Open source: Making connections Sunny Pai Digital Initiatives Librarian Kapiolani Community College 2008 Hawaii Library As...
Agenda <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Uses in Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating open source solutions </li></ul>
Overview <ul><li>Short definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open source:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The source code is sh...
Concerns about commercialization <ul><li>Richard Stallman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resigned from MIT Artificial Intelligence ...
Free Software Foundation <ul><li>GNU operating system (GNU’s not UNIX)  </li></ul><ul><li>GNU General Public License (GPL)...
Open source <ul><li>“ Open Source”  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christine Peterson, Foresight Institute  (O’Reilly, 2001) </li><...
Uses <ul><li>Content management systems (MS Sharepoint): Plone, Drupal, Joomla!, Sakai </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Library: ...
Communities <ul><li>Features  (Bisson, 2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need-driven consumers, user-developers, core developers...
Incentives and Trends <ul><li>Incentives for developers :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solving a problem, fun, prestige, sense o...
Services useful to libraries <ul><li>Web services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases </l...
http://www.techsource.ala.org/ltr/open-source-software-for-libraries.html http://maisonbisson.com/oss4lib/
Open source serving libraries <ul><li>Wordpress :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Ford Memorial Library  http://www.fordlibr...
Wordpress: Aaron Schmidt http://www.walkingpaper.org/ http://www.walkingpaper.org/map/
Joomla!:  http://www.acfpl.org/
Moodle:  http://moodle.sau17.org
Drupal:  http://www.cpl.org/??&theme=andreas01
Drupal:  http://fish4info.org Library Technology Journal May/June 2008 http://www.alatechsource.org/blog/2008/02/fishing-f...
Open source serving libraries <ul><li>DSpace document repository:  http://www.dspace.org/index.php?option=com_content&task...
Plone:  http://uhpa.org/
Koha:  http://www.dpl.gov.in/
Examining your need <ul><li>Define your goal : gap between existing system and ideal system </li></ul><ul><li>Determining ...
Examine all your choices <ul><li>Commercial off-the-shelf (& modify), develop from scratch, contract development, vs. onli...
Resources needed for large projects across solution types  Commercial purchase (& modify) In-house development Contract de...
Where open source might fit in Open source initial costs:  Purchase:  Free or minimal If you want to customize: In-house s...
Costs of open source <ul><li>Existing in-house skills or potential? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel time </li></ul></ul><u...
Benefits of open source <ul><li>Minimal startup costs </li></ul><ul><li>Tapping into many experts and expert users </li></...
If open source, how to evaluate <ul><li>Reviews and reports </li></ul><ul><li>Strength of community </li></ul><ul><li>Look...
Resources that can help <ul><li>Hawaii Open Source Education Foundation  http://www.hosef.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Idealware...
http://www.idealware.org/articles/joomla_drupal_plone.php
http://www.cmsmatrix.org/
 
Business Readiness Rating www.openbrr.org <ul><li>What is the licensing/legal situation of the software? </li></ul><ul><li...
Business Readiness Rating www.openbrr.org Assessment Category Description Functionality How well will the software meet th...
Business Readiness Rating   www.openbrr.org Assessment Category Description Architecture How modular, portable, flexible, ...
Other considerations <ul><li>Quality of third party developers and integration of their products </li></ul><ul><li>Complex...
<ul><li>Thank you for your attention! </li></ul><ul><li>Any questions?? </li></ul><ul><li>List of references & resources <...
