Animals, Plants, and Bacteria are complex and variable
At any moment living systems may differ in external conditions, internal conditions, or in the way in which these conditions interact
The same individual is not the same from one day to the next.
Need to study more than one individual (say 100) and collect average data
Look out for variation!!!!!!
The Scientific method
The Scientific method
Scientists use the Scientific Method to test Theories.
Generate an Observation
Pose a Hypothesis
Reach a Conclusion--does the date support or refute our Theory?
Why do Experiments in Labs?
Controls! Controls! Controls!
Lab Experiments can prevent “variables”
Variable : Factor that can cause observable change and through results off.
Independent – what you vary during the experiment. Usually this will be time.
Dependant – what you measure – what will change during the experiment
Control : Subject to all experimental steps EXCEPT the experimental Factor.
The Experimental Approach!
Lederbergs experiments on bacterial genetics
Most bacteria are killed by streptomycin
The Lederbergs exposed E. coli to streptomycin and were able to isolate streptomycin-resistant E. coli strains.
They allowed these bacteria to reproduce and showed that resistance to streptomycin was inherited by their offspring
The Experimental Approach!
This gave the Lederbergs two hypothesis to test
The mutation was caused by exposure to streptomycin
Bacteria mutated before exposure to streptomycin
So they conducted an experiment to test both of these hypotheses.
Figure 1.3 (1)
Figure 1.3 (2)
Figure 1.3 (3)
Figure 1.3 (4)
Animals, plants, and bacteria are examples of living systems that share many properties distinguishing them from nonliving things. These properties are branched into theories.
Cellular organization Fundamental unit of life is the cell – all living things are made up of cells. Metabolism Living things take up energy-rich materials and give out waste to environment. Some energy fuels life processes some accumulates and is released after death. Selective response Living things respond selectively to stimulation in the environment. Organisms recognize certain chemicals as nutrients while ignoring others.
Scientific theories Homeostasis Living systems have some capacity to change harmful conditions into conditions more favorable to their continuing existence – the conversion of chemical compounds. Growth and biosynthesis Living systems go through phases during which they make more of their own material. Genetic material Living systems contain genetic material (DNA and RNA) to allow inherited traits. Reproduction Living systems can reproduce & pass on genetic material. Population structure Organism form populations. Of these organism capable of sexual processes, a population is all those organisms that can interbreed with one another.
A paradigm is much more than a theory
It includes a strong belief in the truth of one or more theories and shared opinions as to what problems are important and unimportant
What techniques and research methods are useful
Over time a paradigm shift occurs
Better technologies and scientific instruments lead scientists to look and old data in a different way
Younger scientists look at old data in a new way
In this way ideas and definitions of theories alter over time an new data is collected and explained.
Natural Theology, Lamarckism, and several other competing paradigms
Blending inheritance and various folk ideas
Various beliefs: bad humors, bad air or water, evil spirits, and many others
Competing paradigms, including Darwinism, mutationism, population
Classical Mendelian genetics
Various theories of territorial behavior, sexual behavior, etc.; also
Classic germ theory: pathogenicity as a characteristic of pathogen only
NEW PARADIGM Darwinism (since 1859) Classical Mendelian genetics (since 1865 or 1900) Germ theory of disease (Pasteur, Koch, since 1880) Modern evolutionary theory (since 1940) Molecular genetics (since 1950s) Sociobiology (since 1975) Mind–body connections (since 1980s) Pathogenicity as an interaction of pathogen and host (since 1990s)
Nuclear Weapons- -Does North Korea really have them?
Genome --Insurance issues, Selecting offspring?
Ethics and Information
One of your roles in our society is to help determine how future technologies should be used and regulated.
To make the best decision possible, you need to be informed!
My Goal is to help you to become informed!
Ethics is a discipline dealing with the analysis of moral rule and the ways in which moral judgments are made and justified.
Would you park your car in this space?
What benefits could come from nuclear power?
At what cost?
At what risk?
Remember Chernobyl ?
Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster
April 26 , 1986 in the Ukraine ,
It is regarded as the worst accident in the history of nuclear power.
A plume of radioactive fallout drifted over parts of the western Soviet Union, Eastern and Western Europe, Scandinavia, the British Isles, and eastern North America. Large areas of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia were badly contaminated
Resulted in the evacuation and resettlement of over 336,000 people. About 60% of the radioactive fallout landed in Belarus, according to official post-Soviet data
Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster
Two hundred people were hospitalized immediately, of whom 31 died (28 of them died from acute radiation exposure).
Most of these were fire and rescue workers trying to bring the accident under control
At least 8,000 people have died, most from radiation-related diseases.
About 2,000 people have been diagnosed with thyroid cancer and between 8,000 and 10,000 cases are expected to develop over the next 10 years.
Do animals have rights?
Nearly all new drugs, cosmetics, food additives, new forms of surgery are tested on animals first
Many societies have historically denied even the most basic of rights to classes of persons on the basis of economics, gender, race, ethnicity, or religious beliefs
Humans as experimental subjects
1932 The Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 African-American men infected with syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied treatment, and instead are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow the progression and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently die from syphilis, their families never told that they could have been treated.
Voluntary informed consent
Both a moral and legal issue
As there are lawyers under every rock!
What happens if this is not considered
It was only in 1992 that women were included in medical trials of new drugs by law!
Thalidomide (Kevadon® )
Developed as a morning sickness drug in the 1950s
BUT – never tested on women
Led to a generation of deformities
In UK alone there were 12,000 victims.
Sometimes functional feet and hands were amputated to allow the fitting of lower- and upper-limb Prosthesis in order for the children to appear “ normal ”.
Special school were set up too, in an attempt to keep the children out of sight and out of the minds of the public.
Victims of the 1970s Thalidomide scandal have passed their deformities on to their children.
Turns out that Thalidomide altered the DNA of the victims – so arms and legs are not developed!
Still in use today
by cutting off the flow of blood to tumors
is an infectious disease caused by a DNA plasmid
invades human nerves.
If untreated can eventually cause a variety of skin problems, loss of feeling, and paralysis of the hands and feet .