zeolite Vapor Cracking;
    • 20. 11/15/2012 20Sacharification-Cum- CatalyticReforming Technologies
    • 21. 11/15/2012 21Bagasse To Fuels- Emerging Liq Phase Technologies• Stage 1: Pretreatment; Removal Of Lignin.• Stage 2:A. Sacharification and Fermentation Of Cellulose and Hemicellulose To Alcohol Fuels(Ethanol, n-Butanol (Cobalt, China Industrial Biotech), Isobutanol (Gevo, Butamax).B. Sacharification Followed By Catalytic Reforming To Gasoline(Virent).C. Sacharification Followed By Fermentation Of Sugars To Farnesene(Amyris);Farnesene To Diesel.D.Sacharification Followed By Fermentation Of Sugars To Fatty Acids(LS9); Fatty Acids To Diesel.E.Conversion Of Alcohols To gasoline / diesel (Mobil,PNNL).
    • 22. 11/15/2012 22The Pretreatment Processes-1• Objective: Overcoming BM recalcitrance to produce sugars is the crucial First step for downstream production of alcohol / hydrocarbon fuels.• Required to Increase enzyme accessible surface area of the biomass; Feedstock Specific.• Physical,Chem, Biological,Solvent fractionation (ILs).• Strategies• Remove Lignin and Hemicellulose• Reduce Cellulose Crystallinity• Increase Enzyme Accessible Surface Area• Increase number of Cellulose reducing ends• Modify cellulose crystal polymorphism(Iβ→IIII)• Break interlayer H-bonds in Cellulose.Challenge: ACHIEVE ALL THESE WITH MINIMAL SUGAR LOSSAND FORMATION OF ENZYME INHIBITORS( Furans andPhenolics).
    • 23. 11/15/2012 23Sugars To Fuels & Chemicals:Some Low Temperature Technologies1. Microbial Conversion To Ethanol & Butanols.2. Co-fermentation of C5 and C6 sugars To Ethanol.3. Microbial Conversion of Sugars To alkanes, Fatty Acids / Alcohols (Amyris, LS9)4. Catalytic Conversion of bagasse to (1)sugarsand , then,(2)to Gasoline, diesel and BTX(Virent).
    • 24. 11/15/2012 24Virent-Shell’s Bioforming Technology
    • 25. 11/15/2012 25Bagasse To LPG, Kerosene & GasolineProduct Yields And Economics.( Virent Data)(2008/0300435A1)Feed: ( Cellulosic+ Hemicellulosic) Sugars.PRODUCT YIELDS(wt% of feed carbon)- LPG = 22%; Gasoline/kerosene = 48%.- Total Hydrocarbons = (22+48)=70% of carbon in Sugar (C6H12O6).- Wt% Carbon in carbohydrates~ 40-45 %;- Hence, 1 t sugar →~ 280 kg(400L) of HC(90LPG+190 (Gasoline)).- 1 ton dry bagasse ~70% ( Cellulose + Hemicellulose)- Case 1. 100% recovery of Cellulose+Hemicellulose from sugars- 1 t dry bagasse→~200kg (=280X0.7) of HC fuels (70kgLPG +130kg gasoline)- = 70 X 25 Rs/kg+190L X 50Rs/L = Rs.11,250 / t dry bagasse.- Case 2. At 90% Recovery of Sugars~ Rs10,000 /ton dry bagasse; Vs; Rs.1000-4000 when used for electricity
    • 26. 11/15/2012 26Power generation From Bagasse• 100 tons of sugarcane gives ~ 30-33 tons of Bagasse with ~ 50% Moisture; ~ 16 tons of Bone-dry bagasse (0% H2O)• Theoretical maximum thermal to electric efficiency of steam turbines ~ 30%; By current Technology using Burner-Boiler- Steam Turbine, one ton of DRY bagasse can generate ~ 1 MW Electricity; i.e. ~ 20 % thermal to electric efficiency is the common norm.
    • 27. 11/15/2012 27 ADVANTAGES OF IGCC Technology - Higher efficiencies(40-45 % vs 10 - 20 % in steam Turbines). - Additional raw material like Cane trash, Press Mud, Spent wash etc can be used in gasifier and increase electricity Generation by ~25%. - Lower Pollution: Less particulate matter, Char, CO, tar in Power plant effluent.
    • 28. 11/15/2012 28Gas Turbines are more efficient• Gas turbines mix a fuel (naphtha, diesel, natural gas, LPG, Syngas etc) and air and combust the mixture. The hot mixture(1200 C),first, passes through a steamgenerator raising high pressure steam, then passesthrough gas turbines to generate electricity at 40%efficiency and, finally, again through a steam generator.The combined steam from the two steam generators isused for generating electricity at 20% efficiency.• The overall efficiency of the (gas + steam) turbine combination is ,hence, ~45 % , much higher than that of the steam turbine alone.
    • 29. 11/15/2012 29Schematic of a Gas Engine
    • 30. 11/15/2012 30G.E. LM 5000 Gas Engine( 55 MW)
    • 31. 11/15/2012 31Schematic of a Combined Cycle gasTurbine (CCGT) Plant
    • 32. 11/15/2012 32Flow Diagram of Bagasse IGCC
    • 33. 11/15/2012 33Commercialisation Of TechnologiesFor Biofuels – Current Status• Already Commercial: Biogas ; Ethanol from Sugar & Starch; FAME diesel; ”Green” diesel & Biojet Fuel From Lipids(Neste); Sugar To Diesel( Amyris);• Demo Plants : Cellulosic Ethanol(many), Butanol (Cobalt), Isobutanol(Gevo); Gasification To SG & FT (UOP & Range Fuels); SG To Ethanol(Inobios,Coskata, LanzaTech); Pyrolysis- based Fuels(UOP, KIOR); Sugar-based Gasoline and Para Xylene (Virent-Shell);• Gasification-Based Power Plants(Hafei, Battelle, Concord..)• R & D / PP Level: Algae to BD(Solazyme); Sugar To Fatty Acids(LS9);
    • 34. 11/15/2012 34 THANKS !!!(paul_ratnasamy@yahoo.com)