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Open source: Making connections by Sunny Pai

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Open source: Making connections by Sunny Pai

  1. 1. Open source: Making connections Sunny Pai Digital Initiatives Librarian Kapiolani Community College 2008 Hawaii Library Association Conference October 24, 2008
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Uses in Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating open source solutions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Short definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open source: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The source code is shared </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements will be shared </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 1950s : software was shared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business model: Sell hardware with bundled software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1960s : Sell software separately, protect source code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1969: Well known software project : Unix, started by AT&T, developed at Berkeley. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Concerns about commercialization <ul><li>Richard Stallman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resigned from MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab to form the Free Software Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four freedoms: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to run the program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to study how it works </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to redistribute copies to help your neighbor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to improve the program and share your improvements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Freedom” does not refer to price. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Free Software Foundation <ul><li>GNU operating system (GNU’s not UNIX) </li></ul><ul><li>GNU General Public License (GPL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Copyleft” : anyone contributing changes to software covered by GPL has property rights to the revised software as protected by GPL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPL has protected software projects such as WordPress (b2) and Netscape from the changing priorities of their original developers or corporate owners (Bisson, 2008) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Open source <ul><li>“ Open Source” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christine Peterson, Foresight Institute (O’Reilly, 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape’s release of source code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort to reframe image of “free” software to make the concept less inconceivable to software companies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Source Initiative ( http://www.opensource.org/ ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free distribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Derived works are distributed under the same terms as the original license </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>License must not be specific to a product nor discriminate against a field of endeavour </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Uses <ul><li>Content management systems (MS Sharepoint): Plone, Drupal, Joomla!, Sakai </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Library: Greenstone, DSpace </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems (Windows): Red Hat Linux, FreeBSD, OpenSolaris </li></ul><ul><li>Office productivity (MS Office): OpenOffice Writer, AbiWord, OpenOffice Calc </li></ul><ul><li>Databases (Oracle): MySQL, Postrgresql, Base </li></ul><ul><li>Web services software (Windows server): Apache, Tomcat </li></ul><ul><li>Languages: PHP, Perl, Python </li></ul><ul><li>Indexing engines: Lucene </li></ul><ul><li>GIS : Grass </li></ul>
  8. 8. Communities <ul><li>Features (Bisson, 2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need-driven consumers, user-developers, core developers (Forrest Cavalier) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other contributions: training, user support, documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical mass: “Effective size” of a community or “Bazaar” (Eric Raymond) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolvability: GPL protects rapid and multi-faceted evolution meeting changing needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passion: Desire to solve a problem, make a contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University-based : Sakai, Greenstone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University and corporate collaboration : DSpace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ At-large” community : Plone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate-based : Java </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Incentives and Trends <ul><li>Incentives for developers : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solving a problem, fun, prestige, sense of contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a user/improver base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speeding up development and maintenance and growing a user community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition & great jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trend examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun Microsystems opened up most of its product line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-themes: Open source/Java-based/Higher education applications </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Services useful to libraries <ul><li>Web services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Library Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desktop applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Office desktop applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Browsers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. http://www.techsource.ala.org/ltr/open-source-software-for-libraries.html http://maisonbisson.com/oss4lib/
  12. 12. Open source serving libraries <ul><li>Wordpress : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Ford Memorial Library http://www.fordlibrary.org/obits/ Aaron Schmidt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And Google Maps : http://www.walkingpaper.org/map/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joomla! websites: http://www.joomlainlibrary.com/showcase.html </li></ul><ul><li>Drupal websites: http://drupalib.interoperating.info/library_sites </li></ul>
  13. 13. Wordpress: Aaron Schmidt http://www.walkingpaper.org/ http://www.walkingpaper.org/map/
  14. 14. Joomla!: http://www.acfpl.org/
  15. 15. Moodle: http://moodle.sau17.org
  16. 16. Drupal: http://www.cpl.org/??&theme=andreas01
  17. 17. Drupal: http://fish4info.org Library Technology Journal May/June 2008 http://www.alatechsource.org/blog/2008/02/fishing-for-results-in-interview-with-christopher-harris.html
  18. 18. Open source serving libraries <ul><li>DSpace document repository: http://www.dspace.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=596&Itemid=182 </li></ul><ul><li>Plone websites: http://www.plone4lib.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Sakai learning management system: https://laulima.hawaii.edu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, Moodle : http://moodle.sau17.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Koha ILS : http://liblime.com/demos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also Evergreen : http://open-ils.org/evergreen_libraries.php </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meadville Public Library interview : http://maisonbisson.com/oss4lib/using-open-source/ </li></ul>
  19. 19. Plone: http://uhpa.org/
  20. 20. Koha: http://www.dpl.gov.in/
  21. 21. Examining your need <ul><li>Define your goal : gap between existing system and ideal system </li></ul><ul><li>Determining your requirements & comparison shop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale of project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online vs. offline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security, privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata, harvesting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text indexing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access and preservation </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Examine all your choices <ul><li>Commercial off-the-shelf (& modify), develop from scratch, contract development, vs. online “free” services, open source </li></ul><ul><li>Feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honest look at your resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical infrastructure : is your hardware, network adequate? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Talent, current and potential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timeframe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted users </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Resources needed for large projects across solution types Commercial purchase (& modify) In-house development Contract development Online “free” services Cost of implementing Purchase cost Personnel hours to modify If web, cost of hosting. Personnel hours assigned to development Hardware, software costs Cost of development Basic services free Charges for enhanced features. No control over fee structure changes. Cost of maintenance Ongoing cost (annual fees) Modifications by contract or in-house staff Personnel hours assigned to maintain system Cost of maintenance and changes. Annual fees for enhanced features. Possible personnel skill requirements Systems analysis Programming System configuration & maintenance User training and marketing Proj mgt Systems analysis Programming System configuration & maintenance User training and marketing Contract negotiation Some systems analysis Proj mgt skills Syst maintenance User training and marketing Applications configuration User training and marketing Data storage Can be in-house or hosted elsewhere In-house Can be in-house or hosted elsewhere Stored elsewhere. Some programs have option to download data in an easily usable format.
