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Mangroves Managementin Thailand1st Regional Shared-Learning Workshop:Mangrove Conservation as a part of Coastal Management in Southeast AsiaSurabaya, IndonesiaNovember 4-10, 2012Prepared by:RECOFTC-Thailand, DMCR and Community leader
Outline:• Overview of Mangroves in Thailand– Location of Thailand– Distribution of Mangroves in Thailand– Mangroves flora in Thailand– Situation of Mangroves in Thailand– Conclusion and the way forward• Mangroves ManagementPractice in Thailand; a case study of Pred Naicommunity, Trat Province
Location of Thailand:• Thailand, centrallylocated in theIndochina Peninsula• The total area ofThailand is 513,115Sq.km.• 77 provinces
Distribution of Mangroves in Thailand:•Thai coast = 2,670 km. (Gulf of Thailand=1,870 km, Andaman Sea = 800 km)•Mangroves covers 24 provinces alongthe coast•More mangroves in South: AndamanRegionMangrovesArea* (Sq.km.)Central 258.48East 121.09South (Gulf of Thailand) 292.69South (Andaman) 1767.83Total 2440.10* DMCR, 2009Mangroves AreaGulf of ThailandAndaman Sea
• Recorded 168 species of 118 genus, 54 fam. (treeand shrub 102 species of 69 genus, 37 fam.)• Only 41 species of 22 genus, 14 fam. are truemangroves species. (tree and shrub 36 species of19 genus,12 fam.)• The dominant true mangroves species;– 10 species of Fam. Rhizophoraceae; Rhizophora,Bruguiera, Ceripos, Kandelia– 6 species of Fam. Acanthaceae– 4 species of Fam. LythraceaeMangroves flora in Thailand:
Situation of Mangroves in Thailand:(1)YearMangroves Area(Sq.km.)1961 36791975 31271979 28731986 19641991 17361993 16871996 16761998 16762000 24522004 26582009 24403,6793,1272,8731,9641,736 1,687 1,676 1,6762,4522,6582,44005001,0001,5002,0002,5003,0003,5004,00019611975197919861991199319961998200020042009Mangrovesarea(Sq.km.)Mangroves Area of Thailand (1961-2009)
Situation of Mangroves in Thailand:(2)• Mangroves area: decreased about 1239 Sq.km. (from1961-2009)• Caused by human activities as– 1961- 1979: logging concession for charcoal and timbers,mining, port and dam– Since 1986: encroachment for aquaculture especially shrimpfarm, expanding of settlement and industry.
Situation of Mangroves in Thailand:(3)• Mangroves area: increased about 764 Sq.km. (from1996-2009) by policy on mangroves restoration, Community-based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM)
Situation:(4) Changed of mangroves areas to shrimp farm,oil palm plantation, settlement Sludge discharged from shrimp farm andwaste & solid water discharged fromcommunities and industries Tourism development in mangroves area
Situation:(5) Authority and responsibility for mangrovesmanagement in the past has rested with thegovernment and limited public and localparticipation between mangrove managementagencies (DMCR, DOF, LDD, RFD, DEQP, PCD) Lack of systematic and coordinated monitoring,dissemination of information and publicitymaterial are limited and do not reach its target
Conclusion and the way forward:• Mangroves of Thailand have been heavilyexploited for shrimp farming since 1975.• Various management programs have been doneto conserve and maintenance mangroves.• To manage & conserve mangroves,– People participation is needed– People capacity building should be conducted– Need the co-operation between mangrovesmanagement agencies– Monitoring programs should be set in systematic way– Information distribution is also needed
Mangroves ManagementPractice in Thailand: A case study of Pred Nai Community, Trat Province
Location and Area:Total area; 25.77 Sq.km.-Settlement and Agri. 3 Sq.km.- Aquaculture 5.8 Sq.km.- Mangroves 17 Sq.km.
General information:Occupation:Major: Rubber treeplantation and FruitsorchardMinor: Folk fisheriesPopulation: 632 in 164 Households
Development of Pred Nai MangrovesManagement: (1)• Mangroves destruction period (1983-1987):– logging concession for charcoal industry,expanding of shrimp pond.– villagers joined forces to fight against it.
Development of Pred Nai MangrovesManagement:(2)• Mangroves restoration period (1987-2000):– tree planting activities– formed conservation and development group– created rubber cubes for habitat for fish andprotect coastal erosion
Development of Pred Nai MangrovesManagement:(3)• Networking, expansion, research anddevelopment period (2000 onwards):– Supported from many agencies on academicinformation, studies and research, fund andtraining– Created cooperation network at provincial level– Lessons from protection and restoration becamewidely known
Pred Nai Mangroves ManagementPlan:(1)• Restoration / Preservation / Prevention /Utilization Plan:– Create agreement on grapsiod crab collectingthrough a slogan, “Stop Catching Hundred toCatch Million”– Reforestation activity adjusted to have those whocome for study visit do planting– Crab Bank of which female crabs are kept in cagesfor reproduction
Pred Nai Mangroves ManagementPlan:(2)• Research and Studies Plan:– Create rubber cube for mitigation of coastalerosion• Organization and Network Management Plan:– Rules and regulations review– Six Sub-District Network meetings• Public Relations Plan:– support and build capacity of young people
Pred Nai Mangroves ManagementPlan:(3)• Mangroves Management Fund Plan:– A tool to take care of the mangrove• Monitoring and Evaluation Plan:– Emphasis is placed on participation of marineproducts collectors in forest protection andproviding information.
Key Finding:• Self-Ecosystem Monitoring: learning process formangrove monitoring through Grapsoil crab• Crab Bank and Grabsoil crab harvesters group:social space for the poor user group toparticipate in mangrove management• A channel for increasing equity of the poor toimprove local livelihood both economic andpolitic• CBNRM: A means to strengthen communityinstitutions for their sustainable development(organization, institutional and network.
Conclusion:(1)• Participatory process in nature resourcemanagement is appropriate and effectivelyintegrate marginalized groups in naturalresource management• RECOFTC has a role as facilitator and besensitive in diversity in community• The process of participation is channel foropening a social space for the poor to positionthemselves
Conclusion:(2)• Mangrove Forest Conservation Group and theSaving Group have provided opportunities formarginalized to increasing their equity throughparticipatory natural resource management fortheir better livelihoods.• Mangrove Forest Conservation Group is in theself-mobilization, while in the group still hassome differential stage of participation (incentive,functional, interactive).• Activities also have built up a network of villageswho use the mangroves area.
Conclusion:(3)• Diverse of actors both internal and external inPred Nai• The local efforts will hopefully be sustained aslong as there are economic, environmental andcultural incentives• How practitioners can use the successful case ofPred Nai to create a framework of participatorycommunity based natural resource managementto create equitable access rights to naturalresources for the poor.
Future Challenges:• Participation of the poor: Challenges of increasetheir equity for better livelihoods– Who are poor?– Heterogeneous and differential in community?– How participatory process effective? Facilitatorlearning process– What type of Pred Nai in typology of participation?• Integrating and mainstreaming second generationinto ongoing conservation