  24. 24. Where open source might fit in Open source initial costs: Purchase: Free or minimal If you want to customize: In-house staff or contract services Community supports development Open source maintenance costs: In-house staff or contract services Community supports maintenance and upgrades In commercial and open source instances, can you take your data out and input it somewhere else? Commercial purchase (& modify) In-house development from scratch Contract development Online “free” services Cost of implementing Purchase cost Personnel hours to modify If web, cost of hosting. Personnel hours assigned to development Cost of development Basic services free Charges for enhanced features. No control over fee structure changes. Cost of maintenance Ongoing cost (annual fees) Modifications by contract or in-house staff Personnel hours assigned to maintain system Cost of maintenance and changes. Annual fees for enhanced features. Possible personnel skill requirements Systems analysis Programming System configuration & maintenance User training and marketing Proj mgt Systems analysis Programming System configuration & maintenance User training and marketing Contract negotiation Some systems analysis Proj mgt skills Syst maintenance User training and marketing Applications configuration User training and marketing Data storage Can be in-house or hosted elsewhere In-house Can be in-house or hosted elsewhere Stored elsewhere. Some programs have option to download data in an easily usable format.
  25. 25. Costs of open source <ul><li>Existing in-house skills or potential? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Searching for and developing solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contributions to open source community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monetary donations, work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possibles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracted development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracted support </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Benefits of open source <ul><li>Minimal startup costs </li></ul><ul><li>Tapping into many experts and expert users </li></ul><ul><li>You can make modifications up to your level of technical ability </li></ul><ul><li>You may be able to influence direction of enhancements and development </li></ul><ul><li>Auditable </li></ul><ul><li>Not restricted by vendor interests </li></ul>
  27. 27. If open source, how to evaluate <ul><li>Reviews and reports </li></ul><ul><li>Strength of community </li></ul><ul><li>Look at other implementations and features you like </li></ul><ul><li>Download and try it out </li></ul><ul><li>How much modification? </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with other systems? </li></ul><ul><li>Resources needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills (learning curve, training) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware, software, network </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Resources that can help <ul><li>Hawaii Open Source Education Foundation http://www.hosef.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Idealware : http://www.idealware.org </li></ul><ul><li>Aspiration: http://aspirationtech.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Social Source Commons website: http://socialsourcecommons.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>ALA’s Library Technology Journal </li></ul><ul><li>Business Readiness Rating: www.openbrr.org </li></ul><ul><li>Free Software Directory: http://directory.fsf.org/ </li></ul>
  29. 29. http://www.idealware.org/articles/joomla_drupal_plone.php
  30. 30. http://www.cmsmatrix.org/
  31. 32. Business Readiness Rating www.openbrr.org <ul><li>What is the licensing/legal situation of the software? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it comply with standards? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there referenceable adopters or users for it? </li></ul><ul><li>Is a supporting or stable organization associated with the development efforts? </li></ul><ul><li>What is its implementation language? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it support internationalization and localization in your desired language? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there third-party reviews of the software? </li></ul><ul><li>Have books been published about the software? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it being followed by industry analysts, such as Gartner or IDC? </li></ul>
  32. 33. Business Readiness Rating www.openbrr.org Assessment Category Description Functionality How well will the software meet the average user’s requirements? Usability How good is the User Interface? How easy is the software to install, configure, deploy, and maintain? Quality Quality of the design, the code, and the tests? How complete and error-free are they? Security How well does the software handle security issues? Performance How well does the software perform? # of users, remote access? Scalability How well does the software scale to a large environment?
  33. 34. Business Readiness Rating www.openbrr.org Assessment Category Description Architecture How modular, portable, flexible, extensible, open, and easy to integrate is it? Support How well is the software supported? Documentation Of what quality is any documentation for the software? Adoption How well is the component adopted by community, market, and industry? Community How active and lively is the community for the software? Professionalism What is the level of the professionalism of the development process and of the project organization as a whole?
  34. 35. Other considerations <ul><li>Quality of third party developers and integration of their products </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of software environment needed to run the product </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Thank you for your attention! </li></ul><ul><li>Any questions?? </li></ul><ul><li>List of references & resources </li></ul>
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